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English Grammar I Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative.

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Presentation on theme: "English Grammar I Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Grammar I Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative

2 2 9.1 Gerund Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs used as a noun. They can be either used as a subjects or an object. When a gerund is used as a subject, it is always singular and has to be followed by the third-person- singular form of the verb.

3 3 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Having good study habits is important for students. Regular exercising is good for your health. I don’t mind washing the dishes every day. My son enjoys swimming in the sea.

4 4 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Verbs following by a gerund: A gerund is often used as the object of a certain verb. Words that have to be followed by gerunds are listed in the table 9.1. Table 9.1: Verbs following by a gerund:

5 5 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative admitavoid can’t help celebrate delaydenydiscussdislike enjoyexplainfeel likefinish imaginekeepmindmiss postponepracticeprohibitquit recommendregretreportresist

6 6 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Do you mind taking out the garbage? My husband dislikes playing golf. Chris enjoys listening to jazz.

7 7 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Special usage of Gerunds: 1) Gerunds can be the objectives of prepositions. My father gave up smoking two years ago. Ben is thinking of studying abroad after graduation. My parents are used to going mountain climbing on Saturday. We are looking forward to serving you again.

8 8 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 2) The preposition “by” following a gerund is often used to express how a thing is done. You can learn new words by memorizing them. You can lose weight by exercising.

9 9 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 3) The word “go” is followed by a gerund: We go hiking every Saturday morning. People go snorkeling in Kenting National Park in summer. We went skiing in Korea last winter. 4) How about, what about is followed by a gerund How about having a drink after work? What about playing golf this weekend?

10 10 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 5) It is no use + gerund. It is no use crying over spilt milk. It is no use arguing with Mom. 6) I have trouble (difficulty, a hard time, problem) +gerund. She has difficulty writing a correct English essay. I have a hard time working with her.

11 11 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 7) It is worthy+ gerund. The novel is worthy reading. The movie is worthy watching. 8) S(thing) +need+ gerund. My car needs washing. Her scooter needs repairing. 9) We also use “ing” clause after the following words (sense verbs) : see, hear, watch, notice, observe, smell, listen to, find, feel, and look at.

12 12 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative I saw John crossing the road. I saw John cross the road. I heard someone playing the piano in the classroom. I heard someone play the piano in the classroom. The police found a homeless lying on the sidewalk. The police found a homeless lay on the sidewalk.

13 13 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Exercise A: Complete each sentence with correct answer. 1. I do mind ______ (drive) such a long distance to work. 2. Sandra very much enjoys ______ ( listen) to classical music. 3. Why do you keep on _____ (look) at me like that? 4. I considered ______ ( quit) the boring job.

14 14 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 5. Could you wash the dishes when you finish ________ ( eat)? 6. If you cross the street without ______( look), you’ll be run over by a car. 7. You are going to practice ______( play) the piano every day if 8. you want to get the certificate. 9. It’s hot today. We feel like _____ ( go) swim in the sea.

15 15 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 9.2 Infinitive An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb. It may function as a noun an adjective, or an adverb. In the negative sentence, the negative word “not” precedes the infinitive.

16 16 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative To cheat is wrong. (subject) Everyone wants to go to the party. (object) We must study to learn. (adverb) My parents tell me not to swim in the rivers.

17 17 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Verbs following by infinitives 1) Verbs that have to be followed by an infinitive are listed in the table 9.2. Table 9.2: Verbs following by infinitives

18 18 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative afforddemandhappenprefer agreedeserveintendprepare arrangedesirelearnpretend askexpectmeanrefuse carefailneedseem chooseforgetofferswear decidegetplanvow

19 19 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative June promised to come home by eight. Ricardo deserves to have a better life. Carrie has already agreed to marry Harry. The witness swore to tell the truth.

20 20 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Verbs that have to be followed by an object and infinitive are listed in the table 9.3. Table 9.3: Verbs following by an object and infinitive

21 21 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative advisegetpermitteach allowhireprefertell askintendpreparetrain chooseinvitepromisewant encourageneedremindwarn expectmeanrequestwish forceorderrequirewould like

22 22 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Tyler told his son not to hang out with his classmates after school. Miss Lin encourage Alex to study abroad. They wanted us to leave.

23 23 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Special usage of Infinitives: 1) “It” is often used to start an infinitive sentence. To learn a new language is not so difficult.  It is not so difficult to learn a new language. Walking to the station takes about ten minutes.  It takes about ten minutes to walk to the station.

