# Conditional clauses. Summary If is often used to express condition If is often used to express condition Conditional sentences state the dependence of.

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Conditional clauses

Summary If is often used to express condition If is often used to express condition Conditional sentences state the dependence of one circumstance or set of circumstances on another. Conditional sentences state the dependence of one circumstance or set of circumstances on another. They are chiefly introduced by the conjunctions if (positive condition) and unless (negative condition), but also by other compound conjunctions, such as: if only, provided that, as long as, on condition that. They are chiefly introduced by the conjunctions if (positive condition) and unless (negative condition), but also by other compound conjunctions, such as: if only, provided that, as long as, on condition that.

ZERO CONDITION Natural laws and their consequences (one thing follows automatically from another) Natural laws and their consequences (one thing follows automatically from another) If... + present... + present If... + present... + present If it snows, people wear warm coats.

1.PROBABLE CONDITION (open condition) If-clause in present tense, the main clause in the future simple (or present tense) If-clause in present tense, the main clause in the future simple (or present tense) If you come, I shall bring the book. If you come, I shall bring the book. If it rains, we shall stay at home. If it rains, we shall stay at home. Don't say that unless you will do it. Don't say that unless you will do it. Variations: the main clause with a modal verb (may/might, must, should): Variations: the main clause with a modal verb (may/might, must, should): If you want to pass, you must study harder. If you want to pass, you must study harder.

2. IMPROBABLE CONDITION (hypothetical or unreal condition) If-clause in the past tense, the main clause in the conditional tense (would+infinitive) If-clause in the past tense, the main clause in the conditional tense (would+infinitive) If I had money, I would give it to you. If I had money, I would give it to you. If someone tried to do that, he would find himself in trouble. If someone tried to do that, he would find himself in trouble. If I were you, I wouldn't do that. If I were you, I wouldn't do that.

Variations The main clause with might or could instead of would: The main clause with might or could instead of would: If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result) If you tried again, you might succeed. (possible result)

3. UNFULFILLED CONDITION IN THE PAST If-clause in the past perfect tense, the main clause in the perfect conditional (would+have+verb in past participle) If-clause in the past perfect tense, the main clause in the perfect conditional (would+have+verb in past participle) If I had known that, I would not have come. If I had known that, I would not have come. If he had tried to understand, he would not have left that angry. If he had tried to understand, he would not have left that angry.

Variations Variations: the main clause with could or might instead of would: Variations: the main clause with could or might instead of would: If we had found him earlier, we could have saved his life. (ability) If we had found him earlier, we could have saved his life. (ability) If we had found him earlier, we might have saved his life. (possibility) If we had found him earlier, we might have saved his life. (possibility) Had can be placed first and the if ommitted: Had can be placed first and the if ommitted: Had I known that, I would not have come. Had I known that, I would not have come.

Exercise If I had a lot of money, I _________ (travel) the world. If I had a lot of money, I _________ (travel) the world. If you accept this job, you ____________ (regret, neg.) it. If you accept this job, you ____________ (regret, neg.) it. He would have died if the ambulance __________ (arrive) so quickly. He would have died if the ambulance __________ (arrive) so quickly. If we don’t hurry, we ____________ (miss) the train. If we don’t hurry, we ____________ (miss) the train. If I could have warned you in time, I ____________ (do) that. If I could have warned you in time, I ____________ (do) that.

Answer key If I had a lot of money, I would travel round the world. If I had a lot of money, I would travel round the world. If you accept this job, you will not regret it. If you accept this job, you will not regret it. He would have died if the ambulance hadn’t arrived so quickly. He would have died if the ambulance hadn’t arrived so quickly. If we don’t hurry, we will miss the train. If we don’t hurry, we will miss the train. If I could have warned you in time, I would have done that. If I could have warned you in time, I would have done that.

Translate the following: Ako sada odeš, nećeš me više nikad vidjeti. Ako sada odeš, nećeš me više nikad vidjeti. Da sam to znala, ne bih kupila stan. Da sam to znala, ne bih kupila stan. Ne bih se kladila u to da sam na tvojem mjestu. Ne bih se kladila u to da sam na tvojem mjestu. Ako me netko bude tražio, reci im da spavam. Ako me netko bude tražio, reci im da spavam.

If you leave now, you will never see me again. If you leave now, you will never see me again. If I had known that, I wouldn’t have bought the apartment. If I had known that, I wouldn’t have bought the apartment. I wouldn’t bet on it if I were you. I wouldn’t bet on it if I were you. Should anyone come looking for me, tell them I am sleeping. Should anyone come looking for me, tell them I am sleeping.

Translate the following: Before 1961, if you had tried to kill yourself and had failed, you could have been charged with a criminal offence. Discuss the usage of could as opposed to would!

Write in the corect form of the verbs in brackets: If, after all the documents have been served, the defendant ________________ (appear, neg.) at the action on the date named, judgment _________________ (will enter) for the plaintiff who will submit his or her case by __________________ (outline) shortly the essence of his or her claim to the judge. Judgment _________________ (will give) to him or her, usually with costs. If, however, the plaintiff ___________________(appear, neg.) at the court and _______________ (give) no explanation for his or her absence, the action _____________ (will strike out) for want of prosecution. The action __________________ (may reinstate) for sufficient cause on the plaintiff's application.

Answer key If, after all the documents have been served, the defendant DOES NOT APPEAR at the action on the date named, judgment WILL BE ENTERED for the plaintiff who will submit his or her case by OUTLINING shortly the essence of his or her claim to the judge. Judgment WILL BE GIVEN to him or her, usually with costs. If, however, the plaintiff DOES NOT APPEAR at the court and GIVES no explanation for his or her absence, the action WILL BE STRUCK OUT for want of prosecution. The action MAY BE REINSTATED for sufficient cause on the plaintiff's application.

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