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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ENGLISH PROJECT ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES.

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Presentation on theme: "GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ENGLISH PROJECT ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES."— Presentation transcript:

1 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ENGLISH PROJECT ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

2 ENGLISH PROJECT GERUNDS

3 Dancing is her favorite habit. I prefer eating ice-cream. Form Simple, Active Form Simple, Passive Mary prefers being taught by a stern teacher. The actress stayed at her hotel to avoid being seen by her fans.

4 Form Perfect, Active having made I regret having made the remark abort her hairdo. having seen I regret having seen the film. Form Perfect, Passive having been seen The film was banned after having been seen by thousands of people. having been transferred I regret having been transferred to another class this year.

5 The gerund can be used: 1. As the subject of a verb 2. As the object of a verb 3. As the object of a preposition 4. After a possessive or the possessive form of nouns of nouns 5. After certain verbs 6. Special combination 7. Formed by adding “not” before it.

6 As the subject of a verb When a gerund is used as the subject of a verb, it is placed at the beginning of a sentence. Reading romantic novels is my favourite pastime. Smoking is hazardous to health. Climbing mountains can be dangerous if we are not careful. A baby’s crying woke me up last. Walking from here to the local supermarket takes only five minutes.

7 The gerund is also used in the following Notes: The gerund is also used in the following constructions constructions: 1) It is no use/It is no good e.g It is no use trying to make her change her mind. It is no good interfering with other people’s business. 2) There is no e.g There is no joking about such matters. There is no denying the fact that the Clean Hong Kong Campaign is a success.

8 3) It’s worth / It’s not worth E.g. Is the film worth seeing ? It is not worth going to see that film. 4) It’s a waste of money / time E.g. It’s a waste of time writing the report. It’s a waste of money buying the doll. It’s a waste of money buying the doll.

9 5 ) Have difficulty doing E.g. Mary has difficulty doing her Maths homework. finding I’m sorry I’m late. I had difficulty finding the place. 6 ) Go-ing shopping E.g. Did you go shopping yesterday ? swimming How often do you go swimming in the summer ?

10 As the object of a verb When a gerund is used as the object of a verb in a sentence, it is placed after the verb. She tried to avoid getting involved in their quarrels. He enjoys acting. Mary disliked listening to pop music. They hate eating fatty foods. We all enjoy reading a good book.

11 The following words are followed Note: The following words are followed by gerunds, not infinitives: by gerunds, not infinitives: Acknowledge, admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, like, consider, doubt, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, remember,imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, propose, pardon, postpone, practice, prevent, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand, be worth, be busy

12 As a object of a preposition A gerund can also be used as the object of a preposition. In this case, the gerund follows the preposition. My brother is thinking of changing his job. She is fed up with teaching English. I look forward to seeing you in the summer. I was interested in painting. He persisted in carrying out the plan.

13 There are two exceptions---- Notes1: There are two exceptions---- except and but. except and but. e.g There was nothing left for us to do except complain to the Consumer Council. He did nothing but (to) watch television yesterday. In the following phrases, to is a Notes2: In the following phrases, to is a preposition. preposition. used to, averse to, closed to, object to, devoted to, when it comes to, opposed to, susceptible to, look forward to, accustomed to, confessed to, key to

14 After a possessive adjective or the possessive form of nouns Possessive adjective : my, our, your, his, her, its, their Possessive form of nouns : John’s my brother’s Example : Would you mind my using your book? Would you mind Joan’s using your dictionary?

15 After certain verbs Avoid enjoy miss recall appreciate finish oppose mind resist dislike prevent waste Examples : 1. I dislike having lunch with John. 2. Would you mind answering my question ? 3. When will you finish talking ?

16 7. F ormed by adding “not” before it. Example: I apologize for not being able to see you off at the airport tomorrow. He resented not having been invited to the party.

17

18 Infinitive:-- bare - inf.-- (1) After auxiliary verb "do, does, did, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must" Alice could not find the key. I will be glad to help you. (2)After verbs of perception "see, notice, observe, watch,hear, feel, smell" I saw her get on the bus. He heard her say that. He heard her say that. (3)After "make" & "let’’ His joke made us laugh. She did not let her sister go to the party. She did not let her sister go to the party.

19 bare - inf. (4)After "had better" "would rather' "cannot but" "can do nothing but" You ‘d better think about it. I ‘d rather wait here a little longer. Compare “ I ‘d rather you waited here a little longer. I cannot but laugh whenever I think of his humourous remark. As it was raining hard, I could do nothing but stay at home (5)After "need" "dare" and "except" He needn’t do it himself. Need he do it himself? She dared not lie to her parents. Dared she lie to her parents?

