2Feudal JapanFrom 1185 until the 1850s, Japan was ruled by a series of Shoguns (military rulers)The emperor, the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions.Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the bushi (samuari) class, the most powerful of whom was the de facto national ruler, the shogun.This period in Japan differed from the old shōen system in its pervasive military emphasis.
3Peasants, Merchants, etc. Japanese FeudalismSamurai – lived by Bushido, the “way of the warrior” (chivalric code)Ronin – those samurai without mastersShogunNinja – a warrior trained to use unorthodox fighting methods (assassination, espionage, martial arts)DaimyoSamuraiPeasants, Merchants, etc.
5Westerners are unknown in Japan 1500Westerners are unknown in Japan18751638Japan isolates itself from the West154216001542Portuguese visit Japan1600Dutch & British traders arrive
6The Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868 – also known as the Edo period1635 – foreign trade limited to China, Korea, and Netherlands at Nagasaki a few times per yearEmperor (mikado) ruledin name onlyActual power held bythe shogun
8Japan isolates itself from the West Japan isolates itself from the West18531853Perry opens Japan
9Perry Opens Japan1853 Perry visits Japan with 4 steam powered war ships1854 Perry returns, treaty signed
10Japanese Reaction Pros Cons “Dutch Learning” (Western knowledge) became very popular among many doctors, scholars, and scientistsWestern knowledge went against many traditional Japanese beliefsJapanese entrepreneurs, merchants, and budding industrialists stood to profit from increased tradeTraditional holders of prestige and power (daimyos and samurai) did not tend to profit from increased tradeResentmentExtraterritorial rights of Americans and EuropeansAnti-foreign uprisings ( )Japanese ports in turn bombarded by foreign shipsSolution“If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em”Japanese could benefit from knowledge of what happened to ChinaJapanese felt that they would be in a better position to renegotiate the trade treaties, and be less likely to be imposed upon, if they adopted Western ways (democracy, imperialism, industrialization, militarization, and modernization) – westernization
11Imperialization of Japan Why?Lack of fertile land for agricultureMarkets for finished productsNeed for the raw materials of industryPopulation growthResponse to Western imperialism
121854 - 1900 1860 Japanese delegation visits US 1868 Boshin War finalizes rule of Emperor Meiji1875 Japan occupies Kurile Islands1876 Japan claims Bonin Islands1891 Japan annexes Volcano Islands (Iwo Jima, et al)1894 1st Sino-Japanese War. Japan easily defeats China and gains Formosa, but intervention by the West denies Japan full (expected) fruits of victory1898 Spanish American War: US gains Philippines
13Completed Meiji Restoration Alliance of southern and western samurai, court and young Emperor MeijiOrdered the dissolution of the two-hundred-year-old Tokugawa Shogunate.Tokugawa Yoshinobu launched a military campaign to seize the emperor's court at Kyoto.Tide rapidly turned in favor of the smaller but relatively modernized imperial faction and resulted in defections of many daimyo to the Imperial side.Yoshinobu was stripped of all his power by Emperor Meiji and most of Japan accepted the emperor's rule.
14Westerners are unknown in Japan 1931Japan invades Manchuria18741500Westerners are unknown in Japan18741875Japan claims Kurile Islands1874190518751937/39Japan occupies portions of China19311910Japan annexes Korea1638Japan isolates itself from the West1905Russo-Japanese War19101938/391938/391542185316001542Portuguese visit Japan1600Dutch & British traders arrive1853Perry opens Japan1874Japan occupies Rkukyus Island1940France falls; Japan invades French IndoChina1875Japan occupies Bonin Islands1887Japan occupies Volcano Islands187518951st Sino-Japanese War; Japan acquires Formosa18741938/39Oil Line1887189918951899Marcus Is1939192019401920Japan acquires German colonies19201920
161904 Russo-Japanese War grew out of the rival imperial ambitions of the Russia and Japan over Manchuria and Korea. Japan emerged as major world power.1905 Treaty of Portsmouth ends Russo-Japanese War. Japan awarded half of Sakhalin Island and major leases/control of railroads in Manchuria; but much less than Japan was expecting. Major turning point in US / Japanese relationship1905 Taft-Katsura Memorandum:US recognized Japan’s special interest in KoreaJapan agreed to not challenge US oversight of Philippines1910 Japan annexes KoreaWWI Japan seizes Germany’s Pacific possessions21 Demands on China attempts to make China a protectorate of Japan1919 Treaty of Versailles: German possessions in Asia are awarded to Japan
17Japan acquires German colonies 1905Russo-Japanese War1905187519101910Japan annexes Korea1875187418871899189519201920Japan acquires German colonies19201920
18Japan & China: 2nd half 19th Century In 50 years China continued her downward spiral from what might have been the world’s most powerful nation to a nation unable to manage her affairsIn 50 years Japan emerged from a feudal state to a modern world power
191922 Washington Naval Conference limits size of Japanese Navy1924 Immigration Act of 1924 eliminated “undesirable” immigration including Japanese1930 London Naval Treaty further controls size and scope of navies1931 Invasion of Manchuria
20American & European Opposition Washington Conference (1922)Size limits on navies5:5:3 ratio for Great Britain, United States, and JapanJapanese resented these limitationsNine Power TreatyChina’s independence and territory guaranteedOpen Door Policy reaffirmedFour Power PactFrance, Great Britain, Japan, United StatesOne another’s colonial possessions would be respectedU.S. Japanese Exclusion Act (1924)Imperial Flag of the Japanese Navy
221933 Japan leaves the League of Nations after censure over its 1932 shelling of Shanghai1934 Japan withdraws from the Washington and London Naval Treaties1937 Skirmishes escalates into 2nd Sino- Japanese War1937 Rape of Nanking;1937 Shanghai and Hongchow fall to Japanese1938 Canton, Hankow, and Amoy fall to Japanese1938/39 Soviet-Japanese Border War1939 Hainan occupied by Japan
26Pacific Scope New York to LA = 2,450 miles London to Berlin = 580 milesBerlin to Moscow = 1,000 milesEntire European War fought inside an area ~1600 miles wide by ~1200 miles tallPacific War fought over a scope 3x as wide and 3x as tall
30Westerners are unknown in Japan 1931Japan invades Manchuria18741500Westerners are unknown in Japan18741875Japan claims Kurile Islands1874190518751937/39Japan occupies portions of China19311910Japan annexes Korea1638Japan isolates itself from the West1905Russo-Japanese War19101938/391938/391542185316001542Portuguese visit Japan1600Dutch & British traders arrive1853Perry opens Japan1874Japan occupies Rkukyus Island1940France falls; Japan invades French IndoChina1875Japan occupies Bonin Islands1887Japan occupies Volcano Islands187518951st Sino-Japanese War; Japan acquires Formosa18741938/39Oil Line1887189918951899Marcus Is1939192019401920Japan acquires German colonies19201920