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Inchoation of Emotions Shan Wang 1, 2, Chu-Ren Huang 1 1 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 2 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

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1 Inchoation of Emotions Shan Wang 1, 2, Chu-Ren Huang 1 1 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 2 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The 14th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop ( CLSW 2013 ), Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

2 Introduction 感情始动  Various emotions are common human feelings. Tremendous amount of work has been conducted to emotions in the fields of computational linguistics, linguistics, neurosciences, etc..  However, very few studies have concerned about the inchoation of emotions. This paper answers these questions:  Is there any linguistic evidence that indicates the inchoation of emotions?  How to collect and annotate suitable data?  Do different types of emotions differ in expressing inchoation?

3 Ways to Identify the Inchoation of Emotions  Chang et al. (2000) noticed that verbs of emotion can represent either a homogeneous state or an inchoative state. They used 了 le ‘perfective aspect’ to differentiate the two states. Chang et al. (2000  In (1), 高興 gāoxìng ‘happy’ is a homogenous state, while in (2) it is an inchoative state.  (1) 他 的 朋友 非常 高興。 (Sinica)  (2) 這時 我 又 高興 了 起來 。 (Sinica)

4 Ways to Identify the Inchoation of Emotions  Aspectualizers can be used to test the stage of an event (Freed 1979, Brinton 1988, Smith 1991, 1994).Freed 1979Brinton 1988Smith  開始 kāishǐ ‘begin’, 起來 qǐlái ‘literally stand up, meaning begin to ’, 中斷 zhōngduàn ‘interrupt’, 停止 tíngzhǐ ‘stop’, 結束 jiéshù ‘end’, and 完成 wánchéng ‘complete’ are common aspectualizers in Mandarin Chinese.  Out of them, 開始 kāishǐ ‘begin’ and 起來 qǐlái ‘literally stand up, meaning begin to; meaning begin to’ can illustrate the inchoation of an event (Chang 1994, Huang & Chang 1996).Chang 1994Huang & Chang 1996

5 Ways to Identify the Inchoation of Emotions  This paper applies the aspectualizers 開始 kāishǐ ‘begin’ and ( 不 ) 起來 (bù)qǐlái ‘literally (not) stand up, meaning (not) begin to’ to test the initiation of emotions.  (3) 不少 球迷 開始 傷心 。 (gigaword)  (3) is an instance of using 開始 kāishǐ ‘begin’ to represent inchoation.  (4) 談到 狗 , 阿杜 忍不住 難過 起來。 (gigaword)  (4) is an example of using 起來 qǐlái ‘literally stand up, meaning begin to’ to represent it.

6  Table 2. Verbs of Emotion with a Frequency of over 40 in Sinica Corpus happiness 快樂 kuàilè‘cheerful’ 高興 gāoxìng‘happy’ 愉快 yúkuài‘pleasant’ 樂 lè‘joy’ 喜悅 xǐyuè‘joyous’ 開心 kāixīn‘joyful’ 歡樂 huānlè‘gay’ 歡喜 huānxǐ‘joy’ 快活 kuàihuo‘merry’ 痛快 tòngkuài‘delighted’ depression 痛苦 tòngkǔ‘painful’ 難過 nánguò‘grieved’ 沉重 chénzhòng‘heavy’ 沮喪 jǔsàng‘depressed’ 痛心 tòngxīn‘distressed’ sadness 傷心 shāngxīn‘sad’ 悲傷 bēishāng‘sorrowful’ regret 遺憾 yíhàn‘regretful’ 後悔 hòuhuǐ‘repent ’ anger 生氣 shēngqì‘angry’ 氣 qì‘angry’ 憤怒 fènnù‘wrathful’ 氣憤 qìfèn‘indignant’ fear 怕 pà‘fear’ 害怕 hàipà‘be afraid’ 恐懼 kǒngjù‘fear’ 畏懼 wèijù‘awe’ worry 擔心 dānxīn‘worry’ 煩惱 fánnǎo‘trouble’ 擔憂 dānyōu‘be anxious’ 煩 fán‘bother’ 憂心 yōuxīn‘sorrow’ 苦惱 kǔnǎo‘distressed’

7 Annotation Guidelines  We used the emotion words in Chang et al. (2000) as keywords and collected all data in two structures:Chang et al. (2000  (i) 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' +emotion word, with window size as 5 tokens,  (ii) emotion word +( 不 ) 起來 (bù)qǐlái ‘literally (not) stand up, meaning (not) begin to’,  with window size as 1 token.

