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Из опыта работы Титоренко Н.А. PROJECT’ S WORK Gerund Its forms and functions.

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1 Из опыта работы Титоренко Н.А. PROJECT’ S WORK Gerund Its forms and functions

2 Gerund Its forms and functions authoresses: students of the 9 – th form Shevchenko Alina Gevlich Veronika 201 2

3 Герундий представляет собой неличную форму глагола, выражающую название действия и обладающую как свойствами существительного, так и свойствами глагола. В русском языке соответствующая форма отсутствует. Функции герундия во многом сходны с функциями инфинитива, также сочетающего свойства существительного со свойствами глагола. Герундий, однако, имеет больше свойств существительного, чем инфинитив.

4 Герундий образуется с помощью окончания – ing, прибавляемому с соответствующими орфографическими изменениями к инфинитиву глагола: to run – running, to live – living, to try – trying. Отрицательная форма герундия образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится перед формой герундия: for not coming in time – за то, что не пришла вовремя. Форма глагола, заканчивающаяся на -ing (например: writing, going) может быть в предложении причастием I либо герундием. Классификация –ing формы зависит от того, признаков какой части речи обнаруживается больше при ее использовании.

5 Свойства глаголаСвойства существительного 1. имеет видовременные формы 1. в предложении выполняет те же функции, что и существительное, а так же входить в состав составного сказуемого. 2. имеет формы залога2. в функции обстоятельства и определения имеет предлог. 3. может иметь прямое дополнение 3. может иметь определением местоимение или существительное в притяжательном падеже. 4. определяется наречиями

6 Видовременные формы герундия Действительный залог Страдательный залог Simple Asking (V+ing) Being asked (being + V3) Perfect Having asked (having + V3) Having been asked (having been + V3)

7 The list of the main words after which the gerund is used: verbs Verbs: to enjoy to excuse to recommend to suggest to deny to regret to forgive to admit to appreciate to complete to delay to discuss to keep to mention to quit, to risk to avoid to practice to postpone to imagine to mind to finish

8 I enjoy celebrating Christmas with my friends. Does the teacher excuse your being late for lessons? My sister didn’t forgive my spending all the money on computer games. The teacher appreciated my preparing for the contest. They completed building a new ring road. Have you finished doing your room? We decided to delay going for a holiday. We discussed entering a different university. They kept laughing all the time. I’d like to mention his being there before. He had to quit playing this game. Why don’t risk trying it once more. I recommend giving up this bad habit. My father suggests going to Australia?

9 Verbs + preposition: to think of to dream of to complain of to suspect of to accuse of to praise for to blame for to apologize for to go on to object to to look forward to to keep on to be accustomed to to be ashamed of to be concerned about to be excited about to engaged in to be in/capable of to be sure of to be surprised of to be interested in to be fond of to be/get used to to depend on to insist on to congratulate on to be responsible for to be afraid of to be tired of to be sure of to be proud of to succeed in to give up to speak of

10 I feel incapable of lying to her. She is always sure of being right. I’m surprised at his being so rude. Are you interested in organizing this meeting? He was responsible for delivering the mail. He is always afraid of getting stuck in the traffic jam. We are tired of complaining about the service. They were sure of coming on time. I was extremely proud of getting the first prize. She has always been fond of playing the piano. I’m used to being alone.

11 Prepositions: afterAfter entering a college she worked as a secretary. ononOn ironing a shirt he cleaned his shoes beforeBefore getting married he worked for his father. bybyHe earned his money by working day and night. withoutHe translates articles without using a dictionary. besidesBesides learning English he learns German. forThis medicine is for loosing weight. in spite ofIn spite of being sick he came to the office. instead ofInstead of going home he went to the cinema.

12 Word combinations: to be worthThis script is worth reading can’t help I couldn’t help laughing when I heard that story. to feel like I don’t feel like doing my room today. to make progress inAre you making progress in learning English?

13 Verbs that can be followed either by the infinitive or the gerund with the difference in meaning: Remember + ing – помню как (процесс). I remember meeting him for the first time five years ago Remember + to – не забудь. I must remember to meet him at the station next Saturday. To forget + ing – забыл как / что (действие произошло) (процесс). Jake completely forgot buying two pounds of sugar the day before. Forget +to – забыл (действие не произошло)/ Jake forgot to buy sugar although I reminded him twice about it Stop + ing – перестань. “Stop talking Stop + to – остановиться (с целью что-то сделать). They stopped to talk the matter in detail. проблему. Regret +to – Сожалеть (о действии, которое происходит сейчас или произойдёт в будущем)/ I regret to tell you that I’m leaving. Regret + ing – сожалеть (о действии, которое уже произошло) I regret telling you that I’m leaving.

