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Early Rome and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism

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1 Early Rome and the Beginnings of Roman Imperialism

2 The Nature of the Evidence
Roman Legends, the Literary Tradition and their Pitfalls Archaeology and the Problems of Interpretation Paucity of Inscriptions (Lapis Niger)

3 Language Map of Early Italy

4 Broad Outlines Bronze Age Italy and Greek Influences (ca BCE) Iron Age Italy and Rome: BCE (Villanovans) Material Conditions: Subsistence Agriculture Etruscans and the Question of Urbanization

5 Early Roman Legends as Reflected in the Historiographical Tradition
Myths of Heterogeneity and the Policy of Inclusion

6 Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, chapter 6 (written between 44 & 40 BCE)
“The city of Rome, as far as I can make out, was founded and first inhabited by Trojan exiles who, led by Aeneas, were wandering without a settled home, and by rustic natives who lived in a state of anarchy uncontrolled by laws or government. When once they had come to live together in a walled town, despite different origins, languages, and habits of life, they coalesced with amazing ease, and before long what had been a heterogeneous mob of migrants was welded into a united nation.”

7 The Elder Seneca on Early Rome
“Unroll the family tree of any nobleman you like: you will arrive at low birth if you go back far enough. Why should I list individuals? I could use the whole city as my example. Once these hills stood bare and within the extensive confines of our walls there is nothing more distinguished than a lowly hut….Can you reproach the Romans? They could conceal their humble beginnings but instead they make a display of them and do not regard all this as great unless it is made obvious that it rose from a small beginning.” Controversiae, 1.6.4

8 Romulus, the Sabine Women, and the Politics of Inclusion
“ ‘If you regret,’ [the Sabine women] continued, ‘the relationship that unites you, if you regret the marriage tie, turn your anger against us; we are the cause of the war, the cause of the wounds, and even death to both our husbands and our parents. It will be better for us to perish than to live, lacking either of you, as widows or as orphans.’ It was a touching plea, not only to the rank and file, but to their leaders as well. A stillness fell on them, and a sudden hush. Then the leaders came forward to make a truce, and not only did they agree on peace, but they made one people out of the two. They shared the sovereignty, but all authority was transferred to Rome. In this way the population was doubled…” (Livy, )

9 Legend, Quasi-History, History
The Regal Period, BCE Legend, Quasi-History, History

10 The King List [Romulus (753-717 BCE)] [Numa Pompilius (715-672 BCE)]
[Tullus Hostilius ( BCE)] [Ancus Marcius ( BCE)] Lucius Tarquinius Priscus ( BCE) Servius Tullius ( BCE) Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ( BCE)

11 Romulus and Remus: The Native Foundation Legend
Outlines of the Story: Alba Longa, Numitor and Amulius, Rhea Silvia and Mars, the She-Wolf and the Twins (Folk-Tale Motifs). “Meanwhile Rome was growing. More and more ground was coming within the circuit of its walls. Indeed, the rapid expansion of the enclosed area was out of proportion to the actual population, and evidently indicated an eye to the future. In antiquity, the founder of a new settlement, in order to increase its population, would as a matter of course shark up a lot of homeless and destitute folk and pretend that they were “born of earth” to be his progeny; Romulus now followed a similar course: to help fill his big new town, he threw open, in the ground--now enclosed--between the two copses as you go up the Capitoline Hill, a place of asylum for fugitives. All the lowliest elements from neighboring peoples fled here for refuge: some free, some slaves, and all of them wanting a fresh start. That mob was the first real addition to the City’s strength, the first step to its future greatness.” Livy, History of Rome, Book One, chapter 8

12 She-Wolf and Twins (Bologna, early 4th century BCE)

13 Capitoline She-Wolf (Etruscan, ca. 500 BCE)

14 The Etruscan Monarchy at Rome
L. Tarquinius Priscus ( BCE), Servius Tullius ( BCE), L. Tarquinius Superbus ( BCE) Lapis Niger or “Black Stone” (around 500 BCE?); archaic Latin inscription (“to or for the king”) King Servius Tullius (traditional dates: BCE) Temple to Diana on the Aventine New Geographical Tribes (21: 17 rural, 4 urban); replaces ethnicity with geography as basis of political organization (attempt to break power of the great clans?) Centuriate Assembly: creates a citizen-army based on property. 60 centuries of 100 men = 1 legion (legio). As voting assembly, 193 units divided into 5 classes based on wealth, with the first two classes making a majority (probably limited to a yes/no vote)

15 Lapis Niger “Black Stone” Early 6th century BCE

16 Developments Attributed to King Servius Tullius (578-535 BCE)
Enlargement of Urban Area (L ; DH ) Defensive (Servian) Wall and Four Urban Regions (L and ; DH and ) 26 Tribes and 4 Urban Region Tribes (DH , a variant number) Centuriate System (L 1.43; DH 4.16) Roman Census (L ; DH ) Temple to Diana on Aventine (L ; DH ) Sources: L=Livy (late first century BCE); DH=Dionysius of Halicarnassus (late first century BCE-early first century CE)

17 Etruria and Early Rome Etruscan Heyday: ca. 700-500 BCE
The Question of Origins: Immigrants or Autochthonous? Herodotus (5th century BCE), Histories from Lydia in Asia Minor Dionysius of Halicarnassus (first century CE), Roman Antiquities Indigenous Etruscans and Urbanization at Rome Public Building (Capitoline Temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus) Drainage of Marshes Development of Forum Etruscan Contributions Alphabet (via Greeks) Fasces and Sella Curulis Lictors

