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Japanese Expansion 1853 - 1941 Feudal Japan From 1185 until the 1850s, Japan was ruled by a series of Shoguns (military rulers) The emperor, the court,

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Presentation on theme: "Japanese Expansion 1853 - 1941 Feudal Japan From 1185 until the 1850s, Japan was ruled by a series of Shoguns (military rulers) The emperor, the court,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Japanese Expansion

3 Feudal Japan From 1185 until the 1850s, Japan was ruled by a series of Shoguns (military rulers) The emperor, the court, and the traditional central government were left intact but were largely relegated to ceremonial functions. Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the bushi (samuari) class, the most powerful of whom was the de facto national ruler, the shogun. This period in Japan differed from the old shōen system in its pervasive military emphasis.

4 Japanese Feudalism Shogun Daimyo Samurai – lived by Bushido, the “way of the warrior” (chivalric code) Samurai Peasants, Merchants, etc. Ronin – those samurai without masters Ninja – a warrior trained to use unorthodox fighting methods (assassination, espionage, martial arts)

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6 Westerners are unknown in Japan 1542 Portuguese visit Japan 1600 Dutch & British traders arrive 1638 Japan isolates itself from the West

7 The Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa family ruled Japan from 1603 until 1868 – also known as the Edo period 1635 – foreign trade limited to China, Korea, and Netherlands at Nagasaki a few times per year Emperor (mikado) ruled in name only –Actual power held by the shogun

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9 Japan isolates itself from the West 1853 Perry opens Japan

10 Perry Opens Japan 1853Perry visits Japan with 4 steam powered war ships 1854Perry returns, treaty signed

11 Japanese Reaction ProsCons “Dutch Learning” (Western knowledge) became very popular among many doctors, scholars, and scientists Western knowledge went against many traditional Japanese beliefs Japanese entrepreneurs, merchants, and budding industrialists stood to profit from increased trade Traditional holders of prestige and power (daimyos and samurai) did not tend to profit from increased trade Resentment Extraterritorial rights of Americans and Europeans Anti-foreign uprisings ( ) Japanese ports in turn bombarded by foreign ships Solution “If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em” Japanese could benefit from knowledge of what happened to China Japanese felt that they would be in a better position to renegotiate the trade treaties, and be less likely to be imposed upon, if they adopted Western ways (democracy, imperialism, industrialization, militarization, and modernization) – westernization

12 Imperialization of Japan Why? –Lack of fertile land for agriculture –Markets for finished products –Need for the raw materials of industry –Population growth –Response to Western imperialism

13 Japanese delegation visits US 1868Boshin War finalizes rule of Emperor Meiji 1875Japan occupies Kurile Islands 1876Japan claims Bonin Islands 1891Japan annexes Volcano Islands (Iwo Jima, et al) 18941st Sino-Japanese War. Japan easily defeats China and gains Formosa, but intervention by the West denies Japan full (expected) fruits of victory 1898Spanish American War: US gains Philippines

14 Completed Meiji Restoration Alliance of southern and western samurai, court and young Emperor Meiji Ordered the dissolution of the two- hundred-year-old Tokugawa Shogunate. Tokugawa Yoshinobu launched a military campaign to seize the emperor's court at Kyoto. Tide rapidly turned in favor of the smaller but relatively modernized imperial faction and resulted in defections of many daimyo to the Imperial side. Yoshinobu was stripped of all his power by Emperor Meiji and most of Japan accepted the emperor's rule.

15 Westerners are unknown in Japan 1542 Portuguese visit Japan 1600 Dutch & British traders arrive 1638 Japan isolates itself from the West 1853 Perry opens Japan 1874 Japan occupies Rkukyus Island 1875 Japan occupies Bonin Islands 1875 Japan claims Kurile Islands 1887 Japan occupies Volcano Islands st Sino-Japanese War; Japan acquires Formosa 1905 Russo-Japanese War 1899 Marcus Is 1910 Japan annexes Korea Japan acquires German colonies 1931 Japan invades Manchuria 1937/39 Japan occupies portions of China / France falls; Japan invades French IndoChina Oil Line

16 1 st Sino- Japanese War

17 Russo-Japanese War grew out of the rival imperial ambitions of the Russia and Japan over Manchuria and Korea. Japan emerged as major world power. 1905Treaty of Portsmouth ends Russo-Japanese War. Japan awarded half of Sakhalin Island and major leases/control of railroads in Manchuria; but much less than Japan was expecting. Major turning point in US / Japanese relationship 1905Taft-Katsura Memorandum: US recognized Japan’s special interest in Korea Japan agreed to not challenge US oversight of Philippines 1910Japan annexes Korea WWIJapan seizes Germany’s Pacific possessions 21 Demands on China attempts to make China a protectorate of Japan 1919Treaty of Versailles: German possessions in Asia are awarded to Japan

18 Russo-Japanese War 1910 Japan annexes Korea 1920 Japan acquires German colonies

19 Japan & China: 2 nd half 19 th Century In 50 years China continued her downward spiral from what might have been the world’s most powerful nation to a nation unable to manage her affairs In 50 years Japan emerged from a feudal state to a modern world power

20 Washington Naval Conference limits size of Japanese Navy 1924Immigration Act of 1924 eliminated “undesirable” immigration including Japanese 1930London Naval Treaty further controls size and scope of navies 1931Invasion of Manchuria

21 American & European Opposition Washington Conference (1922) –Size limits on navies 5:5:3 ratio for Great Britain, United States, and Japan Japanese resented these limitations –Nine Power Treaty China’s independence and territory guaranteed Open Door Policy reaffirmed –Four Power Pact France, Great Britain, Japan, United States One another’s colonial possessions would be respected U.S. Japanese Exclusion Act (1924) Imperial Flag of the Japanese Navy

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23 Japan leaves the League of Nations after censure over its 1932 shelling of Shanghai 1934 Japan withdraws from the Washington and London Naval Treaties 1937Skirmishes escalates into 2nd Sino- Japanese War 1937Rape of Nanking; 1937Shanghai and Hongchow fall to Japanese 1938Canton, Hankow, and Amoy fall to Japanese 1938/39Soviet-Japanese Border War 1939Hainan occupied by Japan

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25 Fall of France; Japan occupies French Indochina 1940Tripartite Pact formally creates Axis: Japan, Italy and Germany 1941Soviet - Japanese Neutrality Pact

26 Comparison: New York to LA = 2,450 miles

27 Pacific Scope New York to LA = 2,450 miles London to Berlin = 580 miles Berlin to Moscow = 1,000 miles Entire European War fought inside an area ~1600 miles wide by ~1200 miles tall Pacific War fought over a scope 3x as wide and 3x as tall

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29 Japanese Expansion

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31 Westerners are unknown in Japan 1542 Portuguese visit Japan 1600 Dutch & British traders arrive 1638 Japan isolates itself from the West 1853 Perry opens Japan 1874 Japan occupies Rkukyus Island 1875 Japan occupies Bonin Islands 1875 Japan claims Kurile Islands 1887 Japan occupies Volcano Islands st Sino-Japanese War; Japan acquires Formosa 1905 Russo-Japanese War 1899 Marcus Is 1910 Japan annexes Korea Japan acquires German colonies 1931 Japan invades Manchuria 1937/39 Japan occupies portions of China / France falls; Japan invades French IndoChina Oil Line

32 “Oil Line”


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