8 Inchoation of Emotions  Type A :  (a) happiness: 高興 ɡ āoxìn ɡ ‘happy’, 開心 kāixīn ‘joyful’, 痛快 tòn ɡ kuài ‘delighted’;  (b) depression: 難過 nán ɡ uò ‘grieved’, 痛心 tòn ɡ xīn ‘distressed’;  (c) sadness: 傷心 shān ɡ xīn ‘sad’;  (d) regret: 後悔 hòuhuǐ ‘regret’;  (e) anger: 生氣 shēn ɡ qì ‘angry’;  (f) fear: 害怕 hàipà ‘be afraid’ ;  (g) worry: 擔心 dānxīn ‘worry’, 擔憂 dānyōu ‘be anxious about’, 憂心 yōuxīn ‘sorrow'.

9 Inchoation of Emotions  Type B:  (a) happiness: 快樂 kuàilè ‘cheerful’, 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasant’, 喜悅 xǐyuè ‘joyous’, 歡樂 huānlè ‘gay’, 歡喜 huānxǐ ‘joy’, 快活 kuàihuo ‘merry’;  (b) depression: 痛苦 tòn ɡ kǔ ‘painful’, 沉重 chénzhòn ɡ ‘heavy’, 沮喪 jǔsàn ɡ ‘depressed’;  (c) sadness: 悲傷 bēishān ɡ ‘sorrowful’;  (d)regret: 遺憾 yíhàn ‘regretful’;  (e) anger: 憤怒 fènnù ‘wrathful’, 氣憤 qìfèn ‘indignant’;  (f) fear: 恐懼 kǒn ɡ jù ‘fear’, 畏懼 wèijù ‘awe’;  (g) worry: 煩惱 fánnǎo ‘trouble’, 苦惱 kǔnǎo‘distressed ’.

10 Inchoation of Emotions  Chang et al. (2000) find that Type A words are predominately inchoative, while Type B words are rarely like this. Chang et al. (2000  Our data as a whole supports this conclusion as shown in Table 5.  In total, there are 856 cases of Type A that express inchoative states, compared to only 148 cases of Type B.

11  Table 6. Total No. of Type A and Type B Emotions in both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus subtypeType A No.Type B No.Type A / Type B happiness depression sadness regret2800 anger fear worry TOTAL

12 Conclusions  This paper first proposed two aspectualizers 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' and ( 不 ) 起來 (bù) qǐlái ‘literally (not) stand up, meaning begin to’ to identify the inchoation of emotions, which is complementary to the 了 le ‘perfective aspect’ test in Chang et al. (2000).Chang et al. (2000  Then it introduced four guidelines for corpus data annotation. With a large data set from both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus, it re-examined the inchoative state of emotions.

13 Conclusions  It found that though in total Type A emotions outnumber Type B in expressing inchoation, depression and sadness of Type B have a higher tendency of being inchoative.

14 Acknowledgements  This work is supported by a General Research Fund (GRF) sponsored by the Research Grants Council (Project No ) and the studentship of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.  We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments.

15 Inchoation of Emotions Shan Wang 1, 2, Chu-Ren Huang 1 1 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 2 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The 14th Chinese Lexical Semantics Workshop ( CLSW 2013 ), Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

16 Outline  Introduction  Ways to Identify the Inchoation of Emotions  Data Collection  Annotation Guidelines  Inchoation of Emotions  Conclusions  Acknowledgements

17  Table 1. Verbs of Emotional Association with the Sentential Final Particle 了 le ‘perfective aspect’ Subtypes Type AType B Type A / Type B Words Frequen cy Words Freque ncy happiness 高興 gāoxìng‘happy’20 快樂 kuàilè‘cheerful’ depression 難過 nánguò‘grieved’9 痛苦 tòngkǔ‘painful’00 sadness 傷心 shāngxīn‘sad’2 悲傷 bēishān g ‘sorrowfu l’ regret 後悔 hòuhuǐ‘regret’7 遺憾 yíhàn‘regretful’00 angry 生氣 shēngqì‘angry’14 憤怒 fènnù‘wrathful’00 fear 害怕 hàipà‘be afraid’5 恐懼 kǒngjù‘fear’22.50 worry 擔心 dānxīn‘worry’6 煩惱 fánnǎo‘trouble’32.00

18 Data Collection  The data collected in this paper are taken from two corpora:  Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese (Sinica Corpus)  Chinese Gigaword Corpus (2 nd edition)

19 Annotation Guidelines  Chang et al. (2000) classified emotion verbs into seven subtypes, namely happiness, depression, sadness, regret, angry, fear, and worry. Chang et al. (2000  They identified a total of 33 verbs, each with a frequency of over 40 in Sinica Corpus as listed in Table 2.

