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Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Outline Affect –Definition of affect –Moods and consumer behavior –Emotions and consumer behavior Motivation –Definition.

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Presentation on theme: "Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Outline Affect –Definition of affect –Moods and consumer behavior –Emotions and consumer behavior Motivation –Definition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Outline Affect –Definition of affect –Moods and consumer behavior –Emotions and consumer behavior Motivation –Definition of motivation –Direction of behavior toward goals –Intensity of goal pursuit and involvement –The means-end chain approach to consumer motivation

2 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Affect affect can be defined as a valenced feeling state; two kinds of affective states may be distinguished: –moods: –emotions:

3 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Mood and consumer behavior mood effects on memory: –material that is congruent with a person’s mood at encoding or retrieval is remembered better than other information; –the match between mood at encoding and mood at retrieval enhances memory (state-dependent memory); mood effects on judgments: a person’s mood state may bias evaluations of stimuli in a mood- congruent direction (see Schwarz and Clore); mood effects on behavior: –good mood may increase the likelihood that a person will perform certain behaviors (esp. pro-social behaviors);

4 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation The weather, mood, and life satisfaction (Schwarz and Clore) people were supposedly called from out of town and asked about their life satisfaction, current mood, and possibly the weather; sunny or rainy weather had the predicted effect on current mood (means of 7.5 vs. 5.4 on a 10-point scale); people evaluated their life more positively when they were interviewed on sunny than on rainy days, reflecting their mood at the time of judgment (means of 6.57 vs. 4.86); however, when the interview started with the question, “How’s the weather down there?” people called on rainy days were equally satisfied with their life as people called on sunny days (6.71 vs. 6.79);

5 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Conceptualization of emotions the dimensional approach: –emotional experiences can be described in terms of a few underlying dimensions (e.g., pleasure-displeasure and degree of arousal or intensity as in the circumplex model of emotions); the categorical approach: –emotional experiences can be classified into a limited number of “basic” emotions;

6 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Russell’s circumplex model of emotions argument that emotions can be arranged in roughly a circular order around the perimeter of a two-dimensional space de- fined by two axes: pleasure-displeasure and degree of arousal; alarmed afraid tenseangry distressed annoyed frustrated miserabledepressed sad gloomy bored droopy tired sleepy relaxed at ease calm serene content satisfied pleased happy glad delighted excited astonished aroused

7 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Ads and autobiographical memories (Sujan, Bettman and Baumgartner) Ss were exposed to an ad for Callaway wine; the ad either encouraged Ss to form an impression of the advertised brand in the context of an autobiographical memory or no such encouragement was provided (autobiographical retrievals); in addition, the ad either associated or did not associate the advertised brand with special occasions (brand link); after looking at the ad, Ss engaged in a thought-listing task, evaluated the ad and the brand, and rated their affective state during exposure to the ad on 27 positive and negative feeling measures;

8 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Ads and autobiographical memories (cont’d) Results: an autobiographical retrieval cue led to a focus of thoughts on autobiographical episodes rather than product features and higher levels of net positive affect; encouraging the retrieval of autobiographical memories resulted in more favorable ad evaluations; encouraging the retrieval of autobiographical memories increased brand evaluations more strongly when a link was forged between the brand and the memory; no retrieval cue retrieval cue AbAb brand link present brand link absent

9 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Regret and disappointment / dissatisfaction Regret : consumers are displeased with a purchase because the alternative they selected turned out to be inferior to another alternative that they considered but didn’t choose; usually associated with self-blame; opposite is rejoicing; Disappointment/dissatisfaction : consumers are displeased with a purchase because their pre-purchase expectations were not met (i.e., the performance of the product or service was worse than expected); sometimes associated with other-blame; opposite is elation or satisfaction;

10 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Consequences of regret and satisfaction (Tsiros and Mittal) 2 (outcome valence of chosen brand: positive vs. negative) x 2 (outcome of chosen brand compared to forgone outcome: better vs. worse) x 2 (brand choice: Compaq vs. Dell); description of a laptop purchase: Paul chose a Compaq (Dell) and has had (no) problems with his laptop, whereas his friend George chose a Dell (Compaq) and has had a great (bad) experience with his laptop; measures of regret: Paul feels sorry for choosing a Compaq laptop, regrets choosing a Compaq laptop, feels he should have chosen a Dell laptop; measures of (dis)satisfaction: Paul is happy with Compaq’s performance, is satisfied with Compaq’s performance, is disappointed with Compaq’s performance;

11 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Consequences of regret and satisfaction (cont’d) Regret Satisfaction Repurchase intentions Complaint intentions

12 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Motivation in the most general sense, motivation is concerned with the determinants of human behavior; two questions: –direction: what motivates consumers to act? –intensity: how strongly motivated are consumers to act?