20 to - inf. (1)As a subject E.g To succeed at my fob is all I want at the moment. To argue with him is a waste of time. (2) To express an intention E.g. I go to school to study. She goes running everyday to lose weight. (3) In order to join a question & answer in single sentence. Q:Why did he move to Las Vegas? A1:He wanted to be closer to the casino. A2:He moved to Las Vegas in order to be closer to the casinos.

21 (4) So as ( not) to  join two sentences that relate to the same idea in one sentence. Eg. She studied very hard for the test. She wanted to be save to pass. Eg. She studied very hard for the test. She wanted to be save to pass. She studied very hard so as to be save to pass the test. She studied very hard so as to be save to pass the test. to - inf.

22 (5) Verb + inf.(5) Verb + inf. A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an infinitive include : A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an infinitive include : afford agree appear attempt decide determineafford agree appear attempt decide determine expect hope like love need offerexpect hope like love need offer pretend seem threaten refusepretend seem threaten refuse We can’t afford to go away this summer. We can’t afford to go away this summer. The room appears to have been searched. The room appears to have been searched. The prisoners attempted to escape but failed. The prisoners attempted to escape but failed.

23 to - inf. (6) Verb + object +inf.(6) Verb + object +inf. A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an object + an infinitive include: A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an object + an infinitive include: advise allow ask encourage help inviteadvise allow ask encourage help invite know order teach tempt tell warnknow order teach tempt tell warn The doctor advised me to take a complete break. The doctor advised me to take a complete break. Please allow me to carry that bag for you. Please allow me to carry that bag for you. We must appoint a time to meet again. We must appoint a time to meet again.

24 to - inf. (7) Adjective followed by infinitive dangerous important rude gooddangerous important rude good Eg. It s dangerous to walk home alone. Eg. It s dangerous to walk home alone. To walk home along is dangerous. To walk home along is dangerous. (8) “ Too” and ‘not enough’ (8) “ Too” and ‘not enough’ Eg, He is too tired to work, he should take some rest. Eg, He is too tired to work, he should take some rest. He is not tall enough to be a policeman. He is not tall enough to be a policeman.

25 Comparison b b b between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE

26 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE (1) Some verbs followed by GERUNDS or INFINITIVES without there being any change in meaning.(1) Some verbs followed by GERUNDS or INFINITIVES without there being any change in meaning. Such verbs include ‘start, begin,cease, continue and can’t bear’.Such verbs include ‘start, begin,cease, continue and can’t bear’. 2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning.( 2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning. Eg. They continued to - work after lunch.Eg. They continued to - work after lunch. - working - working

27 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE STOP 。 When the teacher came, theSTOP 。 When the teacher came, the children stopped talking at once. children stopped talking at once. The driver stopped his cars to ask The driver stopped his cars to ask where the farm was. where the farm was. REMEMBER 。 I can’t find my key. I rememberREMEMBER 。 I can’t find my key. I remember putting it in my coat, pocket,in putting it in my coat, pocket,in this morning. this morning. I hope you will remember to post I hope you will remember to post my letter on your way to school. my letter on your way to school.

28 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE FORGET 。 He has forgotten asking me the sameFORGET 。 He has forgotten asking me the same question yesterday. question yesterday. He has asked me to lend him my He has asked me to lend him my dictionary because he has forgotten to dictionary because he has forgotten to bring it again. mountain. bring it again. mountain. TRY 。 After failing twice, they tried climbingTRY 。 After failing twice, they tried climbing from the other side of the maintain. from the other side of the maintain. This year they will try to climb a high mountain. This year they will try to climb a high mountain.

29 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE REGRET 。 I regret telling her the secret. Now, everybody knows that I’ m going to everybody knows that I’ m going to resign. resign. I regret to tell you that your I regret to tell you that your application has not been successful. application has not been successful. I ‘ll let you know when there is I ‘ll let you know when there is another vacancy. another vacancy. GO ON 。 They went on talking until late into GO ON 。 They went on talking until late into the night. the night. They went on to talk about other They went on to talk about other things. things.

30 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE Eg. “Allow, advise, acknowledge, encourage, permit “,can be followed by an Object + infinitive.Eg. “Allow, advise, acknowledge, encourage, permit “,can be followed by an Object + infinitive. She advised us to start early.She advised us to start early. Compare: she advised starting early.Compare: she advised starting early. Eg. “deserve, need, want, and require “ Eg. “deserve, need, want, and require “ Can be followed by either an active gerund or a passive infinitive without change of meaning.Can be followed by either an active gerund or a passive infinitive without change of meaning. This needs- paintingThis needs- painting - to be painted. - to be painted.

31 PRESENTED BY David Au Chris Fung Skye Lam Linda Ng Kelvin Wong

32 ~THE END~ ~THE END~


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