Presentation on theme: "To Tie the Knot or Not: A Case for Permanent Family Planning Methods Presented at the GH Mini-University Washington, D.C., October 8, 2010 By Lynn Bakamjian,"— Presentation transcript:
To Tie the Knot or Not: A Case for Permanent Family Planning Methods Presented at the GH Mini-University Washington, D.C., October 8, 2010 By Lynn Bakamjian, MPH Project Director, RESPOND/EngenderHealth
Reasons Why You Think… it is important to include female sterilization and vasectomy in family planning programs. that family planning programs do not give priority to female sterilization and vasectomy.
What are the state-of-the art permanent methods?
Female Sterilization Procedures Minilaparotomy under local anesthesia (with sedation and analgesia) Can be performed postpartum, post-abortion or interval Ambulatory procedure Highly effective (5.5 pregnancies/1,000 women after 1 year) Very safe; few restrictions
No-Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV): Small puncture; vas deferens pulled through skin, & ligated or cauterized Effectiveness comparable to other LA/PMs (effective after 3 months) Failure (pregnancy) rate 0.2-0.4%, but depends on skill of operator & compliance of client Very safe; few restrictions Fewer complications with NSV than with incisional technique
Five Important Characteristics Permanent: Need to ensure counseling and informed consent Require suitable service delivery settings and systems Provider-dependent Need medical equipment, instruments & expendable medical supplies Do not protect against STI/HIV infections
What is the status of use of permanent methods worldwide and regionally?
0 50 100 150 200 250 Year VasectomyFemale sterilization Number (in millions) 1982 1991 2001 2007 30 100 43 145 44 211 32 225 Sources: Contraceptive Sterilization: Global Issues and Trends, EngenderHealth, 2002; World Contraceptive Use 2005 [Wallchart] (UN 2005); Pile, J and Barone, M, “Demographics of Vasectomy,” Urologic Clinics of North America Worldwide Use of Sterilization: Estimated 1 in 4 Couples
~322.7Worldwide 0.511.8Oceania 4.110.3North America 2.82.9Europe 1.3 Latin America/Caribbean 22.53.0Asia 0.1 Africa Number of users (in millions) % of MWRA usingREGION Source: Urologic Clinics of North America, Aug 2009, 38/3, “Demographics of Vasectomy— USA and International,” Pile, J.M. and Barone, M. Regional Use of Vasectomy
Regional Use of Female Sterilization REGION % of MWRA using Number of users (in millions) Africa2.1 2.6 Asia24.1166.7 Latin America/Caribbean29.5 24.7 Europe4.8 5.1 North America24.5 11.1 Oceania20.8 0.9 World20.1 211.1
Contributions of Sterilization to Method Mix as Prevalence Rises (Selected Countries) J. Stover, Futures Institute, 2009
What are the key family planning program considerations— Who, where, how ?
è ↑ ↑ Access to services è ↑ ↑ Quality of services è ↑ ↑ Contraceptive choice and use Legal Time Socio-cultural norms Medical Cost Regulatory Gender Process Physical Inappropriate eligibility criteria Poor CPI Provider bias Knowledge Outcomes when barriers are overcome: Location Barriers to effective family planning services Program Design: Breaking Through the Wall
Breaking Through the Wall Intrinsic characteristics How these characteristics are perceived by system actors (clients, potential clients, providers, policymakers, program leaders): –Beneficial? In what way? “Prove it (in our setting)!” –Comparative advantage? –Compatible (with “our world,” & “the way we do things”?) –Simple?: easy to introduce, adopt, scale-up? –Can I try it out?
WHO? Who accepts: clients and potential clients –Reproductive intention: Limiters –(Accurate) knowledge of LA / PMs –Other variables with programmatic implications: >Age and parity / Marital status / Urban – rural / Income level –Costs and other barriers they face Who provides: level (cadre), gender, skills, motivation of providers –Need to factor in what makes providers behave, or change behavior in their given service setting and situation Who allows, facilitates, advocates –Sociocultural and community factors –Site and program factors and dynamics –Focus on early adopters Clients outside clinic in Bangladesh
WHERE? Level of facility Nature and dynamics of medical(ized) settings Rules, norms, guidelines, standards, receptivity Provider-level factors –Workforce complement (composition, readiness) –Workload –Deployment –Remuneration & “reward” Clinic staff in Tanzania
Service modalities and approaches –Fixed sites, daily; fixed sites, special days –Mobile outreach (many models) –Social marketing –Vouchers –Referral (to higher levels of facility) –Integration with other services (MCH, HIV) Timing of service delivery: –Related to pregnancy: postpartum / postabortion –Interval (at any other time) HOW? Clients waiting for Outreach Services in Tanzania
More HOW? Demand Creation: –Creating a positive image –Providing information on when and where to get services –Timing of information: decision-making takes time! –Dispelling myths and misconceptions
Communicate Messages Relevant to Men’s Concerns
Champions are Essential FP programs need to identify and nurture FP & vasectomy champions at all levels – policy, program, facility, provider and community.
Sterilization and Regret Regret: –Age at sterilization –Family size –Changed family circumstances –Number of male offspring –Timing of sterilization Lack of choice (of service) = different kind of regret: –Unintended pregnancy (with health consequences –Exceeding desired family size
Twin Pillars of Quality Sterilization Services Informed ChoiceMedical Safety
Conclusion: Improving Contraceptive Choice Saves Lives 215 Million women have an unmet need for family planning Addressing this need would prevent 53 million unintended pregnancies –25 million fewer abortions –150,000 fewer maternal deaths –600,000 children would not lose their mothers Source, PAI, The Key to Achieving the MDGs: Universal Access to FP and RH, Sept. 2010