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Tang Literature and Art. Big Buddha Caves, 116 caves, 1500 statues The largest Seated Buddha, 20 meters, AD 628, Bingxian, Shanxi.

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Presentation on theme: "Tang Literature and Art. Big Buddha Caves, 116 caves, 1500 statues The largest Seated Buddha, 20 meters, AD 628, Bingxian, Shanxi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tang Literature and Art

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5 Big Buddha Caves, 116 caves, 1500 statues The largest Seated Buddha, 20 meters, AD 628, Bingxian, Shanxi

6 Standing Guanyin, 17.5 meters, Taizong’s reign Portion of the Thousand-buddha Shrine, Gaozong’s reign

7 Tang Poetry (II) Han Yu ( )Han Yu ( ) Bai Juyi (Po Chu-I, )Bai Juyi (Po Chu-I, ) Han-shan (8 th centry)Han-shan (8 th centry) Liu Zongyuan (Liu Tsung-yuan, )Liu Zongyuan (Liu Tsung-yuan, ) Li He (Li Ho, )Li He (Li Ho, ) Jia Dao (Chia Tao, )Jia Dao (Chia Tao, ) Du Mu (Tu Mu, )Du Mu (Tu Mu, ) Li Shangyin (Li Shang-yin, 813?-858)Li Shangyin (Li Shang-yin, 813?-858)

8 Han Yu ( ) A Jinshi degree holder; best known as a leader of the ancient style prose (guwen; ku- wen) movement Poems stress the freedom of form, expression, and subject matter; often use archaic and philosophical language Famous poems are those expressing anti- Buddhist sentiment “The Girl of Mt. Hua,” “Written on My Way into Exile….”

9 Han Yu’s “Memorial on the Bone of the Buddha” “Buddhism is merely one of the religions of the barbarians. It entered the Central Kingdom beginning in the Eastern Han, but it never existed in high antiquity. …Now, the Buddha was originally a barbarian man. He did not comprehend the language of the Central Kingdom, and his clothes were of a different cut. His mouth did not speak the model words of the former kings….“Buddhism is merely one of the religions of the barbarians. It entered the Central Kingdom beginning in the Eastern Han, but it never existed in high antiquity. …Now, the Buddha was originally a barbarian man. He did not comprehend the language of the Central Kingdom, and his clothes were of a different cut. His mouth did not speak the model words of the former kings….

10 If he were still alive today and, having been commanded by the state, came to an audience in the capital, Your majesty would tolerate and receive him. However, it would be limited to a single meeting at the Xuanzheng Palace, one feast appropriate for a guest, and one suit of clothing as gift. He would then be sent to the border under guard so as not to allow him to delude the masses….If he were still alive today and, having been commanded by the state, came to an audience in the capital, Your majesty would tolerate and receive him. However, it would be limited to a single meeting at the Xuanzheng Palace, one feast appropriate for a guest, and one suit of clothing as gift. He would then be sent to the border under guard so as not to allow him to delude the masses….

11 Now without reason Your Majesty has caused this loathsome thing to be brought in and would personally go to view it. No exorcists have been sent ahead, no peach wands employed. The host of officials have not spoken out against this wrong, and the censors have failed to note its impropriety. Your servant is deeply shamed and begs that this bone be given to the proper authorities to be cast into fire and water, that this evil may be rooted out, the world freed from its error, and later generations spared this delusion…Now without reason Your Majesty has caused this loathsome thing to be brought in and would personally go to view it. No exorcists have been sent ahead, no peach wands employed. The host of officials have not spoken out against this wrong, and the censors have failed to note its impropriety. Your servant is deeply shamed and begs that this bone be given to the proper authorities to be cast into fire and water, that this evil may be rooted out, the world freed from its error, and later generations spared this delusion…

12 Should the Buddha indeed have supernatural power to send down curses and calamities, may they fall only upon the person of your servant, who calls upon high Heaven to witness that he does not regret his words. With all gratitude and sincerity your servant presents this memorial for consideration, being filled with respect and awe.”Should the Buddha indeed have supernatural power to send down curses and calamities, may they fall only upon the person of your servant, who calls upon high Heaven to witness that he does not regret his words. With all gratitude and sincerity your servant presents this memorial for consideration, being filled with respect and awe.”