14 Exercises I. Finish the sentences: I’m thinking of…. I’m dreaming of…. Parents often complain of… He was accused of…. I don’t mind…. I suggest… I’d like to postpone… After entering the university…. Before getting married… On ironing shirts… Besides visiting museums…. In spite of having good memory… Instead of going home…. I’d like to go on… Why do you refuse… I congratulate you on… He succeeded in… We apologized for… The teacher praised us for… Are you making progress in….

15 Exercises I loved her. When I saw him dressed in a funny costume I couldn’t stop ______ (laugh). Do remember ______(bring) something interesting to read. I regret _____(tell) you that the airline ticket costs several hundred dollars. I will never forget ______ (see) you ride a horse for the first time. Why do you always stop _____ (look) in every shop window we pass? I can’t remember ______(post) the letter yesterday. He forgot _____(take) his bag It’s been left on the table

16 II. Translate into Russian: 1. По прибытии в Бостон, он зарезервировал комнату в гостинице. 2. Я не привык, чтобы на меня кричали. 3. Извините, что я Вас перебиваю. 4. Я занят тем, что присматриваю за ребёнком. 5. Он возражает против того, чтобы я здесь курил. 6. Спасибо, что написали мне длинное письмо. 7. Ваше предложение нуждается в рассмотрении. 8. Я помню посещение Рима прошлым летом. 9. Перестань шуметь, пожалуйста. 10. Я думал о том, чтобы сменить работу, но потом отказался от этой идеи. 11. Она не ответила на звонок, и продолжала обедать. 12. Я не мог не смеяться, когда он уронил свою тарелку.

17 III. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets: Don’t forget _________(wear) gloves. It is cold outside. She remembers _________ (go) to the concert once. I always regret _________(not, tell) my grandmother how much I loved her. When I saw him dressed in a funny costume I couldn’t stop ______ (laugh). Do remember ______(bring) something interesting to read. I regret _____(tell) you that the airline ticket costs several hundred dollars. I will never forget ______ (see) you ride a horse for the first time. Why do you always stop _____ (look) in every shop window we pass? I can’t remember ______(post) the letter yesterday. He forgot _____(take) his bag It’s been left on the table.

18 IV. Choose the correct item: My mother objected _______ a dog in the house. to having c) about having to have d) have I’m busy ______ for my exam which is next week. to study c) on studying studying d) study His boss blamed him ______ the deal. for loosing c) lose about loosing d) to lose I got used _____ in such a hot country. live c) living to live d) to living I’ve always dreamt ______ my own business. for opening c) about opening open d) of opening He is complaining ______ too much trouble with this problem. to have c) with having about having d) have Students are excited _________ to the party. of going c) with going go d) about going I hope you have good excuse ______ so late. to be c) of being for being d) be She felt tired because she wasn’t used _____ so hard. to working c) for working to work d) work I couldn’t help_ him. laugh at c) laughing at laugh on d) having laughed at

19 V. Comment on the following proverbs and quotations, state the function of the gerund Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing him. – Выбирая друга – не торопись, тем более не торопись менять его. Seeing is believing. – Пока не увижу – не поверю (Cобственные глаза – лучший свидетель). You can’t make an omelet without breaking eggs. – Работая, мы учимся. Doing is better than saying. – Хорошие дела – лучше хороших слов. A crow is never white for washing herself often. – Чёрную душу мылом не отмоешь. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. – После боя – руками не машут. Clean hands need no washing. – На воре и шапка горит. What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing. (Aristotle) The use of travelling is to regulate imagination reality, and instead of thinking how things may be, to see them as they are. (S. Johnson) Life is one long process of getting tired. (S. Butler) Here is one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that’s your own self. (A. Haxley) It’s wiser being good than bad; It’s safer being meek than fierce: It’s fitter being sane than mad. (R. Browning) There is nothing more tragic in life than the utter impossibility of changing what you have done. (J. Galsworthy) We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, while others judge us by what we have already done. (H. W. Longfellow)

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