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Bronze Age Greece. Mycenaean world Chronology 2200-1500 BC: Height of Minoan civilization 1600-1100: Height of Mycenaean civilization 1100-750: Greek.

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Presentation on theme: "Bronze Age Greece. Mycenaean world Chronology 2200-1500 BC: Height of Minoan civilization 1600-1100: Height of Mycenaean civilization 1100-750: Greek."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bronze Age Greece

2 Mycenaean world

3 Chronology BC: Height of Minoan civilization : Height of Mycenaean civilization : Greek Dark Age 750: Homer

4 Minoan Civilization Pre-Hellenic (non-Greek, non Indo- European) Most powerful from BCE Spread influence to Cyclades, Peloponnese, and central Greece Unified by Knossos, where the Minos (King) administered the kingdom

5 Palace at Knossos

6

7 Knossos, storeroom

8 Columns and Bull Fresco, Knossos

9 Knossos, temple tomb

10 What the palaces suggest: Complex political structure, monarch Had a syllabic script, Linear A Centralized political/economic system The palace was this center Thalassocracy: naval power They were wealthy, cultured, unified, peaceful Minoan art supports these conclusions

11 Knossos, dolphins fresco

12 Knossos, bluebirds fresco

13 Minoan fertility goddess

14 Knossos, bull leaping fresco

15 Linear A tablet

16 New developments BCE Closer contact with Mycenae More militaristic scenes in art Presence of Linear B, which is Greek Knossos and other sites on Crete were burned near the end of the 15 th century Cretan supremacy ended

17 Mycenaeans – BCE Aegean leadership passed to Greek-speaking people, who called themselves the Achaeans They entered the Greek mainland around 2000 BC, and rose to power on the mainland around the 16 th century Their power depended on the horse and chariot They were aggressive both as traders and warriors Extent of their trade: Sicily, Troy, Egypt

18 What were Mycenaeans like? Highly skilled in war and administration Had dynastic rulers Wealthy and powerful Early shaft graves held many gold objects, martial objects ( BCE) Wealth based on control of trade and agriculture

19 Mycenaean grave circle

20

21 Mycenaean tholos tomb So-called “Treasury of Atreus”

22 Mycenaean inlaid dagger

23 Mycenaean boar’s tusk helmet

24 Wall Painting, Mycenae

25 Mycenaean funerary masks

26 Mycenaean funerary mask

27 Mycenae BCE Mycenaean culture spread through Greece and the Ionian islands Kings of Mycenae held broad hegemony They claimed tribute from subjects Had an efficient bureaucratic service Engaged in overseas trade, especially metals Had a form of writing, Linear B

28 Linear B tablet

29 Palace at Mycenae

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31 Fortification walls at Mycenae

32 Lion Gate at Mycenae

33 Cyclopean tunnel, Tiryns

34 Signet ring from Tiryns

35 Signet rings from Aidonia

36 Bull cups from Vapheio

37 Mycenaean society Royal, centralized bureaucracy Artisans and peasants under royal control Class structure: –serfs, slaves, –lords and councilmen, –retainers and agents –the great king, the wanax Kings were powerful in war and trade They achieved their power through violence, as artifacts suggest

38 Warrior frescoes from Pylos

39 Fall of Mycenae, Citadels were destroyed, kingdoms fell Mycenaean culture, including writing, was lost Transition to the iron age All the Mycenaeans were not destroyed, but life changed drastically Depopulation Dark Ages:

40 8 th century New developments in trade and colonization Greeks adapt the Phoenician alphabet Writing reappears: Iliad and Odyssey by 750 Kingship begins to disappear Aristocracies begin to rise Later Greeks were unaware of most of the important aspects of life they portrayed in heroic poetry –Its social organization –Its material culture –Its writing system

41 Homeric / Heroic culture Evidence comes mainly from texts Ties were with family, clan, warrior band, and tribe Men lived in small, self-sufficient units; oikos Political ties were personal Basileus or king lived by agriculture, war Wealth was counted in herds, slaves, reserves of treasure, food, metal King was not far above other men in upper classes His reputation rested on his physical might and his sagacity His powers were limited by the unwritten code of themis: what is done

42 “Homeric” Society Aristocratic warriors –Had a special standing –Were dominated by the need to show bravery –Their honor was expressed in material possessions won in battle or awarded by the community Material wealth comes from land, raids, war and gift exchange Trading is disdained Human values mirror divine values

43 Homeric culture is an amalgam Different poetic accounts from different periods Some mention of specifically Myceanaen objects: tower shield, boar’s tusk helmet, metal inlay, bronze armor Late Mycenaean political geography is known But many references to iron age culture and customs

44 Moses Finley’s culture of the Odyssey Sacrifice, cooked meal Agriculture, cooked food Good host-guest relationships Stable family life Stable political life Strength, intelligence, ability to speak


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