Contents: Verbs - adjectives Helping and Modal Auxiliary Verbs Verbs + other verbs Causative verbs
Verbs Can Become Adjectives Words that are normally verbs can often be used as adjectives. If a word modifies a noun or pronoun, it is an adjective, even if that word is usually associated with a different part of speech.
《 Practice 》 1. Many kind carpenters offered to repair the broken porch. 2. Never kiss a smiling crocodile. 3. My father prefers to drink filtered spring water. 4. This isn’t chocolate ice cream; it’s frozen chocolate milk! 5. The fallen leaves covered the new driveway. 6. She was happy to find the translated version of the book. 7. The sleeping dog’s snoring was louder than a train. 8. I’d rather eat at a recently inspected restaurant. 9. Are you just hoping it will happen or is it a done deal? 10. Mary forgot to bring her new fishing pole. 1.present participle (V-ing)A rolling stone gathers no moss. 2.past participle (V-ed)I will accept a written apology. smile filter freeze fall translate break sleep inspect do fish
Helping and Modal Auxiliary Verbs 助動詞與語氣助動詞 用來表達時間和語氣的狀態
Modal VUsagesExamples can 表示能力 (= be able to) The robot can sing. The machine can’t work. 否定推測 It can’t be true. Permission (polite)Can you please help me? could Past ability People couldn’t do that in the past. He could not send a fax until he were trained. Permission (polite) Could you please help me? Could you come in, please? possibilityThe number could be incorrect. may possibilityIt may rain tomorrow. 目的 She works hard so that she may succeed. Permission (polite)You may go there now. May I smoke here? Yes, you may. might may 的過去式 Sandy worked hard so that she might pass the test. 假設法 If you were lazy, you might fail. Common Modal Verbs
shall 未來將發生之事 (instead of “will”) I shall never forget you. Shall we dance? should shall 的過去式 I told him that I should see him the next day. 表示建議 advisability 責任 logical conclusion You should see a doctor. You should brush teeth before you go to bed. will 未來將發生之事 future Polite request Polite refusal My sister will meet us at the airport. Will you come tomorrow? I will not be able to accept your invitation. would will 的過去式 I said I would do it. polite request and refusal Would you please open the door? Would you be available for a meeting at 3? past habit He would often get up early. He would park in the same location every day. 1. Would that … = I wish that ( 但願 ) Would that I were young again. 2. would like to + V ( 想要..) I would like to see her. 3. would rather + V ( 寧願..) I would rather go home. 4. would rather + V.. than + V ( 寧願.. 而不..) I’d rather die than suffer.
must 表示必要性 Necessity Probability Authority / requirement You must have a passport. Everyone must register at the door. have tonecessity We have to pick up the files before the meeting. had to 表示過去必要性 I had to study last night. ought to 應該 必須 obligation (spoken English) ought to + V ought to + P.P. We ought to obey the law. They ought to be more positive in their response. You ought to have told me that. ( 應該.. 但並沒做 )
Verb + other Verbs 動詞與動詞的連接 It often happens, when writing or speaking in English, that you need two or more verbs, one after another. When this is the case, there are often questions about the form of the second (third, etc.) verb.
1. V-to-V In English, verbs often connect to other verbs by using to: Ex: I need to try to continue to work very hard. There are many English verbs that connect to other verbs in this way.
Here are some of the most common ones: afford agree appear arrange ask attempt be beg begin care choose claim consent continue can't bear can't stand decide demand deserve desire expect fail forget get hate hesitate hope Intend learn like love manage mean need offer opt plan prefer prepare pretend profess promise refuse regret remember seem start stop strive struggle swear tend threaten try venture volunteer wait want wish would like yearn Underlined words may also be followed by a gerund (an -ing form).
Special Notes: To make verbs connected by to negative, use an auxiliary + not for the first verb, but make the "connected" verbs negative by using only not: He doesn't (didn't, won't) need to try to continue to work so hard. He hasn't (hadn't) needed to try to continue to work so hard. He needs to try not to continue to work so hard. He needs to try to continue not to work so hard.
Some of the verbs above have special meanings or uses when they follow to: be to ( + verb) = be expected to + verb get to ( + verb) = be permitted to + verb opt to ( + verb) = choose to + verb You're to be here no later than 10:30 AM. It's too bad that you didn't get to go to the party. He opted to take an early-morning flight so that he could get a lower price.
