2expressions Snail mail, paper mail, postal mail, land mail, or simply (air)mail and post.are all conventional postal delivery services(not via internet)2
3“correspondence” Which of the following defines correspondence? a) talking to people on the phoneb) answering enquiries from customersc) sending and answering letters, faxes and s3
4As a form of communication, many people see e-mail as being … than a phone call. a) more personalb) less directc) less intrusive4
5“infoglut” What is infoglut? a) not enough information b) a flood of informationc) a form of passing on information
6TIPSARE S ALWAYS INFORMAL?They can be both. They are usually shorter and more like spoken English compared to letters. Formal communications and contracts are sent in letter form because they need handwritten signatures.6
7Emails and symbols 1 @ 2 . 3 - 4 _ 5 / 6 \ a underscore b hyphen 1 @3 -4 _5 /6 \a underscoreb hyphenc forward slashd backslashe atf full stop/dot7
8Match the Beginning and endings Dear JohnDear Mr GreenHi JohnJohnYours sincerelyKind regardsCheersBye for now8
9Match the Beginning and endings Dear JohnDear Mr GreenHi JohnJohnKind regardsYours sincerelyBye for nowCheers9
10Opening and closing Dear Sir/Madam …..... Yours faithfully Dear Mr Smith … Yours sincerelyBest wishes/ Best regards: is normally used in as it is less formal.Dear Jane Best regards/Best wishesWhen addressing a good friend or colleague.when you know the name use “yours sincerely”10
11When 'Yours faithfully' and when 'Yours sincerely' in a business letter? When the recipient's name is unknown to you:Dear Sir ... Yours faithfullyDear Madam ... Yours faithfullyDear Sir or Madam ... Yours faithfullyAddressing whole departments:Dear Sirs ... Yours faithfully11
12When you know the recipient's name: Dear Mr Hanson ... Yours sincerelyDear Mrs Hanson ... Yours sincerelyDear Miss Hanson ... Yours sincerelyDear Ms Hanson ... Yours sincerely12
13Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc If you know the name, use the title (Mr, Mrs, Miss or Ms, Dr, etc.) and the surname only.If you are writing to a woman and do not know if she uses Mrs or Miss, you can use Ms, which is for married and single women.Dear Mr Jenkins,
14Letter layout What to include ? Salutation: “Dear ... Name and address of person/company you are writing toAddress of person writing the letterThe dateEnding: eg: “Yours faithfully.”SignatureYour name in print (under signature)14
15LayoutPut your address in top right-hand corner with the date underneath.Your name + address of person you are writing to on the left-hand.Don't use contractions in letters.Use paragraphs (to clarify ideas and structure)Write full name under your signatureSEE LAYOUT IN DISPENSA p.12315
17Opening linesWhy do we need an opening line in a business letter or ? - to make reference to previous correspondence - to say how you found the recipient's name/address - to say why you are writing to the recipient.17
1810 Good Opening Lines: With reference to your letter of 8 June, I ... I am writing to enquire about ...After having seen your advertisement in ... , I would like ...After having received your address from ... , I ...I received your address from ... and would like …We/I recently wrote to you about ...Thank you for your letter of 8 May.Thank you for your letter regarding ...Thank you for your letter/ about ...In reply to your letter of 8 May, ...18
19Closing linesWhy do we need a closing line in a business letter or ? - to make a reference to a future event - to repeat an apology - to offer help19
2010 Good Closing Lines I look forward to your reply. I look forward to hearing from you.I look forward to seeing you.Please advise as necessary.We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.Once again, I apologise for any inconvenience.We hope that we may continue to rely on your valued custom.I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.20
21Requests and Apologies levels of directness Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formalI'm sorry about...I would like to apologise for...Sorry about...I would like to offer our apologies for...Please accept our most sincere apologies for...Could you...Please could you...I would be greatful if you could...Can you...Do you think you could...21
22Requests and Apologies Put into order of formality: 5 = most formal; 1= least formal I'm sorry about...2I would like to apologise for...3Sorry about...1I would like to offer our apologies for...4Please accept our most sincere apologies for...5Could you...2Please could you...3I would be greatful if you could...5Can you...1Do you think you could...422
23Different level of formality by choice of verbs: Match the verbs with similar meanings a) Assistb) Contact someonec) Enquired) Meete) Purchasef) Requestg) Inform someoneh) Receivei) Discussj) ConsiderTalk aboutAskAsk forHelpThink aboutGetBuyGet togetherLet someone knowGet i touch with23
24KEY Different formality also depends on choice of verbs: Talk aboutAskAsk forHelpThink aboutGetBuyGet togetherLet someone knowGet in touch witha) Discussb) Enquirec) Requestd) Assiste) Considerf) Receiveg) Purchaseh) Meeti) ) Inform someonej) Contact someone
25Indirect questions Which question/request is more polite? Where and when is the next conference taking place?Could you tell me where and the next conference is taking place?Indirect form is therefore used to be less direct and therefore more polite.25
26Ways to start formal requests: Enquiring… Can....Could....Would you mind (telling me/ finding out...)Would it be possible (to find this out for me)Do you think....May I....
