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Drunkenness and sexual victimization A general population study of teenage girls Hilde Pape Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research Statens institutt.

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Presentation on theme: "Drunkenness and sexual victimization A general population study of teenage girls Hilde Pape Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research Statens institutt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drunkenness and sexual victimization A general population study of teenage girls Hilde Pape Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research Statens institutt for rusmiddelforskning (SIRUS ) Preliminary results

2 In 2010 / 2011, Oslo was rocked by a wave of rapes

3 « ’Take back the night’ is the claim, but [... ]

4 one should rather call out ‘ BOYCOTT THE NIGHT ’» Margrete Geelmuyden, Aften 2/ x

5 Indeed, alcohol use correlates with rape / sexual assault Some evidence from aggregate level studies, e.g. US state-level data: 10% increase in alcohol consumption → 7% increase in the incidence of rapes ( Cook & More 1993 ) Individual level studies : Solid evidence of cross-sectional associations e.g. US national study of college women: Frequent HED → OR 5 of reporting rape (Mohler-Kou et al 2004) Event-level data: Rapes / sexual assaults; alcohol typically involved (survey data + police reports)

6 Analyses of all cases of rape registrered by the police in Oslo (2010)

7 Different types of rape/sexual assault

8 «Many of those who report party-related rapes, had black-out during the night and are unable to remember what happened» Event data: The victims’ use of alcohol Stranger attack rapes; «Typically, the victim is intoxicated and on her way home at night» Altogether, - 65% had used substances - 47% had used alcohol only

9 Alcohol use as a proximal risk factor The context of drinking – presence of potential perpetrators (weak social control / no guardianship) Effects of intoxication - Impairment: Reduced abillity to recognize and respond to sexual assault risk

10 Alcohol use as a proximal risk factor The context of drinking – presence of potential perpetrators (weak social control / no guardianship) Effects of intoxication - Impairment: Reduced abillity to recognize and respond to sexual assault risk - Incapacitation: Inability to resist ( or consent to ) sexual activity «Economics of crime»: Severe drunkenness increases victim vulnerability and reduces the expected cost of rape to potential offenders

11 Research on incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) Little research; studies of US college students predominate (convenience samples / low rr) Abstainers + non-binge drinkers included in the analyses ( How age is related to ISA among youth who binge drink is unknown ) Lifetime ISA → current drinking / PTSD, mental health “outcomes” (Simple bi-variate analyses) Apart from studies on the role of alcohol; almost no research has ran the risk of revealing that sexual assault vicims differ from “ideal victims” i.e. “ those who, when hit by crime, most readily are given the complete and legitimate status of being a victim ” ( Christie 1986: 18) No study on the associations between personality traits and ISA. Yet, one may assume that impulsivity and related traits increase the risk. The association between an early onset of drinking and ISA supports this assumption

12 Aims To examine the prevalence of ISA among teenage girls in Norway and to explore how it varies with drinking behavior and age To test the assumption that impulsivity is related to ISA To examine the association between an early onset of drinking and ISA, taking impulsivity into account To assess associations between ISA and other alcohol-related outcomes To assess associations between ISA and involvement in problem behaviour (illegal drug use / delinquency)

13 Sample A school survey in 16 Norwegian municipalities (2006) Full cohorts of students Response rate: 85% Analyses of year-old girls Non-binge drinkers exluded Impulsivity (Plutnick 1989) : Sum score based on 6 items

14 Measures Incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) – past year : Been sexually assaulted without being able to resist because you were very drunk Frequency of intoxication past year Severe drunkenness - How often during the past year have you….. been so drunk that you could not stand upright? (motor impairment).. been somewhere without remebering how you got there? (blackout) Age at first alcohol intoxication Impulsivity (Plutnick 1989) : 6 items – sum-score Behaviours in relation to drinking – past year - Involved in fights - Vandalism - Drink driving - Voluntary sex that one later regretted Illegal drug use, Police contact due to delinqueny – past year Impulsivity (Plutnick 1989) : Sum score based on 6 items Composite measure Averaging the frequency of motor impairment and blackout

15 Prevalence of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) N=3832 N=3128 N=2702

16 Prevalence of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) 15 yr-olds: 57% 16 yr-olds: 63% 17 yr-olds: 76% 18 yr-olds: 83 % N=3832 N=3128 N=2702

17 The prevalence of ISA by indicators of heavy episodic drinking

18 Prevalence of ISA by age The result did not reflect age differences in the frequency of intoxication:

19 However, symptoms of severe drunkenness were inversely related to age The effect of age on ICA, taking severe drunkenness into account; BSE OR95% CI Age ** Age Severe drunkenness *** % of intoxication episodes involving.. Motor impairment Blackout 15 yrs yrs yrs yrs Mean freq. *** p< **p<0.01

20 However, symptoms of severe drunkenness were inversely related to age The effect of age on ICA, taking severe drunkenness into account; BSE OR 95% CI Age ** Age Severe drunkenness *** % of intoxication episodes involving.. Motor impairment Blackout 15 yrs yrs yrs yrs Mean freq. *** p< **p<0.01

21 Impulsivity and ISA Impulsivity *** Severe drunkenness *** Freq of intoxication / month 2-3 / month 1 / week 2+ / week * 2.65 *** 2.94 * Age BSEOR 95% CI Impulsivity *** % High level of impulsivity mean sumscore >2.5 (scale: ) *** p< *p<0.05

22 Early onset of drinking and ISA When controlling for the frequency of intoxication, severe drunkenness and age, the effect of early drinking onset on ISA remained significant: OR=1.62 ( ) BSEOR 95% CI Early intox. debut Severe drunkenness *** Freq of intoxication / month 2-3 / month 1 / week 2+ / week ** 2.59 * Age Impulsivity *** But adding ‘impulsivity’ to the model made a difference (∆ -2 log likelihood: 24.5 (1) p<0.0001) *** p< **p<0.01 *p<0.05

23 ISA and other alcohol-related problems: Differences between victims and non-victims

24

25 *** Different from non-victims; p>0.0001

26 Illegal drug use and police contact (delinquency) Differences between victims and non-victims of ISA *** Different from non-victims; p>0.0001

27 Concluding remarks ISA victimization is not a marginal phenomenon among teenage girls in Norway Due to their increased tendency to get severely drunk, the youngest teenagers have an elevated risk Impulsivity is related to ISA victimization, as is involvement in alcohol-related problem behaviours. Illegal drug use is more prevalent among victims than non-victims of ISA, does not reflect differences in alcohol use Cause and effect?


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