13 Buddha’s finger bone relic, unearthed 1987, Famen Temple, Shanxi

14 “Written on My Way into Exile” (to show my grandnephew) by Han Yu, trans. Burton Watson Once document at dawn, submitted to the nine-tiered palace; By evening, banished to Chaozhou eight thousand li away. For the sake of our holy ruler I longed to drive away the evil; What thought for this old body, for the few years remaining? Clouds blanket the Qin Range—which way is home? Snow blocks the Lan Pass—my horse will not go on. You must have some purpose, coming so far with me; Be kind and gather up my bones from the shores of the fetid river.

15 Bai Juyi ( ) A jinshi degree holder; at times held high office in Chang’an and Loyang; a devout Buddhist Most prolific Tang poet; excelled in the long narrative New Yuefu (Yueh-fu) Style “Song of Everlasting Regret” “Song of the Lute” Poems characterized by simplicity and facileness in diction, popular with even old country folks and women

16 Idle Droning ( by Bai Juyi) Since earnestly studying the Buddhist doctrine of emptinessSince earnestly studying the Buddhist doctrine of emptiness I’ve learned to still all the common states of mindI’ve learned to still all the common states of mind Only the devil of poetry I have yet to conquer—Only the devil of poetry I have yet to conquer— Let me come on a bit of scenery and I start my idle droningLet me come on a bit of scenery and I start my idle droning

17 “Song of Everlasting Regret”— 長恨歌 cháng hèn gē China’s Emperor, craving beauty that might shake an empire,China’s Emperor, craving beauty that might shake an empire, Was on the throne, for many years, searching, never finding,Was on the throne, for many years, searching, never finding, Till a little child of the Yang clan, hardly even grown,Till a little child of the Yang clan, hardly even grown, But with graces granted by heaven and not to be concealedBut with graces granted by heaven and not to be concealed At last one day was chosen for the imperial household.At last one day was chosen for the imperial household. If she but turned her head and smiled, she cast a hundred spells,If she but turned her head and smiled, she cast a hundred spells, And the powder and paint of the Six Palaces faded into nothing.And the powder and paint of the Six Palaces faded into nothing.

18 (life in the palace)(life in the palace) On cool spring day, she bathed in the Flower-pure Pool,On cool spring day, she bathed in the Flower-pure Pool, Her soft creamy skin laved by the smooth, warm waters.Her soft creamy skin laved by the smooth, warm waters. When helped up by her waiting maids, so languid and delicate was she—When helped up by her waiting maids, so languid and delicate was she— That was the time she first gained the emperor’s favor.That was the time she first gained the emperor’s favor. Her cloudy tresses, her flowery face, her gold headdress quivering with every step—Her cloudy tresses, her flowery face, her gold headdress quivering with every step— The spring nights spent warmly inside the hibiscus curtain.The spring nights spent warmly inside the hibiscus curtain. Spring nights were too short; she did not arise until the sun was high.Spring nights were too short; she did not arise until the sun was high. Henceforth, the Emperor held no more his morning courtHenceforth, the Emperor held no more his morning court

19 (death at the Ma-wei slop)…(death at the Ma-wei slop)… Her hair ornaments were scattered on the ground—no one picked them upHer hair ornaments were scattered on the ground—no one picked them up Kingfisher, golden sparrows, and hair clasps of jade.Kingfisher, golden sparrows, and hair clasps of jade. The Emperor, powerless to save her, covered his face;The Emperor, powerless to save her, covered his face; The looked back to where the blending tears and blood flowed.The looked back to where the blending tears and blood flowed. Yellow dust dispersed widely and the wind blew cold and bleak,Yellow dust dispersed widely and the wind blew cold and bleak, Where the cloud-capped path spiraled to the Dagger- Tower.Where the cloud-capped path spiraled to the Dagger- Tower. Only a few passersby wended their way beneath Mt. Omei;Only a few passersby wended their way beneath Mt. Omei; The pennons and flags lost their gleam and the sun grew faint.The pennons and flags lost their gleam and the sun grew faint.