27Transform these direct requests into formal requests. What time is it?Where are the application forms?When are you arriving?Whose mobile phone is it?Turn off your mobile phone!27
28KEY Make formal requests What time is it?Where are the application forms?When are you arriving?Whose mobile phone is it?Turn off your mobile phone!Can/Could you tell me what time it is?Would you mind telling me where the application forms are?Do you know whose mobile phone this is?Would it be possible to turn off your mobile phone28
29Translating from Italian Mi dispiace informarla che lei non è stata selezionata per il posto di lavoro.I am terribly sorry to inform you that you were not selected for the post.DO NOT USETHIRD PERSON: “SHE” / “HE”to be more polite29
30Contracted form “I'm” or “I am” When writing letters use full form: I am.....Eg: I am writing to find out about.....When writing s the contracted form is acceptable. To make more formal you may also use the full form.EG. I'm now seeking to move into a more challenging role.30
31Expressing best wishes/good luck We wish you all the best in the future for finding the most suitable job in your career.All the best of luck for finding a more suitable job in your field.We would like to wish you all the best of luck in finding a more suitable job.31
32The use of “if” to be polite If you have any further queries, do not hesitate to contact me.I wonder if you would mind calling this person back informing him about the bad news.I wonder if you could.....(is more formal than: could you...)Please tell me if you would like me to take this matter further. (is more formal than: would you like me to take this matter further?)32
33Conditional instructions Let me know if I can be of further assistance.Please write again if you need more information.Please contact me if you would like me to clarify anything.This form is used to ask someone to do something in particular circumstances.It is also used to offer assistance in Letters33
34Content of a Formal Letter First paragraph The first paragraph should be short and state the purpose of the letter- to make an enquiry, complain, request something, etc.The paragraph or paragraphs in the middle of the letter should contain the relevant information behind the writing of the letter. Most letters in English are not very long, so keep the information to the essentials and concentrate on organising it in a clear and logical manner rather than expanding too much.Last Paragraph The last paragraph of a formal letter should state what action you expect the recipient to take - to refund, send you information, etc.
35Abbreviations Used in Letter Writing The following abbreviations are widely used in letters:asap = as soon as possiblecc = carbon copy (when you send a copy of a letter to more than one person, you use this abbreviation to let them know)enc. = enclosure (when you include other papers with your letter)pp = per procurationem (A Latin phrase meaning that you are signing the letter on somebody else's behalf; if they are not there to sign it themselves, etc)ps = postscript (when you want to add something after you've finished and signed it)pto (informal) = please turn over (to make sure that the other person knows the letter continues on the other side of the page)RSVP = please reply
36Different letters and e-mails for the exam: For making/confirming arrangementsTo arrange or cancel meetings/appointmentsFor making apologiesTo making complaintsTo place an orderMaking enquiriesThank you lettersResponding to job applications/cover lettersRejection letters/acceptance lettersJob interview invitations36
37Making arrangements USEFUL PHRASES: It was a pleasure meeting you ….. Following our discussion……I hope you will find these conditions acceptable….Unfortunately we have to change our plans owing to unexpected problems.We will/will not be able to cover the costs for travel and accommodation.37
38Letters of apology Useful phrases: We would like to offer our sincere apologies for…Please accept our apologies forThe delay/mistake/damage was due to circumstances beyond our control…Please accept our reassurances that ….We can guarantee/promise that…Let me personally assure you that…38
40Outline: A Covering/Cover Letter A covering letter is the one that accompanies your CV when you are applying for a job. Here is a fairly conventional plan for the layout of the paragraphs.Opening Paragraph Briefly identify yourself and the position you are applying for. Add how you found out about the vacancy.Paragraph 2 Give the reasons why you are interested in working for the company and why you wish to be considered for that particular post. State your relevant qualifications and experience, as well as your personal qualities that make you a suitable candidate.Paragraph 3 Inform them that you have enclosed your current CV and add any further information that you think could help your case.Closing Paragraph Give your availability for interview, thank them for their consideration, restate your interest and close the letter.
