Presentation on theme: "Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game Susanne Leder*, Mauro Giacomantonio** & Lucia Mannetti** * Zeppelin University."— Presentation transcript:
Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game Susanne Leder*, Mauro Giacomantonio** & Lucia Mannetti** * Zeppelin University ** Sapienza University Rome
Anticipated Regret in the Ultimatum Game Regret: |experienced when we realize that we should have made a different choice |anticipated when we expect to receive information (“feedback”) about the outcome of non-chosen options consequence: regret-avoidance, regret-minimizing choices e.g., Zeelenberg, 1999; Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2007
Anticipated Regret in the Ultimatum Game Two possibilities to anticipate/experience regret: for offering too little, when offer is rejected for offering too much, when offer is accepted Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997 EXPECTED FEEDBACK “You will find out which would have been the lowest offer accepted by the responder” ANTICIPATED REGRET “I don‘t want to regret offering too much” OFFER reduces
The Influence of Locomotion and Assessment Hypothesis: |In persons with a predominant assessment orientation, compared to persons with a predominant locomotion orientation, offers in the ultimatum game are more strongly influenced by the tendency to minimize future regret Regulatory mode theory: |The two key functions of self-regulation, locomotion and assessment, can function as independent orientations or modes Individuals may self-regulate giving priority either to locomotion or to assessment Higgins, Kruglanski & Pierro, 2003; Kruglanski et al., 2000
The Influence of Locomotion and Assessment LOCOMOTION “just do it” Aspect of self-regulation concerned with: movement from state to state initiating and maintaining goal- related movement Effects on decision-making: strategy: progressive elimination weak tendency to regret and to generate counterfactual thoughts ASSESSMENT “do the right thing” Aspect of self-regulation concerned with: making comparisons critical appraisal of entities or states in order to judge relative quality Effects on decision-making: strategy: full comparison strong tendency to regret and to generate counterfactual thoughts Avnet & Higgins, 2003; Higgins et al., 2003; Pierro et al., 2008
Study Hypothesis: |The effect of anticipated regret on offers in the ultimatum game is stronger in persons high in assessment (vs. high in locomotion) Participants: |N = 123 (82f, 41m), mean age: 23.14 (SD = 3.60) Measures: |Regret (expected feedback; cf. Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997 ): “You will find out which would have been the lowest offer accepted by the responder” |Locomotion and assessment scales ( Kruglanski et al., 2000 ) |Offer (all participants were proposers) |Considerations ( cf. Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997 ): “I did not want to feel regret over a too high offer” “I did not want to feel regret over a too low offer” “I wanted my offer to be as strategic as possible” “I was afraid that my offer would not be accepted”
OFFER Did not want to regret too high offer* Did not want to regret too low offer Wanted offer to be strategic Was afraid that offer not accepted No Regret LOC-.04.01.02-.16 ASS-.36*-.06.01-.16 RegretLOC-.18-.24-.18 ASS-.60**.33-.41*.19 * significant covariate (F(1,118) = 13.86; p < 0.01), effect of regulatory mode orientation n.s.
Discussion Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret: |Persons high in assessment (vs. high in locomotion): make lower offers in the ultimatum game both if anticipated regret is salient and not salient may take into account regret spontaneously before making a decision
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