Some of the verbs above have different meanings when they are followed by to + verb and when they are followed by a verb + -ing: regret to (v) = be sorry to (v) regret (v-ing) = be sorry about (v-ing) remember to (verb) = not forget to (v) remember (v-ing) = have a memory of (v-ing) stop to (v) = stop in order to (verb) stop (v-ing) = quit (v-ing) / no longer (v).
2. V-O-to-V advise allow ask beg cause challenge command convince dare encourage expect forbid force get hire instruct invite like need order permit persuade promise remind require teach tell urge want warn would like Only a relatively small number of verbs can be used in this way. Here are some common ones:
Examples: I asked him to tell her to see me. We encouraged them to try to do their best. He persuaded her to allow him to invite Bob to the party. She urged me to try to make a doctor's appointment.
Special notes: (1) “advise” may also be followed by a gerund (-ing form). (2) The negative for constructions with V + O + to + V is auxiliary + not + the first verb, or not + to + the verb after the object I didn't want her to tell him. We haven't asked them to do anything wrong. They didn't tell me to do that. I told her not to do that. He'd begged her not to leave him. We warned them not to stay in the sun too long.
(3). Some of the verbs in the list above have special meanings and uses: get (object) to (verb) = persuade (object) to (verb); like (object) to (verb) = like it when (object) (verb) would like (object) to (verb) = want (object) to (verb) I got Bill to agree to work late today. She likes her students to call her Ms. Markham. I'd like you to help me, if you have time. (4). When dare is used with an object + to + another verb, the meaning is special: I dared him to do it. = I tried to persuade him to do it by teasing him and suggesting that he couldn't do it.
3. V-O-V The verbs let, help, make, and have can be used in an unusual way: they can be followed by an object and the base form of a verb. Did anyone help you write this report? Bob's father made him apologize to his sister. Please have someone clean up this mess!
Causative Verbs ( 使役動詞 ) Causative verbs designate the action necessary to cause another action to happen.
In "The devil made me do it." the verb "made" causes the "do" to happen. Here is a brief list of causative verbs, in no particular order: let, help, allow, have, require, allow, motivate, get, make, convince, hire, assist, encourage, permit, employ, force. Most of them are followed by an object (noun or pronoun) followed by an infinitive: She allows her pet cockatiel to perch on the windowsill. She hired a carpenter to build a new birdcage.“ Instead of being followed by a noun/pronoun and an infinitive, the causative verbs have, make and let are followed by a noun/pronoun and the base form of the verb (which is actually an infinitive with the "to" left off).
Make make + sb. + V ="to force someone to do something." The teacher made John get his book in the office. Father makes me go to the music show tomorrow afternoon. She made her children do their homework.
Have Have + sb. + V = "to give someone the responsibility to do something“ or “to make arrangements” Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. Please have your secretary fax me the information. I had the mechanic check the brakes.
Let Let + sb. + V = "to allow someone to do something.“ “to permit” Will your boss let you leave work early? = Will your boss permit you to leave work early? = Will your boss allow you to leave work early? John let me drive his new car. Will your parents let you go to the party? I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off.
Get Get + sb. + to + V = "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something." Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. How can parents get their children to read more? The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking. Sometimes "get someone to do something" is interchangeable with "have someone do something," but these expressions do not mean exactly the same thing. I got the mechanic to check my brakes. (At first the mechanic didn't think it was necessary, but I convinced him to check the brakes. ) I had the mechanic check my brakes. (I asked the mechanic to check the brakes. )
Help The verb help can be used with or without "to“, but many prefer it without to, especially in writing. Using “to” is more common in British English: Help Jim (to) clean up the mess. Our teacher helped us (to) practice singing. Judy helped me finish my assignment. (preferred by many for writing) Judy helped me to finish my assignment. (sometimes heard in speaking)
Practice - make / have / let / get 1. Professor Yu ______ each of her students write an essay describing their future goals in life. 2. Marcus ______ me drive his new BMW. I couldn't believe how quickly it picked up speed. 3. Tommy didn't want to go to his cousin's birthday party, but his mom _______ him go. 4. I can't believe the zoo keeper ______ you feed the snake. 5. Cheryl didn't want to wash her car, so with a little smooth talk she ______ her boyfriend to wash it for her. 6. Dr. Jackson ______ the nurse monitor the patient's condition overnight. 7. Mr. Wang ______ his secretary call Mr. Lu and reconfirm their meeting on Thursday. 8. Debbie's husband hates the opera. But after days of nagging, she finally ______ him to go see the latest one.