20 The hibiscus by the Pool of Primeval Fluid, the willows by the Hall of Never-ending Night—The hibiscus by the Pool of Primeval Fluid, the willows by the Hall of Never-ending Night— The hibiscus was like her face and the willows her brows.The hibiscus was like her face and the willows her brows. In such presence how could he refrain from tears?In such presence how could he refrain from tears? ….…. Having risen from her sleep, with her cloudy coiffure half slantedHaving risen from her sleep, with her cloudy coiffure half slanted And her flowery headdress disarranged, she cameAnd her flowery headdress disarranged, she came Down the hall.Down the hall. Her fairy sleeves, wafted by the wind, fluttered gracefully,Her fairy sleeves, wafted by the wind, fluttered gracefully, As if she was dancing the “Rainbow Skirt and Feather Jacket.”As if she was dancing the “Rainbow Skirt and Feather Jacket.” Her jade face was sad and cold, her tears were falling fast,Her jade face was sad and cold, her tears were falling fast, She looked like a sprig of pear blossom, hearing the spring raindropsShe looked like a sprig of pear blossom, hearing the spring raindrops

21 (Daoist magician searched for her spirit…)(Daoist magician searched for her spirit…) “our soul belong together,” she said, “like this gold and this shell—“our soul belong together,” she said, “like this gold and this shell— Somewhere, sometime, on earth or in heaven, we shall surely meet.”Somewhere, sometime, on earth or in heaven, we shall surely meet.” And she sent him, by his messenger, a sentence reminding himAnd she sent him, by his messenger, a sentence reminding him Of vows which had been known only to their two hearts:Of vows which had been known only to their two hearts: “On the seventh day of the Seventh-month, in the Palace of Long Life,“On the seventh day of the Seventh-month, in the Palace of Long Life, We told each other secretly in the quiet midnight worldWe told each other secretly in the quiet midnight world That we wished to fly in heaven, two birds with the wings of one,That we wished to fly in heaven, two birds with the wings of one, And to grow together on the earth, two branches of one tree.”And to grow together on the earth, two branches of one tree.” Heaven and Earth, long lasting as they are, shall someday fall,Heaven and Earth, long lasting as they are, shall someday fall, But this great sorrow will endure, forever without end.But this great sorrow will endure, forever without end.

22 Emperor Xuangzong

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25 Hanshan (Cold Mountain)  One of eccentric Scholar-Monks in Tang times  Not a major poet in Tang China, but became favorite figure in Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art  Popular during the 60s in the US after Zen/Chan Buddhism was introduced to American intellectuals  Poems convey the idea that the very experiences of daily life are what make enlightenment attainable

26 Untitled, #6 (by Hanshan) I think of all the places I’ve been,I think of all the places I’ve been, Chasing from one famous spot to another.Chasing from one famous spot to another. Delighting in mountains, I scaled the mile-high peaks;Delighting in mountains, I scaled the mile-high peaks; Loving the water, I sailed a thousand rivers.Loving the water, I sailed a thousand rivers. I held farewell parties with my friends in Lute Valley,I held farewell parties with my friends in Lute Valley, Brought my zither and played on Parrot ShoalsBrought my zither and played on Parrot Shoals Who would guess I’d end up under a pine tree,Who would guess I’d end up under a pine tree, Clasping my knees in the whispering cold?Clasping my knees in the whispering cold?

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29 Untitled, #2 by Hanshan In the house east of here lives an old woman.In the house east of here lives an old woman. Three or four years ago, she got rich.Three or four years ago, she got rich. In the old days she was poorer than I;In the old days she was poorer than I; Now she laughs at me for not having a penny.Now she laughs at me for not having a penny. She laughs at me for being poor nowShe laughs at me for being poor now I laugh at her for having been poor before*I laugh at her for having been poor before* We laugh as though we’d never stopWe laugh as though we’d never stop She from the east and I from the west!She from the east and I from the west!