24 24 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 2) Infinitives can be used after adjectives to express feelings. These adjectives are: afraid, glad, pleased, surprised, shocked, happy, anxious, sad, sorry, and delighted. I am delighted to see you here. She is anxious to go back to her hometown.

25 25 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 3) Subject + be verb + too+ adjective + ( for +person) + infinitive Mrs. Black is too weak to walk. Manuel is too young to be a father. It is too late for you to go out alone.

26 26 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 4) Subject + be + adjective + enough +infinitive Courtney is old enough to go to school. Shawn was not tall enough to play basketball. The curtains are not long enough to reach the floor.

27 27 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 5) Sometimes “to” function as a preposition, therefore, it has to be followed by a gerund. look forward to We are looking forward to hearing from you. prefer…. to Bryan prefers swimming to jogging.

28 28 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative be used to Are you used to going to Taipei by plane? object to Why did you object to working overtime?

29 29 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Verbs following either by gerunds or infinitives Verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or a gerund with the same meaning are listed in the table 9.4

30 30 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Table 9.4: Verbs can be followed by either infinitives or gerunds We like to go mountain climbing on Saturday morning. We like going mountain climbing on Saturday morning. lovelikehate beginstartcan’t stand

31 31 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Verbs following by either an infinitive or a gerund with different meaning forget: forget +ing: forget something that happened in the past I forgot mailing the letter. I mailed the letter but afterwards I didn’t remember.

32 32 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative forget: forget + to: forget to do a duty or something I forgot to mail the letter. I planned to mail the letter but I didn’t.

33 33 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative remember: remember+ ing: remember something that happened in the past remember+ to: remember to perform duty or task I remembered buying this book in your store. Remember to tell her I called.

34 34 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative stop: stop + ing: stopping doing something stop + to: stopping doing one thing to do another thing The doctor asked Mr. Green to stop smoking. (Not to smoke anymore) Those workers must stop to take a rest. (stop work in order to take a rest)

35 35 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative regret regret+ ing: regret something that happened in the past regret+ ed: to inform someone of a piece of bad news I regretted telling her the truth. She decided to break up with me. I regret to tell you that your father died in that serious car accident.

36 36 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Exercise: Infinitive 1. After the movie, we hope _______ (get) some coffee at StarBucks. 2. Are you planning _____ (go) to the party? 3. Sally expects _______ (pass) the test tomorrow. 4. Some students put off _______ (do) their homework later.

37 37 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 5. Allen always remembers ________ (turn) off the light before leaving his room. 6. When we finish ______ (drink) coffee, we will go home. 7. The teacher said I was not old enough __________ (join) the team. 8. Victor is always the first _____ (arrive) and he is proud of it. 9. My teacher told me ______ (not give up).

38 38 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 9.3 Causative Verbs Causative verbs are used when people do not perform the actions themselves. But they are responsible for the actions being performed. Causative verbs include have, let, make, and get.

39 39 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Have: “have” means to give someone the responsibility to do something. There are two basic structures. One is active, the other is passive. The structure of the former is: have + person + verb. The structure of the latter is: have + thing + participle I had my toilet fixed this morning. I had a plumber fix the toilet this morning.

40 40 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Get: “get” has the same meaning with “have”. There are two basic structures, too. One is active, the other is passive. The structure of the former is: get + person + to verb. The structure of the latter is: get + thing + participle. Mrs. Green got the kids to go to bed early. Mrs. Green got the lawn mowed.

41 41 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Make: “make” means to force someone to do something. There are two basic structures. One is active, the other is passive. In Active Voice, “make” is followed by a verb. In passive voice, infinitive is used. Don’t make me fight with you. Megan was made to sing an English song in oral class.

42 42 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative I make this CD player work. I can make your son work part time on weekends.

43 43 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Let: “let” means allow someone to do something. There is only active structure and the structure is : let + person + verb word You should let the students take a break. Will you let me use your car?

44 44 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative Exercise: Complete each sentence with correct causative verb: 1. Victor’s mother doesn’t _____________ him have a dog. 2. I am unable to __________my children clean their own room. 3. Miss Chang ______ each of us to make a sentence with “not only…but also”

45 45 Unit 9: Gerund, Infinitive and Causative 4. Miss Chang ___________ her students use a dictionary during the test. 5. Mrs. White doesn’t _____________ her children watch TV. She thinks it is a waste of time. 6. The manager ___________ his secretary make a cup of coffee for him. 7. The bank robbers _________ the customers lie on the floor.


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