Presentation on theme: "Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology. Herodotus 484-c.425 B.C. Father of History but Son of Myth Access to veterans of Persian wars."— Presentation transcript:
Thermopylae: Myth, History, & Archaeology
Herodotus 484-c.425 B.C. Father of History but Son of Myth Access to veterans of Persian wars
Plutarch A.D. Life of Lycurgus the Law- giver Spartan Institutions & Life
Xenophon c.430-c.354 Mercenary in Persian “civil war” Anabasis “Warriors” Spartan Institutions
The Persian Empire 490 B.C.
Persian Empire IRAN Afghanistan Iraq Pakistan Turkmenistan Levant Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine Anatolia (Turkey) Egypt Bulgaria
Origin of Persian Wars 500 B.C. Ionian Revolt Greek Colonies on Coast of Asia Minor rebel against Persian taxes & military service 498 B.C. Athens sends help, burns Sardis 495 B.C. Darius regains control of Ionia Darius ( B.C.) plots revenge - invasion 492 B.C. Persian General Mardonius campaigns in Thrace 490 B.C. Persian Fleet sent to invade Greece
Battle of Marathon 490 B.C. Athenians led by Miltiades, former mercenary in Persian army Greek losses “192” Persian dead “6,400!”
2nd Persian Invasion Xerxes, son of Darius 481 B.C. Greek League against Persia Sparta commands but Athens the true naval power 480 B.C. Battle at Thermopylae
Xerxes Reliefs at Persepolis
Leonidas at Thermopylae (David)
Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Salamis 480/479 B.C. Battle at Salamis Greeks lose c.40 ships Persians lose c.200 ships, and Persians couldn’t swim! Immortals slaughtered on Psyttaleia
Battle of Plataea 479 B.C. Battle at Plataea Death of Mardonius, End of Persian Invasion) Herodotus: only 43,000 of 250,000 Persians survived the battle, while the Greeks lost only 159 men!
The Hoplite Panoply Helmet Shield Breastplate/Cuirass Greaves Sword Spear Total Weight lbs
The Shield Convex wooden disc Bronze overlay Individual Decoration for non-Spartan hoplites
The Cuirass Front and back pieces Linothorax
The Helmet Corinthian helmet late 6th - early 5th century Beards to prevent chafing?
The Chigi Vase B.C.
Spartan Superiority Uniformity of Panoply Distinctive Spartan Shield Scarlet Cloak Regular training together & bonding in syssitia
Spartans as Defenders of Freedom? “Dorian Invasion” Northern Greek People displace or conquer Achaean Greeks in Laconia & then Messenia Spartiates rule local residents, perioeci (merchants) & helots (agricultural serfs through fear and brutality inspired by the Krypteia (secret police)
Ephialtes From Trachis Spartan Eugenics Greek Collusion Not deformed Spartan Bounty on his Head
Tactics: Phalanx or Monomachia?
Spartan Sexuality “Spartan hotties vs. Persian trannies”? Athenian Boy-lovers? No home life until 30! The Mess-hall is cold at night… Institutionalized (chaste?) pederasty Husband-doubling & Adultery
Spartan… Ummm… Errr… This slide IS important but I have forgotten why… Karneia –9 day festival of Apollo
Spartan Society Agoge: 7-17 Krypteia: Syssitia: Homoioi Reserves:31-60 Women’s Rights? Property Sex Education Sports
Spartan Government 5 Ephors elected from the Spartiate class for 1 year 2 hereditary kings with equal authority (cp.2 Roman consuls) Gerousia (council of 28 elders over 65, elected for life, usually from royal households + the 2 kings) Damos – citizen assembly
Archaeology of Persian Wars Schliemann excavations! Excavation of Burial Mound of Plataeans Tomb of Spartans found near Thermopylae? Persian Chariot Wheels as Votives in Temple of Apollo and Artemis at Kalapodi