3Overview What is sexual orientation to today’s adolescent? School climate and experiencesWhat you can do to make a differenceQuestions and answers
4Policy Practice Research The key to positive change for LGBT people in schools lies at the intersection of policy, research and implementation. Unfortunately, current thinking and practice in these three areas are often sparse, inconsistent and disconnected. Policies vary from state to state and school district to school district. Research is sparse and infrequently used by those implementing services. The implementation of standardized protective factors in American schools is almost non-existent.PracticeResearch
5Research Largely focused on Risk Mostly conducted by higher ed. AcademicsLittle practical researchLittle conducted by youthHardly any on sexuality in youth
7Continuum Sexual orientation and gender identity are not dichotomous Today’s youth are more likely to identify as bisexual than homosexualKids often self-identify as “queer or questioning” or “bicurious”Attraction ≠ experience ≠ orientation“Visibility management”Ongoing process by which people monitor the level of “outness” they express.Part of the difficulty with determining prevalence
8LGBT youth in schools Risk factors and outcomes Several risk factors cited in research - also many negative experiences in school.Increased rates of anxiety and depressionHigher incidence of suicidal tendencies, substance abuse, and dropout.High victimization related toTruancySuicide attemptsSexual risk behaviorsLower GPALower post-secondary aspirationsVictimization is the issue - not just identifying as a sexual minority.gay and lesbian teenagers may be three times as likely to attempt suicide as heterosexual teens, and that gay teenagers may account for 30% of all teen suicides (MacGillivray, 2000), sometimes with close to 10% attempting suicide in a one-month span (Garofalo et al., 1999). Overall, it appears that psychological stress is elevated and suicide attempts are most frequent when youth first identify as LGBT to themselves or after coming out to others (Savin-Williams, 1994).Victimization may include verbal and physical harassment, physical assault, property damage.Murdock & Bloch (2005) - supportive friends and parents could not mediate the harmful effect of a negative school climate.When victimization is left out of the equation sexual minority students appear to perform at a similar level to their heterosexual peers (Russell, Seif, & Trong, 2001). Being a gender minority and a victim of verbal or physical harassment leads to worse outcomes than either outcome alone.
9From Teasing to Torment: School Climate In America Harris Interactive/GLSEN projectNationally representative sample: 3450 students, secondary school teachers1/3 of teens have been verbally or physically harassed during the past year because of perceived or actual sexual orientation.Second in frequency only to appearance (way they look or body size) – 4/10 teens reported being harassed for this reason.
10LGBT students are…Over 3 times as likely to say they feel unsafe at schoolLikely to experience harassment more frequently than their peers (90% vs. 60%)
112009 GLSEN School Climate Survey 72.4% of students heard homophobic remarks often or frequently at school. (82% of middle school students)88.9% heard “gay” used in a negative way (often or frequently), and 86.5% felt distressed to some degree by this.84.6% verbally harassed because of sexual orientatio; 63.7% because of gender expression.40.1% physically harassed because of sexual orientation18.8% physically assaulted because of orientation, 12.5% because of gender expression52.9% harassed via text, , Facebook, etc.62.4% did not report the harassment or assault, because they believed little or no action would be taken, or that the situation would become worse33.8% who DID report an incident said that school staff did nothing in response.Physical harassment = pushed or shoved (30.4% because of gender expression, 55 & 53% of transgender youth)Physical Assault = punched, kicked, injured with a weapon. (28% and 26% of transgender youth)
12Teachers need to intervene Less than 1/5 of transgender students said that school staff intervened most of the time or always when hearing homophobic remarks (16%) or negative remarks about someone’s gender expression (11%).Intervention in homophobic or negative remarks about gender expression reported to occur “most of the time” or “always” 17.6% and 14.6% of the time42.3% of the time for sexist language & 57.6% of the time for racist language.And not contribute to harassmentA third of transgender students heard school staff make homophobic remarks (32%; 23% for total sample), sexist remarks (39%; 26% for total sample) and negative comments about someone’s gender expression (39%; 28% total sample) sometimes, often or frequently in the past year.
13In the past month…One-third of LGBT students & almost half of transgender students missed a day of school because they felt unsafeTwice as likely to miss school in the past month if experiencing high frequencies of verbal harassment related to sexual orientation or gender expression.Almost three times as likely to miss if experiencing high frequencies of physical harassment.
