Presentation on theme: "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?"— Presentation transcript:
1Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? L/O – To describe what happened at the battle at to identify why William wonStarter – Who won the Battle of Stamford Bridge? How did they win it?
2The Saxon Army The Saxon army was made up of… Housecarls – professional soldiers armed with battleaxesFyrd – armed with spears and sometimes swordsTotal strength = approx menThe housecarls were highly trained and formed the core of the army. The fyrd were ordinary men called up to serve in times of emergency. They were unpaid and had little or no training.
3The Norman Army The Norman army was made up of… Archers (armed with bows and arrows)Cavalry (men on horseback, armed with swords)Foot soldiers (armed mainly with spears)Total strength = approx menAll William’s soldiers had training and experience. Many were professional mercenaries.
4Label your pictures with the following… round wooden shield overlapped with neighbour’s shield to form a shieldwalldestrier (warhorse capable of carrying a knight and his armour)English fyrdmen (lightly armed or unarmed part-time soldiers)English housecarl (heavily armoured foot soldier)Large kite-shaped shield that can cover the whole bodyLong chainmail hauaberk reaching to the kneesLong, straight swordHeavy axe that could be used with one or two handsLance for use on horsebackShort chainmail tunicHelmet with nasal guard to protect the noseMounted Norman knightNorman archerLook at the weapons and armour of the two sides at Hastings. Who do you think had the upper hand? Explain your answer carefully…
6Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? L/O – To describe what happened at the battle at to identify why William wonStarter – Which side had the better army? William or Harold’s?
7The Normans arrive!8.30am – William’s army arrives and finds Harold and his army already in place on the Senlac Ridge. Harold and his standard are just behind the English shieldwall.William divides his army into three sections; the Bretons under Alan of Brittany next to some marshy ground; the French and Flemish under Roger of Montgomery; the Normans, whom he commands himself, in the centre.Each section of William’s army has three parts: the archers at the front; the infantry in the middle; the cavalry at the back.
8The Battle Begins!9.30am – The archers in William’s army are ordered forward to the bottom of the Senlac Ridge. From here they shoot at the English.10.00am – William sends all of his infantry against the English shieldwall.11.00am – The Breton infantry lose heart and retreat back down the hill. Panic spreads among William’s infantry and they believe William has been killed.11.30am – William’s infantry turn and retreat down the hill. William removes his helmet to show he is still alive and to stop his infantry from running away from the battlefield. Some English fyrd soldiers chase the retreating Norman infantry but they are cut down by William’s cavalry.
9William’s cavalry attack! 12.00 noon – William launches all of his cavalry against the shieldwall but they fail to break through. The cavalry pretend to run away in panic; some English fyrd soldiers fall for the trick and chase after them. The cavalry turns around and slaughters them.
10The Final Attack!2.00pm – William orders his archers to fire high up in the air so that their arrows drop down on to the heads of the English.2.30pm – William throws all of his remaining cavalry and infantry at the weakened English line.3.00pm – Harold’s brothers, Leofwine and Gyrth, are killed as the English fight desperately to hold the shieldwall together. Even Harold joins the fighting.4.00pm – William’s army finally bursts through the shieldwall and breaks the English up into small groups of exhausted soldiers.
11The End of the battle!5.00pm – Harold is killed, surrounded by his bodyguard. The English fyrd, seeing their king dead, flee the battlefield.5.30pm – The remaining housecarls retreat from Senlac Ridge, fighting as they go. They stop on the top of Caldbec Hill and make their final stand. They fight to the death.
12Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? There are a number of reasons why William won the battle. Before you write your essays, you need to decide what those reasons were.Look at the cards and decide if any sub-headings could be used to divide the cards into groups.
13Why did William Win? 2. Now sort the cards into the following groups: William’s skillHarold’s mistakesLuckThe nature of the two armiesWhich factor was the most important in helping William win?Why do you think William won the battle?
14Why did William win the Battle of Hastings? Essay Plan Introduction - Where was the battle? When was the battle? Why was there a battle? Finish by completing the following sentence: “William won the Battle of Hastings for four types of reasons. These are…”1. William’s SkillWrite about how William’s skill as a soldier and leader helped him win the battle. Give the best example of William’s skill first and then any other examples.2. Harold’s MistakesGive examples of how Harold’s mistakes helped him lose the battle.3. LuckGive examples of Harold’s bad luck.4. The two armiesIt is possible to argue that William was bound to win the battle because his army was better than Harold’s. Give examples to show this.ConclusionSummarise your information. Was is the most important type of reason? Give reasons for your choice.
16The Battle of HastingsCreate a presentation about the Battle of Hastings. Think about:When was it?Where was it?What were the two armies like?What happened?Who won and how?What happened after the battle?What was the main reason why William won?