13 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Direction of motivation goals give behavior direction; goals may be conscious or subconscious; the focal goal is embedded in a goal hierarchy  how is the focal goal to be attained?  why is the chosen course of action pursued? values as very high-level goals;

14 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Values abstract goals that represent guiding principles of people’s lives are usually called values; different approaches to conceptualizing and measuring values: –Rokeach Value Survey (Rokeach 1973): 18 instrumental values (preferred modes of conduct) 18 terminal values (preferred end states of being); –List of Values (Kahle 1983): 9 social values; –Universals in value content and structure (Schwartz 1992): 10 universal value types;

15 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Rokeach’s Value Survey Instrumental valuesTerminal values ambitiousimaginativea comfortable lifeinner harmony broadmindedindependentan exciting lifemature love capableintellectuala sense of accomplishmentpleasure cheerfullogicala world at peacenational security cleanlovinga world of beautysalvation courageousobedientequalityself-respect forgivingpolitefamily securitysocial recognition helpfulresponsiblefreedomtrue friendship honestself-controlledhappinesswisdom

16 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation The List of Values or LOV (Kahle) Ss see a list of 9 values and are asked to identify their two most important values or rank the values: self-respect self-fulfillment security sense of belonging excitement sense of accomplishment fun and enjoyment in life being well-respected warm relationships with others studies show that LOV has predictive utility for a variety of consumer behavior variables (television viewing, magazine readership, leisure activities, etc.);

17 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Universal value types (Schwartz) broadminded equality inner harmony social justice world at peace protecting environment unity with nature world of beauty wisdom UNIVERSALISM freedom creativity curious independent choosing own goals self-respect SELF-DIRECTION exciting life varied life daring STIMULATION enjoying life pleasure HEDONISM loyal responsible true friend- ship meaning in life mature love honest helpful forgiving spiritual life BENEVOLENCE humble detachment devout respect for tradition moderate accepting portion in life TRADITION obedient politeness self- discipline honor parents CONFORMITY family security social order clean healthy national security sense of belonging reciprocation of favors SECURITY preserving public image authority wealth social power social recognition POWER intelligent capable successful ambitious influential ACHIEVEMENT

18 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Intensity of motivation: Involvement a consumer’s perception of the degree of personal relevance of an object (e.g., product) or event (e.g., purchase behavior); two forms of involvement: –intrinsic involvement: –situational involvement:

19 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Measurement of involvement Personal involvement inventory (Zaichkowsky): 22-item bipolar adjective scale (e.g., important-unimportant, relevant-irrelevant, of concern to me-of no concern to me, significant-insignificant, etc.); Involvement profile (Kapferer and Laurent): five dimensions of involvement:  interest  sign-value  pleasure  risk importance  risk probability

20 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Means-end chain theory the objective of means-end chain theory is to understand what makes products personally relevant to consumers; attributes of products are assumed to lead to various functional and psycho-social consequences of product use which in turn satisfy consumers’ values; thus, products possessing certain attributes are seen as means to achieve certain values as ends; the result of a means-end chain analysis is a hierarchical value map (HVM);

21 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Attributes, consequences, and values attributes: –physical, objective features of products (concrete attributes); –nonphysical, subjective product characteristics (abstract attributes); functional consequences: –tangible outcomes of product use psycho-social consequences: –intangible (psychological and social) outcomes of product use; values: –abstract goals or motivational concerns;

22 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Laddering (Reynolds and Gutman) a qualitative, in-depth interviewing process designed to elicit means-end chains for a domain of interest (e.g., a product category); steps in a laddering interview: –determination of a representative set of brands in the product category; –elicitation of meaningful distinctions between brands (e.g., in terms of salient attributes) using direct questioning, triad sorting, preference-consumption differences, differences by occasion, etc. –selection of key distinctions to ladder; –repeated questions of the form, “Why is this important to you?” to prompt verbalizations of sequences of attributes, consequences, and values (referred to as ladders);

23 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Hierarchical value map for express delivery low cost COD open 9pm Saturday delivery drop box early delivery person to person 2nd day next day on-time delivery in-office tracking system good value fast payment finish project saves time satisfied customer/boss reliable address queries can do more makes me look good good for company less worry in control job security personal advancement self-esteem accomplishment financial security peace of mind

24 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation MECCAS model of advertising strategy four levels of the MECCAS (means-end conceptualization of the components of advertising strategy) model: –message elements: specific product attributes that the advertising communicates verbally or visually; –consumer benefit: major positive functional consequences of consumption; –leverage point: the manner in which the advertising activates the focal value by tapping into psycho-social consequences; –driving force: the value orientation of the communication strategy; connections between these four levels are called bridges: –product bridge: connects attributes to functional consequences; –personal relevance bridge: connects functional consequences to psycho-social consequences; –value bridge: connects psycho-social consequences to values;

25 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation Copy testing based on means-end chain theory: The STRATA system an interview and analysis software system designed to determine the effectiveness of particular advertising executions in communicating a positioning strategy; respondents view an ad and evaluate how clearly the different levels of the MECCAS model and the connections between them are communicated; –communication strength scores: degree to which each MECCAS element is communicated; –linkage strength scores: degree to which connections between levels are communicated; –brand and ad affect scores: degree to which the ad and the brand are liked;

26 Consumer Behavior Affect and Motivation STRATA results for “Applause” ad Message elements: in-office tracking (83) 55 early delivery (65) 44 Consumer benefit: satisfied boss (74)44 reliable (63)44 Leverage point: less worry ( 69)54 in control ( 43)5 4 Driving force: self-esteem (64) accomplishment (48) Ad affect:54 Brand affect49


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