41Job application letters/Letter of Application Dear Sirs,I wish to apply for the post of [incarico]. I believe my skills and experience in [non più di 20 parole] mean that I am ideally qualified for the post.Poi descrivi le tue competenze personali ... per esempio leadership skills, communication skills, team working skills ... come le hai acquisite e dimostrate, una alla volta ... non più di 40 parole per ogni punto. Poi fai una breve sintesi delle tue competenze tecniche. Non bisogna ricopiare il curriculum.I look forward to the opportunity to discuss how my skills and competences might contribute to your success.Yours faithfully,41
42Letter of application LONDON E14 5BH Dear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms ... Mr Robinson,Lloyd Companygroup25 Regent StreetLONDON E14 5BHDear Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms ...I should like to apply for the post advertised in [dove?] and have pleasure in enclosing my curriculum vitae for your attention.I am an experienced [che esperienze hai] and have worked in/with ... In my most recent role, I have ...I am now seeking an opportunity to fulfill my career aspirations with a ...I believe I can offer the company/group/agency [qualità che hai]I look forward to discussing this opportunity further with you at a future interview and look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerely,[firma]encl: curriculum vitae
43LINKERSDiscourse markers (linkers) are used to structure and clarify ideas.Firstly, secondly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, additionally, hense, Indeed, however, more importantly etc.43
44Link words allow you to follow the argument of a text and can help you to check your understanding of words and phrases.For example, if you see but, although or despite in the middle of a sentence, you know that the idea after it will contrast with the idea in the first part.See page 168 in dispensa44
45Put these linkers in the correct groups firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, what's more, additionally, as a result, due to, as, so1) showing sequence or order:2) introducing new information:3) Linking cause and effect:4) Exemplifying a point:45
46Put these linkers in the correct groups firstly, therefore, also, in order to, finally, because, then, for example, what's more, additionally, as a result, due to, as, so1) showing sequence or order: firstly, then, finally2) introducing new information: Also, additionally, what's more3) Linking cause and effect: as, so, because, therefore, as a result, due to, owing to (= thanks to)4) Exemplifying a point: for example,46
47See dispensa for more practice Focus on:As a result of the recession unemployment has gone up.Due to lower prices the sales have gone up.47
48Look at the e-mail written by a student in an exam: Can you correct it?How would you improve it?48
49Write a letter including following points to a candidate who failed their interview for a job Thank the applicant for coming to the interviewAll the candidates were very strongYou regret that despite their skills you are unable to offer them job.You will keep the applicant’s name on file and let them know about any future openings.Thank the applicant for their interest in the job.close on an encouraging/optimistic note.
50For new,I wish the best for your future. Some regards, Dear Mr Sanders,I would tell you thanks for the letter, because I like to have a personnal confrontation with other members of staff. But I am sorry to inform you that you aren't in a short list for the post of senior project manager.The most important reasons are about your imcomplete experience in the meduinm-long term because your recent employmnet isn't good for us and the company.So even your age is younger than other managers that have more experience in this ambient.I'm so sorry to regret your proposal but actually we search another kind of person. In case of liberation of other post in the same sector we will call you to met.For new,I wish the best for your future.Some regards,50
51Head of Recruitment Department Dear Mr Sanders,We would like to thank you for coming to the interview that took place on the 8 March regarding the post of senior project manager with our company. Indeed we like to meet our potential members of staff personally.All the candidates were very strong and we regret that despite your skills and experience we are unable to offer you this job. You have some interesting experience in human resources but this is not really the field we are interested in. Additionally we were also looking for managers with at least 5 years of experience in the similar field.However we will keep your name on file and let you know about any future job openings with our company.Thank you again for your interest in the job and for coming to the interview and we wish you all the best of luck for finding a more suitable job.Yours Sincerely,Robert Jacobson,Head of Recruitment Department51
52Sample answer letter to reply to a problem Dear Sir,Thank you for your letter of December 1° concerning our reminder to settle invoice no.TB/245/c.Please accept our apologies for indeed sending you this reminder by mistake.Upon/When checking our records, we realised that an invoice meant for another customer bears/has a very similar reference number, hence the confusion.We would like to thank you for the prompt settlement of the above invoice, and will do our utmost/best to avoid such mistakes in the future. We are sorry for the inconvenience caused and look forward to doing further business with you.Yours faithfully,Martin JonesSales Director
53Sample letter (reply to job acceptance letter) Dear Ms Poulson,Re: Assistant Project manager, KazakhstanThank you very much for the particulars of the post attached. I am delighted to have been selected, and would like to confirm that I do wish to take up the post and will be available to start work on April 8.I enclose a full medical report from Bolton General Hospital.I look forward to receiving the contract.Yours sincerely,Andrew Harris
54Correct these sentences Please accept my sincere apologiseI look forward to hearing youYour sincerelyThank you very much for your availability of this interviewI’ll promise you that your name and your information aren’t delete by our database.I’ve received your letter yesterdayWe regret not being able to offer she the job.I would tell you thanks for….
55KEY - Correct these sentences Please accept my sincere apologiesI look forward to hearing from youYours sincerelyThank you very much for your availability of this interviewI promise you that your name and personal data will not be deleted from our database.I received your letter yesterdayWe regret not being able to offer you the job.I would like to thank you for….
56Confusing terms In fact / Indeed Which one introduces a contrast? Which one expands the previous idea mentioned?Which one is similar to actually?It was very difficult to make a final decision. ……. all the candidates were very strong with similar experience.We were expecting to have many more candidates apply for the job. …….only 3 applied.
57Exam note For the exam you are often asked to write follow-up letters. To include a list of points (indicated)To express some kind of feeling/condition/situation: (thanks/apology/concern/regret/confusion/confirmation/ misunderstanding/suggestion)You also need to be able to invent part of the information in an adequate way.Maintain a high level of formality in business letters.You will be asked to write about 100 words in the letterIn the exam there will also be a little exercise linked to writing.