20 Annotation Guidelines  (I) Disambiguate emotional words with multiple meanings.  For example, 生氣 shēngqì 'angry' is a homonym. Chinese WordNet divides it into 生氣 1 shēngqì 'angry' 1 and 生氣 2 shēngqì 'angry' 2 as shown in Table 3 and Table 4.

21  Table 3. Senses of 生氣 1 shēngqì 'angry' 1  生氣 1 ㄕㄥ ㄑㄧˋ shēngqì 'angry‘ 生氣 1 詞義 01 :不及物動詞, VH 領域 釋義 形容因不符合自己的心意而 產生不愉快的情緒。 語義關係 同義詞「氣 (0700) 」、「生 1(1510) 」 英文對譯 fume, V, 例句 1、1、 改到成績不好的同學,錯!錯!錯! 三十分,就令我很 。 2、2、 他從來不惹母親 ,有好吃的食 物總讓母親先吃,對母親非常孝順。 3、3、 總覺自己好像被社會欺瞞了些什麼, 這種隱約的感覺令她不由 起來。

22  Table 4. Senses of 生氣 2 shēngqì 'angry' 2  生氣 2 ㄕㄥ ㄑㄧˋ shēngqì 'angry' 生氣 2 詞義 01 :名詞, Na 領域 釋義 普通名詞。生物體所 具有的生命力。 語義關係 同義詞「生意 2(0120) 」 英文對譯 energy, N,, vitality 例句 1、1、 心中的抑鬱難以形容,生 命多采,失去她,彷彿一 切都沒有了 ! 2、2、 在我的認識中,她是個完 全坦率而 盎然的靈 魂,這些特質倒隱掩了她 嬌小的身型。 3、3、 歐威尼已從水源地用塑膠 管引水到部落,並在空地 開墾,種植小白菜、油菜 等,綠油油的顏色,增添 不少 。

23 Annotation Guidelines  Only 生氣 1 shēngqì 'angry' 1 has emotional meaning, while 生氣 2 shēngqì 'angry' 2 does not.  When we automatically collect the 生氣 shēngqì 'angry' sentences from Sinica Corpus, both 生氣 shēngqì 'angry' are included.  As both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus are not tagged with word senses, we must manually exclude 生氣 2 shēngqì 'angry' 2 from our study.

24 Annotation Guidelines  (II) Make clear the modifying relation between 開 始 kāishǐ 'begin' and the emotions.  在 羅布 林卡 工作 了 43年 的 扎西 對 羅布 林卡 開始 維修 感到 很 高興。 (gigaword)  開始 kāishǐ 'begin' modifies the common verb 維修 wéixiū ‘repair’ rather than the emotion 高興 gāoxìng ‘pleased’, so it is not the case we want.

25 Annotation Guidelines  (III) When an emotional word is in an adverbial position, it is not modified by 開始 kāishǐ 'begin'.  比賽 雙方 的 教練員 就 開始 愉快 地 接受 了 記者 的 採訪 。 (gigaword)  the emotion word 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasantly’ acts like an adverb that modifies 接受 jiēshòu ‘accept’. Thus 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' does modify 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasantly’ but 接受 jiēshòu ‘accept’. Such cases are not acceptable in this study.

26 Annotation Guidelines  (IV) When an emotion has an epistemic marker ahead, this paper treats 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' as modifying the emotion.  在 那 之後 , 我 就 上場 打球 , 而 當 我 發現 自己 必須 多一點 士氣 時 , 開始 感到 愉快 。 (gigaword)  感到 gǎndào ‘feel’ is an epistemic word, which is highly connected to the experiencer of the emotion 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasant’.  For such a case, we treat 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' as referring to the emotion 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasant’.

27 Inchoation of Emotions  Chang et al. (2000) further divide the words in Table 2 into Type A and Type B based on five criteria: Chang et al. (2000  (a) the distribution of its grammatical functions;  (b) its selectional restrictions when it functions as an adjunct;  (c) its occurrence in imperative and evaluative constructions;  (d) its verbal aspect or aktionsart;  (e) its transitivity.

28 Inchoation of Emotions  Type A :  (a) happiness: 高興 ɡ āoxìn ɡ ‘happy’, 開心 kāixīn ‘joyful’, 痛快 tòn ɡ kuài ‘delighted’;  (b) depression: 難過 nán ɡ uò ‘grieved’, 痛心 tòn ɡ xīn ‘distressed’;  (c) sadness: 傷心 shān ɡ xīn ‘sad’;  (d) regret: 後悔 hòuhuǐ ‘regret’;  (e) anger: 生氣 shēn ɡ qì ‘angry’;  (f) fear: 害怕 hàipà ‘be afraid’ ;  (g) worry: 擔心 dānxīn ‘worry’, 擔憂 dānyōu ‘be anxious about’, 憂心 yōuxīn ‘sorrow'.