14Protective factors for LGBT youth Social support: can be strongly related to school maladjustment, attitude toward school, and teachersClose attachment to parents, friends and schoolConnection to LGBT community and sexual minority youth.Positive school climateUeno, 2005: Total # of friends negatively associated with psychological distress - stronger for sexual minorities than heterosexual peers.Qualitative study (Nesmith, Burton & Cosgrove, 99) detailed importance of sexual minority adults etc.Students who perceive HS climate to be more positive also report more positive feelings about sexual orientation, higher self esteem, less stigmatization, more social integration with heterosexual peers, and greater openness with families about orientation (Elze, 2003).
15Sense of connection to school comparable to comparison peers. In a uniquely supported group of students, things look a little different.Achievement, attendance and credit accrual comparable to a group of comparison peersSense of connection to school comparable to comparison peers.Higher than average score in GLSEN studyBut…Focus groups indicate ongoing concerns about climateCredit accrual marginally significant when OFE ally and LGB were left in one group and compared to comparison group (p = .079)OFE LGBT kids had an average score of 3.422, average GLSEN score was below a 3 (provided items scores, most of which were 2.7 or below.
16“I’ve used words like that against people “I’ve used words like that against people. And I’ve said things & done things that I seriously regret…And I knew what I was doing, the whole time. I knew my decision was going to be: either I call this guy a [derogatory term] or I’m gonna be out. It’s going to be over for me. And my life is going to be in danger.”“I do have like the fear of you know, if I come out to this person, will they not be my friend anymore? … What will happen if people in my class see like a pride pin or something? It’s always there, and I have friends who are totally comfortable with just being out, loud and proud. But I don’t have that comfort, and I think I have good reasons.”I think physically, nobody would beat you up because you’re gay, but I think if you’re openly gay at this school you’re gonna get tormented sooner or later.”
17Students described multiple functions of GSA On the bright side, students also expressed an appreciation for supports in place.“Is there a need for GSA” elicited the only unanimous focus group responseStudents described multiple functions of GSAPlace to go talk and “hang out”Provides a safe and supportive space for LGBT students and allies.Spread knowledge, change the school environmentShow support for LGBT peers.
18Student 1: “Part of why I’m here is because being older than pretty much all the other students who come, I know what it was like for them at their age, to an extent. Because I’ve already been through it. I know what it feels like to be 14, 15, 16 and gay. I feel like I help it in a way. Like instead of going home & doing the dishes or something for my parents, I’m here helping out other gay people & the odd straight person who walks in.”Student 2: “Doing the dishes for society.”Student 1: “Oh yeah. I’m doing the dishes for the GLBT community.”
20Why Address LGBT issues in Schools? Optimize learningDevelop a climate of fairness and respectIt’s the law
21Change Actions Support the development of Gay-Straight Alliances Staff TrainingUse inclusive, affirming, and gender neutral languageUse the words “gay”, “lesbian”, “bisexual”, and “transgender”Identify yourself as an allyKnow where and how to referConfront hateful languageSupport the development of Gay-Straight AlliancesTeacher development and willingness to intervene
22How to Respond to Homophobic Language AppropriateErroneousPejorativeName ItClaim ItStop It
23“Respect for tiny and tall,Respect for one and all.” AnnouncementsMorning MeetingsCharacter CountsSOSCrossing BridgesBully Proof CurriculumTerrific Kid AwardsPeace CelebrationAnnouncementsResponsive classroomFix-it plansReferral formsClass discussionFocus room
24Hot TopicsHow are 7-12 graders challenging gender norms? Are they challenging gender norms differently than those in the past.How do we support gender queer youth in the bi-gendered American education system in practical way.How does the practice of prevention and intervention change in the age of electronic communities.The face of OFE participants reaches beyond LGBT youth. Non-conforming, ”outsider” youth seem to gravitate toward OFE activities. How do we define and serve this changing demographic while staying true to our original mission.Given the lack of research on sexuality in youth, how to we support developmentally appropriate experimentation of gender and sexuality. Is identification developmentally appropriate early adolescence.
25ResourcesBullying and anti-discrimination laws: The Minnesota School Board Association (MSBA) recently recommended policy change:US DOE Office of Civil Rights: info about anti- discrimination statutes: www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/aboutocr.htmlMinnesota School Outreach: mnschooloutreach.orgCoalition to address issues of sexual orientation and gender identity/expressionOut 4 Good: sss.mpls.k12.mn.us/Out4Good.htmlOut for Equity: outforequity.spps.orgGlsen.org: Tons of resources on school climate and safety