30 Liu Zongyuan (Liu Tsung-yuan, ) A jinshi degree holder; also a master of the Ancient Style ProseA jinshi degree holder; also a master of the Ancient Style Prose Poems characterized by his sensitiveness to the tranquility of naturePoems characterized by his sensitiveness to the tranquility of nature Better known as a prose writer and an active patron of BuddhismBetter known as a prose writer and an active patron of Buddhism Most famous piece:Most famous piece: “River Snow”“River Snow”

31 River Snow by Liu Zongyuan From a thousand hills,From a thousand hills, bird flights have vanished; bird flights have vanished; On ten thousand paths,On ten thousand paths, human traces wiped out; Lone boat, an old manLone boat, an old man in straw cape and hat, Finishing alone in theFinishing alone in the cold river snow.

32 Jia Dao (Chia Tao, ) A Buddhist monk in his early age; gave up monkhood to make several attempts at the civil service examinations but failed them all; became a member of Han Yu ’ s circle Continued to live a life of constant frustration and misfortune Most poems written in response to Buddhist monks and Taoist priests Most famous piece: –“ Looking for a Recluse ” –Most discussed line: “ The birds nest in the lake- side tree/A monk knock on a moon-lit door ”

33 Looking for a Recluse by Jia Dao  Under the pines I questioned the boy.  “ My master ’ s off gathering herbs.  All I know is he ’ s here on the mountain —  Amidst deep clouds not to be found. ”

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35 Du Mu (Tu Mu, ) A jinshi degree holderA jinshi degree holder Most admired as a master of the New Style quatrainMost admired as a master of the New Style quatrain Poems demonstrate his acutely sensual delight in wine, women, spring landscapes, and brilliant colors of birds and flowers; full of joys than regretsPoems demonstrate his acutely sensual delight in wine, women, spring landscapes, and brilliant colors of birds and flowers; full of joys than regrets Most famous pieceMost famous piece “Sent in Parting”“Sent in Parting”

36 Sent in Parting by Du Mu  Great love may seem like none at all:  Wine before us, we only know that smiles won ’ t come  The tallow candle has a heart — it grieves at parting  In our place drips tears until the break of day

37 Li Shangyin (Li Shang-yin, ) A jinshi degree holderA jinshi degree holder Poems best known for their ability to express clandestine love and effectively explore various facets of complex emotion and love:Poems best known for their ability to express clandestine love and effectively explore various facets of complex emotion and love: Lust, hope, joy, frustration, jealousy, tenderness, and despairLust, hope, joy, frustration, jealousy, tenderness, and despair Poems embody passion, commitment, and conflictPoems embody passion, commitment, and conflict Most famous pieces are those without titleMost famous pieces are those without title “ Untitled ” (7-ch. regulated verse)“ Untitled ” (7-ch. regulated verse)

38 Untitled by Li Shangyin Last night’s planets and stars, last night’s wind,Last night’s planets and stars, last night’s wind, By the painted tower’s west side, east of Cassia Hall---By the painted tower’s west side, east of Cassia Hall--- For us no nearness of phoenixes winging side by side,For us no nearness of phoenixes winging side by side, Yet our hearts became as one, like the rhino’s one-thread hornYet our hearts became as one, like the rhino’s one-thread horn ….….

39 Poetry of Complaint Poetry written by men in distress, in prison, in disgrace, and in exilePoetry written by men in distress, in prison, in disgrace, and in exile Li BaiLi Bai “Distant Separation”: an allegorical ballad lamenting the devolution of authority to men of no qualification“Distant Separation”: an allegorical ballad lamenting the devolution of authority to men of no qualification Du FuDu Fu “Autumn Day in Kui Prefecture”“Autumn Day in Kui Prefecture” Han YuHan Yu “Written on My Way into Exile”“Written on My Way into Exile” Liu ZongyuanLiu Zongyuan “Poems from Dimwit’s Stream”“Poems from Dimwit’s Stream”


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