29 Inchoation of Emotions  Type B:  (a) happiness: 快樂 kuàilè ‘cheerful’, 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleasant’, 喜悅 xǐyuè ‘joyous’, 歡樂 huānlè ‘gay’, 歡喜 huānxǐ ‘joy’, 快活 kuàihuo ‘merry’;  (b) depression: 痛苦 tòn ɡ kǔ ‘painful’, 沉重 chénzhòn ɡ ‘heavy’, 沮喪 jǔsàn ɡ ‘depressed’;  (c) sadness: 悲傷 bēishān ɡ ‘sorrowful’;  (d)regret: 遺憾 yíhàn ‘regretful’;  (e) anger: 憤怒 fènnù ‘wrathful’, 氣憤 qìfèn ‘indignant’;  (f) fear: 恐懼 kǒn ɡ jù ‘fear’, 畏懼 wèijù ‘awe’;  (g) worry: 煩惱 fánnǎo ‘trouble’, 苦惱 kǔnǎo‘distressed ’.

30 Inchoation of Emotions  Chang et al. (2000) find that Type A words are predominately inchoative, while Type B words are rarely like this. Chang et al. (2000  Our data as a whole supports this conclusion as shown in Table 5.  In total, there are 856 cases of Type A that express inchoative states, compared to only 148 cases of Type B.

31  Table 5. Inchoative State of Emotion in both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus Subtypes Type AType B WordsFrequencyWords Fre que ncy happiness 高興 ɡ āoxìn ɡ ‘happy’101 快樂 kuàilè ‘cheer ful’49 開心 kāixīn‘joyful’16 愉快 yúkuài ‘pleas ant’6 痛快 tòn ɡ kuài‘delighted ’0 喜悅 xǐyuè ‘joyou s’7 歡樂 huānlè‘gay’2 歡喜 huānxǐ‘joy’5 快活 kuàihuo‘merry’3 depression 難過 nán ɡ uò‘grieved’10 痛苦 tòn ɡ kǔ ‘painf ul’2 痛心 tòn ɡ xīn‘distressed’0 沉重 chénzhòn ɡ ‘heavy’28 沮喪 jǔsàn ɡ ‘depre ssed’4 sadness 傷心 shān ɡ xīn‘sad’1 悲傷 bēishān ɡ ‘sorro wful’6 regret 後悔 hòuhuǐ‘regret’28 遺憾 yíhàn ‘regret ful’0 anger 生氣 shēn ɡ qì‘angry’13 憤怒 fènnù ‘wrath ful’3 氣憤 qìfèn ‘indig nant’0 fear 害怕 hàipà‘be afraid’56 恐懼 kǒn ɡ jù‘fear’7 畏懼 wèijù‘awe’3 worry 擔心 dānxīn‘worry’530 煩惱 fánnǎo ‘troubl e’21 擔憂 dānyōu‘be anxious about’65 苦惱 kǔnǎo ‘distre ssed’2 憂心 yōuxīn‘sorrow’36 TOTAL

32 Inchoation of Emotions  However, when we added the total Number of each subtype, we noticed some differences in representing inchoative states as shown in Table 6.  When expressing depression, Type A is only 29% of Type B.  Similarly, the sadness group of Type A is only 17% of Type B.  Moreover, the worry group of Type A contributes a huge portion of the properties of Type A.

33 Inchoation of Emotions  The results indicate that Type B is more likely to have an inchoative state than Type A when it is a depressive or sad emotion.  This is due to the reason that such kind of negative emotions may easy be spotted.

34  Table 6. Total No. of Type A and Type B Emotions in both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus subtypeType A No.Type B No.Type A / Type B happiness depression sadness regret2800 anger fear worry TOTAL

35 Conclusions  This paper first proposed two aspectualizers 開始 kāishǐ 'begin' and ( 不 ) 起來 (bù) qǐlái ‘literally (not) stand up, meaning begin to’ to identify the inchoation of emotions, which is complementary to the 了 le ‘perfective aspect’ test in Chang et al. (2000).Chang et al. (2000  Then it introduced four guidelines for corpus data annotation. With a large data set from both Sinica Corpus and Gigaword Corpus, it re-examined the inchoative state of emotions.

36 Conclusions  It found that though in total Type A emotions outnumber Type B in expressing inchoation, depression and sadness of Type B have a higher tendency of being inchoative.

37 Acknowledgements  This work is supported by a General Research Fund (GRF) sponsored by the Research Grants Council (Project No ) and the studentship of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.  We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments.


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