Presentation on theme: "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? L/O – To describe what happened at the battle at to identify why William won Starter – Who won the Battle of."— Presentation transcript:
Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? L/O – To describe what happened at the battle at to identify why William won Starter – Who won the Battle of Stamford Bridge? How did they win it?
The Saxon Army The Saxon army was made up of… Housecarls – professional soldiers armed with battleaxes Fyrd – armed with spears and sometimes swords Total strength = approx men The housecarls were highly trained and formed the core of the army. The fyrd were ordinary men called up to serve in times of emergency. They were unpaid and had little or no training.
The Norman Army The Norman army was made up of… Archers (armed with bows and arrows) Cavalry (men on horseback, armed with swords) Foot soldiers (armed mainly with spears) Total strength = approx men All William’s soldiers had training and experience. Many were professional mercenaries.
Label your pictures with the following… Look at the weapons and armour of the two sides at Hastings. Who do you think had the upper hand? Explain your answer carefully… round wooden shield overlapped with neighbour’s shield to form a shieldwall destrier (warhorse capable of carrying a knight and his armour) English fyrdmen (lightly armed or unarmed part-time soldiers) English housecarl (heavily armoured foot soldier) Large kite-shaped shield that can cover the whole body Long chainmail hauaberk reaching to the knees Long, straight sword Short chainmail tunic Heavy axe that could be used with one or two hands Lance for use on horseback Norman archer Helmet with nasal guard to protect the nose Mounted Norman knight
The Battle of Hastings
Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? L/O – To describe what happened at the battle at to identify why William won Starter – Which side had the better army? William or Harold’s?
The Normans arrive! 8.30am – William’s army arrives and finds Harold and his army already in place on the Senlac Ridge. Harold and his standard are just behind the English shieldwall. William divides his army into three sections; the Bretons under Alan of Brittany next to some marshy ground; the French and Flemish under Roger of Montgomery; the Normans, whom he commands himself, in the centre. Each section of William’s army has three parts: the archers at the front; the infantry in the middle; the cavalry at the back.
The Battle Begins! 9.30am – The archers in William’s army are ordered forward to the bottom of the Senlac Ridge. From here they shoot at the English am – William sends all of his infantry against the English shieldwall am – The Breton infantry lose heart and retreat back down the hill. Panic spreads among William’s infantry and they believe William has been killed am – William’s infantry turn and retreat down the hill. William removes his helmet to show he is still alive and to stop his infantry from running away from the battlefield. Some English fyrd soldiers chase the retreating Norman infantry but they are cut down by William’s cavalry.
William’s cavalry attack! noon – William launches all of his cavalry against the shieldwall but they fail to break through. The cavalry pretend to run away in panic; some English fyrd soldiers fall for the trick and chase after them. The cavalry turns around and slaughters them.
The Final Attack! 2.00pm – William orders his archers to fire high up in the air so that their arrows drop down on to the heads of the English. 2.30pm – William throws all of his remaining cavalry and infantry at the weakened English line. 3.00pm – Harold’s brothers, Leofwine and Gyrth, are killed as the English fight desperately to hold the shieldwall together. Even Harold joins the fighting. 4.00pm – William’s army finally bursts through the shieldwall and breaks the English up into small groups of exhausted soldiers.
The End of the battle! 5.00pm – Harold is killed, surrounded by his bodyguard. The English fyrd, seeing their king dead, flee the battlefield. 5.30pm – The remaining housecarls retreat from Senlac Ridge, fighting as they go. They stop on the top of Caldbec Hill and make their final stand. They fight to the death.
Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? There are a number of reasons why William won the battle. Before you write your essays, you need to decide what those reasons were. 1.Look at the cards and decide if any sub-headings could be used to divide the cards into groups.
Why did William Win? 2. Now sort the cards into the following groups: a)William’s skill b)Harold’s mistakes c)Luck d)The nature of the two armies Which factor was the most important in helping William win? Why do you think William won the battle?
Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? Essay Plan Introduction - Where was the battle? When was the battle? Why was there a battle? Finish by completing the following sentence: “William won the Battle of Hastings for four types of reasons. These are…” 1. William’s Skill Write about how William’s skill as a soldier and leader helped him win the battle. Give the best example of William’s skill first and then any other examples. 2. Harold’s Mistakes Give examples of how Harold’s mistakes helped him lose the battle. 3. Luck Give examples of Harold’s bad luck. 4. The two armies It is possible to argue that William was bound to win the battle because his army was better than Harold’s. Give examples to show this. Conclusion Summarise your information. Was is the most important type of reason? Give reasons for your choice.
Plenary: Can you remember?
The Battle of Hastings Create a presentation about the Battle of Hastings. Think about: When was it? When was it? Where was it? Where was it? What were the two armies like? What were the two armies like? What happened? What happened? Who won and how? Who won and how? What happened after the battle? What happened after the battle? What was the main reason why William won? What was the main reason why William won?