2Finishing Prejudice Video on school cliques Colored Doll Experiment d1g&feature=relatedAY&feature=fvsruo
3Categorizing RaceOn the following slide, there are 20 photos of people. On a separate sheet of paper, categorize them into the 5 racial categories currently recognized by the U.S.:American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White.There may only be 4 in each category.Identify people using the letter/number grid system.
10What factors increase the chance that people will like one another? AttractionWhat factors increase the chance that people will like one another?
11if they are similar to us (similarity) we have frequent contact with them (proximity)those that return our positive feelings (reciprocal liking)those we share intimate and personal information with (self-disclosure)
12Effects of Personal Appearance The attractiveness biasphysically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, moralitystudiesteachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achievingadults attribute cause of unattractive child’s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’s to situationjudges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people
13Effects of Personal Appearance The baby-face biaspeople with rounder heads, large eyes, small jawbones, etc. rated as more naïve, honest, helpless, kind, and warm than mature-facedgeneralize to animals, women, babiesevolution of Mickey Mouse scanned in from page 495 of Gray's text, figure 13.5Instructors may also wish to discuss popular figures with baby faces vs. mature faces and perceptions of them
14Dear AbbyComplete the worksheet on Dear Abby using the principles we just talked about.
17Correlations Past Oriented People: High correlation with depression Negative correlation with joviality, self- assurance, well-being, self-esteem,High correlation with REGRETS
18Present Oriented People High correlation with “Mastery of the Environment”High correlation with self-esteem, well-being, acceptance, and SOMETIMES with regretsVery low correlation with depression
19Future Oriented People High correlation with self-assurance, and LAST WEEK regrets.NO Correlation with autonomy, self-esteem, and mastery of the environmentHOWEVER, high correlation with GPA and standardized tests.
20Cultural OrientationThe United States has a much higher preoccupation with future orientation. Many other cultures are present oriented. Their sense of “time” can be very different.“Island time”
21RegretResearch has found that when looking back on their lives, people regret INACTION more than ACTION.When looking back in the past week, people regret ACTION rather than INACTION.
23Compliance Strategies are methods of getting others to comply with one’s wishes.
24Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon. It suggests that if you can get people to agree to a small request first, they are more likely to agree to a follow-up request that is larger.
25"Can I go over to Suzy's house for an hour "Can I go over to Suzy's house for an hour?" followed by "Can I stay the night?""Can I borrow the car to go to the store?" followed by "Can I borrow the car for the weekend?""Would you sign this petition for our cause?" followed by "Would you donate to our cause?""May I turn in the paper a few hours late?" followed by "May I turn it in next week?"
26Door-In-The-Face Phenomenon Strategy marked by first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down. The respondent is then more likely to agree to a second, more reasonable request.
27Will you donate $1000 to our organization. Oh Will you donate $1000 to our organization? Oh. Well could you donate $10?''Can you help me do all this work? Well can you help me with this bit?''
28Another common strategy is known as the Norms of Reciprocity Another common strategy is known as the Norms of Reciprocity. People tend to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return.
29IE. You feel compelled to send money to the charity organization that sent you the free address labels in the mail, or to vote for the candidate that handed out the delicious chocolate chip cookies.
30Come up with an advertisement… Come up with a product you want to sellUse ALL THREE techniques (separate your paper into 3)Star the one you believe will work bestGroups of 2-3
31How do we explain the behaviors that we observe?
33You’re in a college library, observing two workers attempting to move a rather large filing cabinet. In unison, the two workers lift up the cabinet. All four doors fly open and the files spill out. What’s your first thought?
34Attribution Theory tries to explain how people determine the cause of what they observe.
35Dispositional Attribution We when observe other people’s behaviors, we believe that their success or failure is due to their long history of personal success or failure. The individual is given the credit or blame for the outcome.
36The files fell out because the workers are dimwits The files fell out because the workers are dimwits. The files fell out because the workers weren’t strong enough. The files fell out because the workers were unable to balance the cabinet. The workers were inexperienced in this type of work.
37Situational Attribution If you believe that a person’s success or failure is due to a consistently easy or difficult surrounding situation or environment. Something outside of the individual’s control has led to their success or failure.
38The files fell out because the locks on the cabinets broke The files fell out because the locks on the cabinets broke. The files fell out because a student bumped into one of the workers and caused it to tip. The bright light from an overhead bulb blinded a worker and disoriented him. The floor must have been recently waxed and was slippery.
42You go to a party and start up a conversation with someone you haven’t met before. They don’t talk much, gaze around the room rather than look directly at you, and excuse themselves abruptly. You first thought about them is….
43Most of you probably said, “What a jerk”, right? Did you consider that maybe they were just really shy, or that they just broke up with their significant other, or that maybe they were distracted by a minor car accident they had on the way to the party?
44When looking at the behaviors of others, people tend to overestimate the importance of personal factors, and underestimate the role of the environment. This is called the fundamental attribution error.
45The tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them is called the false consensus effect.
46IE. If Brianna hates Psychology, she assumes that most people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Savanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.
47Self-serving bias is the tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones, and vise-versa.
49IE. A star athlete will acknowledge that his fourth quarter touchdown won the game. The same athlete will point out that a tough loss was a team loss, and that everyone must step up their game the next time. He won’t admit that his dropped pass in the endzone lost the game.
50When attributing successes or failures, people tend to believe that bad things will happen to bad people, and that good things will happen to good people. This is called the just-world belief.
