3 Form Simple, Active Form Simple, Passive Dancing is her favorite habit.I prefer eating ice-cream.Form Simple, PassiveMary prefers being taught by a stern teacher.The actress stayed at her hotel to avoid being seen by her fans.
4 Form Perfect, Active Form Perfect, Passive I regret having made the remark abort her hairdo.I regret having seen the film.Form Perfect, PassiveThe film was banned after having been seen by thousands of people.I regret having been transferredto another class this year.
5 3. As the object of a preposition The gerund can be used:1. As the subject of a verb2. As the object of a verb3. As the object of a preposition4. After a possessive or the possessive formof nouns5. After certain verbs6. Special combination7. Formed by adding “not” before it.
6 As the subject of a verbWhen a gerund is used as the subject of a verb,it is placed at the beginning of a sentence.Reading romantic novels is my favourite pastime.Smoking is hazardous to health.Climbing mountains can be dangerous if we are not careful.A baby’s crying woke me up last.Walking from here to the local supermarket takes only five minutes.
7 Notes: The gerund is also used in the following constructions: 1) It is no use/It is no goode.g It is no use trying to make her changeher mind.It is no good interfering with other people’sbusiness.2) There is noe.g There is no joking about such matters.There is no denying the fact that the CleanHong Kong Campaign is a success.
8 3) It’s worth / It’s not worth E.g. Is the film worth seeing ?It is not worth going to see that film.4) It’s a waste of money / timeE.g. It’s a waste of time writing the report.It’s a waste of money buying the doll.
9 E.g. Mary has difficulty doing her Maths homework . 5 ) Have difficultyE.g. Mary has difficulty doing her Maths homework .I’m sorry I’m late. I had difficulty finding theplace.6 ) Go-ingE.g. Did you go shopping yesterday ?How often do you go swimming in thesummer ?
10 As the object of a verb When a gerund is used as the object of a verb in a sentence, it is placed after the verb.She tried to avoid getting involved in their quarrels.He enjoys acting.Mary disliked listening to pop music.They hate eating fatty foods.We all enjoy reading a good book.
11 Note: The following words are followed by gerunds, not infinitives: Acknowledge , admit , anticipate , appreciate , avoid ,celebrate , defer , delay , deny , detest , dislike , like ,consider , doubt , enjoy , escape , excuse , fancy ,finish , forgive , remember ,imagine , include , keep ,mention , mind , miss , propose , pardon , postpone ,practice , prevent , recall , recollect , report , resent ,resist , risk , save , stand , suggest , tolerate ,understand , be worth , be busy
12 As a object of a preposition A gerund can also be used as the object of apreposition. In this case, the gerund follows thepreposition.My brother is thinking of changing his job.She is fed up with teaching English.I look forward to seeing you in the summer.I was interested in painting.He persisted in carrying out the plan.
13 Notes1: There are two exceptions---- except and but . e.g There was nothing left for us to do except complainto the Consumer Council.He did nothing but (to) watch television yesterday.Notes2: In the following phrases, to is apreposition.used to, averse to, closed to, object to, devoted to,when it comes to, opposed to, susceptible to,look forward to, accustomed to, confessed to, key to
14 After a possessive adjective or the possessive form of nouns Possessive adjective : my, our, your, his,her, its, theirPossessive form of nouns : John’s my brother’sExample :Would you mind my using your book?Would you mind Joan’s using your dictionary?
15 After certain verbs Avoid enjoy miss recall appreciate finish oppose mindresist dislike prevent wasteExamples :1. I dislike having lunch with John.2. Would you mind answering my question ?3. When will you finish talking ?
16 7. Formed by adding “not” before it. Example: I apologize for not being able to seeyou off at the airport tomorrow.He resented not having been invitedto the party.
18 Infinitive:--bare - inf.-- (1) After auxiliary verb"do , does , did , shall , should, will , would , can , could , may , might , must"Alice could not find the key.I will be glad to help you.(2)After verbs of perception"see , notice , observe , watch ,hear , feel , smell"I saw her get on the bus.He heard her say that.(3)After "make" & "let’’His joke made us laugh.She did not let her sister go to the party.
19 bare - inf.(4)After "had better" "would rather' "cannot but" "can do nothing but"You ‘d better think about it.I ‘d rather wait here a little longer.Compare “ I ‘d rather you waited here a little longer.I cannot but laugh whenever I think of his humourous remark.As it was raining hard , I could do nothing but stay at home(5)After "need" "dare" and "except"He needn’t do it himself.Need he do it himself?She dared not lie to her parents.Dared she lie to her parents?
20 to - inf.(1)As a subjectE.g To succeed at my fob is all I want at the moment.To argue with him is a waste of time.(2) To express an intentionE.g. I go to school to study.She goes running everyday to lose weight.(3) In order to join a question & answer in single sentence.Q:Why did he move to Las Vegas?A1:He wanted to be closer to the casino.A2:He moved to Las Vegas in order to be closer to thecasinos.
21 to - inf.(4) So as ( not) to join two sentences that relate to the same idea in one sentence.Eg. She studied very hard for the test. She wanted to be save to pass.She studied very hard so as to be save to pass the test.
22 to - inf.(5) Verb + inf.A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an infinitive include :afford agree appear attempt decide determineexpect hope like love need offerpretend seem threaten refuseWe can’t afford to go away this summer.The room appears to have been searched.The prisoners attempted to escape but failed.
23 to - inf. (6) Verb + object +inf. A few of the more common verbs normally followed by an object + an infinitive include:advise allow ask encourage help inviteknow order teach tempt tell warnThe doctor advised me to take a complete break.Please allow me to carry that bag for you.We must appoint a time to meet again.
24 to - inf. (7) Adjective followed by infinitive dangerous important rude goodEg. It s dangerous to walk home alone.To walk home along is dangerous.(8) “ Too” and ‘not enough’Eg, He is too tired to work, he should take some rest.He is not tall enough to be a policeman.
26 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE (1) Some verbs followed by GERUNDS or INFINITIVES without there being any change in meaning .Such verbs include ‘start , begin ,cease, continue and can’t bear’.(2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning.Eg. They continued to - work after lunch.- working
27 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE STOP 。 When the teacher came, thechildren stopped talking at once.The driver stopped his cars to askwhere the farm was.REMEMBER 。 I can’t find my key. I rememberputting it in my coat , pocket ,inthis morning.I hope you will remember to postmy letter on your way to school.
28 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE FORGET 。 He has forgotten asking me the samequestion yesterday.He has asked me to lend him mydictionary because he has forgotten tobring it again. mountain.TRY 。 After failing twice, they tried climbingfrom the other side of the maintain.This year they will try to climb a high mountain.
29 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE REGRET 。 I regret telling her the secret. Now,everybody knows that I’ m going toresign.I regret to tell you that yourapplication has not been successful.I ‘ll let you know when there isanother vacancy.GO ON 。 They went on talking until late intothe night.They went on to talk about otherthings.
30 Comparison between GERUNDS and INFINITIVE Eg. “Allow , advise , acknowledge , encourage , permit “,can be followed by an Object + infinitive.She advised us to start early.Compare: she advised starting early.Eg. “deserve , need , want , and require “Can be followed by either an active gerund or a passive infinitive without change of meaning.This needs- painting- to be painted.