18 Line Map of Etruria and Latium

19 Etruscan Power and Etruscan Cities
“This people…in ancient times possessed great territory and founded many notable cities. Likewise, they also availed themselves of powerful naval forces and were masters of the sea over a long period, they caused the sea along Italy to be named Tyrrhenian after them…They were also the authors of the dignity that surrounds the heads of state, providing their rulers with lictors and an ivory stool and a toga with a purple band; and in connection with their houses they invented the peristyle, a useful device for avoiding the confusion connected with the attending throngs; and these things were adopted for the most part by the Romans, who added to their embellishment and transferred them to their own political institutions. Letters and the teaching about nature and the gods they also brought to greater perfection, and they elaborated the art of divination by thunder and lightning more than all other men; and for this reason the Romans, who rule practically the entire inhabited world, show honor to these men even to this day and employ them as interpreters of the omens of Jupiter as they appear in thunder and lightning.” ~ Diodorus,

20 Aristocratic Banqueting Scene Tomb of the Leopards Fifth Century BCE

21 Sarcophagus of the Amazons

22 Sarcophagus of the Bride and Groom (ca. 525 BCE)

23 Gold Necklace from Vulci (ca. 650 BCE)

24 Chimaera from Arezzo

25 The Apollo of Veii ca. 500 BCE

26 Fall of the Monarchy and the Beginnings of the Republic
Tarquinius Superbus, Sextus Tarquinius, The Rape of Lucretia, and Brutus Traditional Date for the Foundation of the Republic—510 BCE Patres, 100 advisers under Romulus (Livy, 1.8.7) 300 Senators, 2 annually-elected consuls, imperium

27 Livy on the First Senate (1.8.7)
“[Romulus] had now no reason to be dissatisfied with his strength, and proceeded to add policy to strength. He appointed a hundred senators, whether because this number seemed to him sufficient, or because there were no more than a hundred who could be designated Fathers (Patres). At all events, they received the designation of Fathers from their rank, and their descendants were called patricians.”

28 Defensive Imperialism?
Romans, Latins, and Common Enemies

29 Pressures on the Early Republic
Aftermath of Expulsion of Etruscan Monarchy Battle at Lake Regillus: 496 BCE Cassian Treaty (foedus Cassianum): mutual defensive alliance between Rome and all Latins based on equality: 493 BCE 12 Etruscan cities to the North “Hill Peoples”: Aequi (northeast); Volsci (southeast); Sabines (northeast): BCE

30 Offensive Imperialism?
The Siege of Etruscan Veii

31 Roman Aristocratic Militaristic Ethos: Senator’s Proclamation after Romulus’ Rapture, following Military Action against Veii ‘Quirites, the Father of this City, Romulus, descended suddenly from the sky at dawn this morning and appeared to me…. “Go,” he said, “and declare to the Romans the will of Heaven that my Rome shall be the capital of the world; so let them cherish the art of war, and let them know and teach their children that no human strength can resist Roman arms”.’ (Livy, )

32 Internal Crises: Patricians and Plebeians
Patricians and non-Patricians (Plebeians) Origin: senators created by Romulus: “conscripted fathers” = patres conscripti. Distinction seems to become important in the early years of the Republic. Minority: population estimates for Archaic Rome--6,600-9,900 adult male citizens; 2,700-4,000 heavy infantrymen (hoplites); adult male patricians (Raaflaub, Social Struggles, pg. 44). 12 Tables and Nexum: Debt-Bondage (Table VI; cf. Table III) War as Palliative (see Livy, Book Two passim: unity in face of external threats; internal discord in times of international peace; compare Dionysius, Roman Antiquities, 10.33)

33 The Siege of Etruscan Veii (406-396 BCE)
A question of historicity: the 10-year duration modeled on the Trojan War? War booty and the doubling of Roman territory Control of the Tiber (Fidenae) and the salt marshes Distribution of land to poorer Roman citizens

34 Light Green = Roman territory Ca. 700 BCE Yellow-Green = Roman Territory Ca. 500 BCE Yellow Explosion = Site of Etruscan Veii

35 Livy on the Sack of Veii “In a moment the armed soldiers were everywhere hurled from the walls, and the gates thrown open. A part of the Romans poured through them in a body, others scaled the deserted walls; the city was overrun with enemies; the battle raged in every quarter; then, when there had already been great carnage, the fighting began to flag, and the dictator bade the heralds proclaim that those without arms should be spared. This ended the slaughter. The unarmed began to give themselves up, and the Romans scattered, with the dictator’s permission, in quest of booty.” Livy,

36 Readings for Next Meeting
Livy, Rome and Italy, 11-34, Doyle, Empires, 11-47

37 Assignments for Next Meeting
Individual Report on Livy as an historian and the background and nature of his work Individual Report on Doyle, Empires, 11-47 Reports should run approximately 15 minutes

38 Questions for Readings
Are there pitfalls in using Livy as an historical source for early Roman imperialism? What is the nature of Livian historiography? What do we know of Livy’s research methods and his conception of history? Are there recurrent patterns in Livy’s narrative in the relationship between Roman domestic politics and foreign affairs? What does Doyle mean by “metrocentric,” “pericentric,” and “systemic” views of imperialism?

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