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The Theatre appears an unequalled way to understand and analyse the social context of the two Countries partners of this project, and to know each other’s.

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Presentation on theme: "The Theatre appears an unequalled way to understand and analyse the social context of the two Countries partners of this project, and to know each other’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Theatre appears an unequalled way to understand and analyse the social context of the two Countries partners of this project, and to know each other’s historical and cultural identity. In particular Eduardo De Filippo’s and Dario Fo’s works seem more suitable to represent the historical and social context of 20th century Italy in a lively and attractive way. From their works some scenes have been selected to be staged, as this project will be completed by their actual performance. Theatre Mirror of Society.

2 Dario Fo Prolific playwright, actor, mime artist and manager-director, Dario Fo ( )is well known for his satirical plays. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in The Nobel Committee noted that his work “emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden” “Our task as intellectuals, as persons who mount the pulpit or the stage, and who, most importantly, address to young people, our task is not just to teach them method, like how to use the arms, how to control breathing, how to use the stomach, the voice, the falsetto, the controcampo. It’s not enough to teach a technique or a style: we have to show them what is happening around us. They have to be able to tell their own story. A theatre, a literature, an artistic expression that does not speak for its own time has no relevance.” and together with her he has founded many theatre companies and written many plays. A committed artist, Fo has used art as a weapon against the conservative establishment of Italy’s political, religious and social scene. In his Nobel Lecture he said: He works closely with his actress-wife Franca Rame

3 So the main subject matters of his plays are the corruption in the Italian government and the Catholic Church, police brutality, abuses in the prison system, violations of human rights, the Mafia, rape. Fo and his wife have subjected every institution, political party and controversial law in Italy to their satirical power.the Mafia Because of their open criticism and biting satire, they suffered from censorship until the 1970s and were effectively banned from RAI, the Italian state television, for 15 years. They were also denied for a long time a visa for entry to the United States for disrespect toward American President Lyndon B. Johnson. On March 8, 1973 Franca Rame was kidnapped by a fascist group and raped. She has been elected as a senator in the Italian general election held in Dario Fo

4 Works From the very beginning Fo has been critical of the traditional Theatre. In his work The Tricks of the Trade he wrote: “ In my view, what we have around us is a dead theatre for dead people. …In Italy, no one is more dead than the authors, incapable of producing anything other than literary texts.” In his plays he uses methods and techniques typical of Popular Performance like the Comedy of Art, vaudeville, circus, and silent movies. His theatrical pieces often depend on improvisation and employ current news. He defines himself a jester as he believes that medieval jesters showed a kind of political commitment opposed to the established power because they were allowed to speak out in the court against the ruler without causing offence and could use humour to mock, jibe and joke. His plays have been translated into 30 languages and when they are performed abroad they are often modified to reflect local political issues. Fo’s production is very big, more than 70 works. The following are only some that best give a picture of the Italian society from the ‘60s on: In 1969 Fo presented for the first time Mistero buffo (Comic Mystery), a one-man play made up of monologues based on medieval religious works mixed with contemporary issues. When it was given on the Italian television in 1977, the Vatican rated it as “the most blasphemous show in the history of television”. Mistero Buffo remains Fo’s masterpiece.

5 Gli arcangeli non giocano a flipper ( Archangels Don’t Play Pinball). It’s about a petty criminal who suffers a loss of identity. In this play Fo attacks bureaucracy and its stern laws: only what is officially registered exists. Morte accidentale di un anarchico (Accidental Death of an Anarchist). The play is based on the unclear death of anarchist Giuseppe Pinelli while he was being interrogated by the police who suspected him of bombing a bank (the Piazza Fontana bombing). The work is a satire on the forces of law and order.the Piazza Fontana bombing Works

6 Non si paga? Non si paga! (We Can’t Pay? We Won’t pay). It’s a farce against the rising cost of living. Shocked at high prices, a group of women first insist on paying only what they think is reasonable, and then turn to shoplifting, grabbing groceries without paying at all. Works Mamma! I Sanculotti (The Sans - Culottes). Through grotesque situations, theatrical and clown effects the play denounces the corruption of the Italian society. There are also allusions to the Mafia, Terrorism and Secret Services. corruptionto the MafiaTerrorism and Secret Services.

7 Works Mamma! I Sanculotti (The Sans - Culottes). Through grotesque situations, theatrical and clown effects the play denounces the corruption of the Italian society. There are also allusions to the Mafia, Terrorism and Secret Services. corruptionto the MafiaTerrorism and Secret Services.

8 Tutta casa, letto e chiesa (All Home, Bed, and Church), inspired by the struggle of Italian women for the right to divorce and legal abortion.

9 THE SANS - CULOTTES !

10 THE SANS-CULOTTES! This two-act play is a farce based on misunderstanding and it denounces the corruption of part of the Italian society. It has references to the Mafia, Terrorism and deviant Secret Services. The plot is quite complex because the story develops through grotesque and absurd situations which it’s difficult to tell. Anyway, the protagonist is a judge who is investigating into corrupt politicians, judges and magistrates. For this reason his life is in danger, so he asks for bodyguards to protect him. To his surprise, he gets women bodyguards who apparently have to protect him but at the end of the play they turn out to be members of deviant Secret Services.