Causative V + O + to V (O) I allowed Jim to clean up the mess. I asked Jim to clean up the mess. I told Jim to clean up the mess. I persuaded Jim to clean up the mess. I really have to force myself to be pleasant to him. You can't force her to make a decision.
Causative V that S + V I insisted that Laura do her homework. I suggested that Laura do her homework. I recommended that Laura do her homework.
Other examples The officer commanded his men to shoot. He commanded that the troops (should) cross the water. Please remind me to post this letter. I rang Jill and reminded her (that) the conference had been cancelled. Lawyers will urge the parents to take further legal action. Investigators urged that safety procedures at the site should be improved.
We requested that the next meeting be held on a Friday. I demand to see the manager. She demanded that he return the books he borrowed from her. Bringing up children often requires you to put their needs first. You are required by law to stop your car after an accident. The rules require that you bring only one guest to the dinner. You should ask your accountant to give you some financial advice. We ask that any faulty goods should be returned in their original packaging.
4. V-O-PP Two verbs, have and get, can be used in a special way: She has her car washed every week. She gets her car washed every week. He's having his blood pressure checked. He's getting his blood pressure checked. I have to have my car fixed. I have to get my car fixed. They've had their house painted. They've gotten their house painted. (Someone washes her car.)
5. V-V-ing admit advise anticipate appreciate avoid begin can't bear can't stand can't help complete consider continue delay deny discuss dislike enjoy finish forget hate keep keep on like love mention mind miss postpone practice prefer quit recall recollect recommend regret remember resent resist risk start stop suggest try tolerate understand Underlined words may also be followed by to +a verb. Others (advise, like, prefer, understand) may be followed by an object + to + verb.
Special notes: To make verbs in the pattern verb + gerund negative, use an auxiliary + not for the first verb, but make the "connected" -ing verbs negative by using only not: I don't advise being late for work. I advise not being late for work. She doesn't enjoy working. She enjoys not working.
The verbs bear, help, and stand are normally used with can't in negative situations: He can't bear waiting in line. She can't stand cleaning the bathroom. He can't help being late.
Some of the verbs in the list above have different meanings when they are followed by to + verb and when they are followed by an -ing verb : regret (-ing verb) = be sorry about (-ing verb) regret (to verb) = be sorry (to verb). remember (-ing verb) = have a memory of (-ing verb) remember (to verb) = not forget (to verb). stop (to verb) = stop in order (to verb) stop (verbing) = quit (verbing) / no longer (verb).
Gerunds (-ing forms) are also used after prepositions and phrasal verbs: I put off doing my work. She's counting on getting a raise. We look forward to seeing you this weekend! He'll see about borrowing some money.
6. V-O-Ving A small number of verbs (the verbs of perception) can be used in the pattern V-ing V OR V + O + V. feel hear listen to look at notice observe see smell watch I felt the room moving. I felt the room move. We heard her playing her violin. We heard her play her violin. She noticed him leaving. She noticed him leave. He smelled his dinner burning. He smelled his dinner burn.
Special notes: In the Verb + Object + gerund pattern, the gerund generally shows the same meaning that is shown by while + a clause with an -ing verb: I felt the room moving. = I felt the room while it was moving. He smelled his dinner burning. = He smelled his dinner while it was burning.
Although there is often no difference in meaning between Verb + Object + Gerund and Verb + Object + Verb, this is not always true. When there is a difference in meaning, the gerund suggests that its action was in progress from beginning to end, while this is not suggested by the base form: She noticed him leaving. (She noticed him from the time that he began to leave until he had gone.) She noticed him leave. (She noticed him at the time that he left.) We watched the L.A. Lakers playing the championship game. (We watched all of the championship game that the L.A. Lakers played.) We watched the L.A. Lakers play the championship game. (We watched some of the championship game that the L.A. Lakers played.)