51One problem with the just-world belief is that we often tend to blame the victims of crimes for their plight. The guy shouldn’t have been walking down that dark alley when he was robbed…the girl shouldn’t have been wearing that revealing outfit when she was attacked.
52HELP! Why might someone help someone else? What causes compassion? When is the last time you helped someone else?
53The larger the number of people who witness a problem, the less likely any one is going to intervene. This is called the bystander effect. The larger the group of people, the less responsibility any one individual feels to help. People tend to assume that someone else will take action so they don’t have to.
58Researchers have found that simple task performance improves in the presence of others. This is called social facilitation, though if the task is difficult or not well-rehearsed, performance is actually hurt by the presence of others. This is called social impairment.
59Social loafing is the phenomenon when individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when they are acting alone.
61Group polarization is the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group members would make individually.
62The loss of an individual’s self- restraint occurs when they feel anonymous This is called deindividualization. You’re prone to do more extreme things if you’re an anonymous part of the crowd.
63Groupthink occurs when group members suppress their reservations about ideas supported by the group. As a result, there is a false sense of unity, and the flaws of the group’s decision are overlooked.
65ConformityAdopting attitudes or behaviors of others because of pressure to do so; the pressure can be real or imagined2 general reasons for conformityInformational social influence—other people can provide useful and crucial informationNormative social influence—desire to be accepted as part of a group leads to that group having an influence
66Asch’s Experiments on Conformity Previous research had shown people will conform to others’ judgments more often when the evidence is ambiguousCurrently, I am trying to reproduce Asch's experiment in my classroom, but am still working out the details. However, even if you can't get conformity from the subject, the students think it is a fun and informative demonstration. In addition, film clips are available with replications of his study, although not on the Gray CD.another approach is to stop lecture at the point where you will introduce conformity and ask the students to do something (e.g., get up and change seats) -- then discuss their behavior as it relates to conforming -- individual instructors may prefer to use this demonstration under obedience, however.
67Asch’s Experiments on Conformity All but 1 in group was confederateSeating was riggedAsked to rate which line matched a “standard” lineConfederates were instructed to pick the wrong line 12/18 timesComparison linesStandard lines123Discovering Psy 2e slides, Shulman
68Asch’s Experiments on Conformity ResultsAsch found that 75% participants conformed to at least one wrong choicesubjects gave wrong answer (conformed) on 37% of the critical trialsWhy did they conform to clearly wrong choices?informational influence?subjects reported having doubted their own perceptual abilities which led to their conformance – didn’t report seeing the lines the way the confederates had
70ObedienceObediencecompliance of person is due to perceived authority of askerrequest is perceived as a commandMilgram interested in unquestioning obedience to ordersThis photo of Stanley Milgram was scanned in from the Myers text, NOT on the CD
71Stanley Milgram’s Studies Basic study procedureteacher and learner (learner always confederate)watch learner being strapped into chairlearner expresses concern over his “heart condition”Photo scanned in from Gray 3e fig 14.8, NOT on CD
72Stanley Milgram’s Studies Teacher goes to another room with experimenterShock generator panel – 15 to 450 volts, labels “slight shock” to “XXX”Asked to give higher shocks for every mistake learner makesFigure adapted from Hockenbury 12.4, was on CD
73Stanley Milgram’s Studies Learner protests more and more as shock increasesExperimenter continues to request obedience even if teacher balks120150300330“Ugh! Hey this really hurts.”“Ugh! Experimenter! That’s all.Get me out of here. I told youI had heart trouble. My heart’sstarting to bother me now.”(agonized scream) “I absolutelyrefuse to answer any more.Get me out of here. You can’t holdme here. Get me out.”(intense & prolonged agonizedscream) “Let me out of here.Let me out of here. My heart’sbothering me. Let me out,I tell you…”This table was adapted from Hockenbury, Table 12.3Instructor could also tape the confederate’s responses instead of using this table
74Obedience How many people would go to the highest shock level? 65% of the subjects went to the end, even those that protested
75Obedience Percentage of subjects who obeyed experimenter XXX( )Percentageof subjectswho obeyedexperimenter100908070605040302010Slight(15-60)Moderate(75-120)Strong( )Verystrong( )Intense( )Extremeintensity( )Dangersevere( )Shock levels in voltsThe majority ofsubjects continuedto obey to the endThis figure is from the Myers text,
76Explanations for Milgram’s Results Abnormal group of subjects?numerous replications with variety of groups shows no supportPeople in general are sadistic?videotapes of Milgram’s subjects show extreme distress
77Explanations for Milgram’s Results Authority of Yale and value of scienceExperimenter self-assurance and acceptance of responsibilityProximity of learner and experimenterNew situation and no model of how to behave
80TortureDehumanization: Making it seem as though you are shooting at/hurting someTHING rather than someONE.Abu Ghraib- What is it?Grab a book, open up to page 462, we will read about it together.
81Hindsight Bias…is 20/20Do you think opposites attract, or we like those who are similar to us?
82Studies have shown that opposites do, in fact, attract. What evidence can you give me to support that conclusion?
83Oops, my bad. I meant… Birds of a feather stick together. That’s the real answer… but it was very easy for many of you to believe the other was true after I gave you the conclusion.
84An attitude is a set of beliefs and feelings One reason that attitudes are difficult to change is due to the Cognitive Dissonance Theory. The theory is based on the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors, and when they do not, they experience unpleasant mental tension (dissonance).
85Cognitive DissonanceUnpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal that occurs when two thoughts or perceptions are inconsistentAttitudes and behaviors are in conflictit is uncomfortable for uswe seek ways to decrease discomfort caused by the inconsistency