11 THE TITLE Sans-culottes was the name given to the French revolutionaries who wore long trousers instead of the short ones which were worn by everybody. Therefore the word sans-culottes was used for those who protested and rebelled against the established social order. Dario Fo uses this word in an ironic way. He calls sans-culottes all those who say they want to change society but actually they keep it the way it is. His sans-culottes are false rebels, and a danger to the good of society.

12 THE END

13 Piazza Fontana Bombing On December 12th, 1969 a bomb exploded in Banca Nazionale dell’Agricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, in Milan, killing 16 people. Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist, was first accused of the crime. While he was held and interrogated by the police, he was seen to fall from a fourth floor window of the Milan police station. His death was officially claimed to be suicide by the authorities. Back Investigator Luigi Calabresi, accused of being the murderer, was killed a few years later. Through years of painstaking investigation, the bombing turned out to be the work of extreme right terrorists, and Pinelli’s name has since been cleared.

14 The Strategy of Tension Piazza Fontana bombing marked the beginning of the so-called Strategy of Tension. The Strategy of Tension was designed to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, and terrorist attacks. It refers to the period roughly from 1969 to 1980, when Italy was hit by a series of terrorist bombings, some of which caused large numbers of civilian deaths. Next The responsible were right-wing extremists manoeuvered by intelligence and military structures. Faced with a huge growth of working class power, with violent strikes in factories, rioting in many towns, self-reduction prices, student and youth agitation, the emergence of left-wing terrorist groups such as the Red Brigades, the Intelligence Services began carrying out terrorist acts with the help of fascist groups.

15 Mafia ( The Organized Crime ) Mafia is one of the four main organizations of the Organized Crime in Italy. In the U.S.A. it is often referred to as Cosa Nostra. It developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the United States with the migratory waves. Mafia is a secret society made up of small gangs, each of which carry out their illegal activity over a specific territory. All the organized crime is engaged in drug and arms trafficking, frauds, gambling, cigarette smuggling, money laundering, prostitution, counterfeiting, protection rackets. According to statistics, the organized crime controls one business in five and the Mafia controls about 20% of all businesses. The profits are invested in real estates, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants, building industry. In order to carry on their illegal activities the organized crime, particularly Mafia, have infiltrated the political and financial world, gaining control of institutions by using a mixture of bribery and fear, and then murdering those that cross them. In recent years judges, priests, police officers, and even children have been murdered. Mafia has connections and branches around the world. Back

16 Bribeville A bribe is a sum of money or something valuable offered to someone in order to persuade them to do something dishonest. Bribeville (English for Italian Tangentopoli) was the name used for the corruption-based system uncovered in 1992 by the Clean Hands investigation. The investigation was carried out by a group of Milan magistrates. A total of 4,472 Italian businessmen, politicians, magistrates and others were investigated and 1,188 people, mainly politicians and business administrators, faced corruption charges. Some of them committed suicide after their crimes were exposed. Operation Clean Hands brought about a political earthquake, resulting in the disappearance of the major parties. Back

17 Extreme Left-wing Terrorism During the same period of time Italy saw also the birth of far-left movements and groups, some of which eventually adopted a terrorist policy. The best-known group was the Red Brigades, founded in Their aim was to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the Western Alliance. NEXT

18 . Their victims were Italian government and business leaders. In 1978 they kidnapped former Prime Minister Aldo Moro, killed 5 of Moro’s bodyguards and took him captive. Moro was murdered 56 days later. After that, new laws against terrorism were passed and by the terrorist threat was greatly reduced. PRIME MINISTER ALDO MORO. NEXT

19 Mafia ( The Organized Crime ) Mafia is one of the four main organizations of the Organized Crime in Italy. In the U.S.A. it is often referred to as Cosa Nostra. It developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the United States with the migratory waves. Mafia is a secret society made up of small gangs, each of which carry out their illegal activity over a specific territory. All the organized crime is engaged in drug and arms trafficking, frauds, gambling, cigarette smuggling, money laundering, prostitution, counterfeiting, protection rackets. According to statistics, the organized crime controls one business in five and the Mafia controls about 20% of all businesses. The profits are invested in real estates, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants, building industry. In order to carry on their illegal activities the organized crime, particularly Mafia, have infiltrated the political and financial world, gaining control of institutions by using a mixture of bribery and fear, and then murdering those that cross them. In recent years judges, priests, police officers, and even children have been murdered. Mafia has connections and branches around the world. Back

20 Mafia ( The Organized Crime ) Mafia is one of the four main organizations of the Organized Crime in Italy. In the U.S.A. it is often referred to as Cosa Nostra. It developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the United States with the migratory waves. Mafia is a secret society made up of small gangs, each of which carry out their illegal activity over a specific territory. All the organized crime is engaged in drug and arms trafficking, frauds, gambling, cigarette smuggling, money laundering, prostitution, counterfeiting, protection rackets. According to statistics, the organized crime controls one business in five and the Mafia controls about 20% of all businesses. The profits are invested in real estates, supermarkets, hotels, restaurants, building industry. In order to carry on their illegal activities the organized crime, particularly Mafia, have infiltrated the political and financial world, gaining control of institutions by using a mixture of bribery and fear, and then murdering those that cross them. In recent years judges, priests, police officers, and even children have been murdered. Mafia has connections and branches around the world. Back


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