2 Conquest of Canaan & The Period of the Tribal League Joshua, Judges, Ruth
3 Introduction: The Prophets –Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings (1 and 2 Samuel & 1 and 2 Kings) –history of the nation Israel while in the promised land of Canaan –special relationship to Deuteronomy: the covenant blessings and curses for obedience and disobedience –The fortunes of the people of Israel were shaped by these blessings and curses
4 Covenant Blessings & Curses for Obedience & Disobedience faithful...blessings and success fell away...judged through the events of history, calling foreign nations to invade and oppress
6 Single Dominant Objective Factors leading to the dissolution of Israel? » Why was the nation which had received such great promises from him, a kingdom under divine judgment? » Why did Yahweh allow the destruction of the culture, religion, temple and political entity of the people he had called to be a great and vast nation? » Why had Israel lost the land that was to be forever hers?
7 The Invasion of Canaan First Section: the record of war as Yahweh led his people against the Canaanites (1-12) the promise to Abraham (Ge. 15:16) Moses’ commission to Joshua (Dt. 31:1-8) THE moment has come (Jos. 1:1-9)! Joshua
8 The 1st task reconnoiter the initial military target, Jericho... two spies were sent in... two reports …
9 The 1st task crossed the Jordan as God held back the waters, a la the Red Sea (3-4) renewal of the covenantal sign of circumcision (5) Army encircled Jericho: –marched around at God's instruction –war trumpets sounded...
10 Regulation by Mosaic Law if outside the boundaries of the Holy Land... terms of peace (Dt. 20:10-15) if within the boundaries of the Holy Land... exterminate everything that breathed (Dt. 7:1-2, 16; 13:12-16; 20:16-18; cf. Nu. 21:1-3) all entities to be irrevocably given over to Yahweh; no booty! When Jericho fell... (6:26; 7, 8) ïan Israelite infantryman broke the ban (7:1) ïBecause of this violation, the advance against the next military target (Ai) was a disaster (7, 8).
11 Strategy of Invasion: Divide & Conquer pushed thru central Canaan, dividing the north from the south pushed thru central Canaan, dividing the north from the south tricked into making a forbidden alliance w/one Canaanite group (9), but did not falter tricked into making a forbidden alliance w/one Canaanite group (9), but did not falter completed war campaigns in central, southern and northern Canaan respectively (10-12) completed war campaigns in central, southern and northern Canaan respectively (10-12)
12 2nd Section: Territorial Allotments to the 12 Clans 2 1/2 clans already (Nu. 32) 9 1/2 clans--allotments in Canaan (13-19) special towns: sanctuaries for persons fleeing from blood vengeance (20), homes for the Levites (21) significant land still remained (13:1) left to the individual clans to complete Joshua's farewell address and a ceremony of covenant renewal (23-24)
13 Tribal League (Judges): Tribal League before the monarchy theological record of failure (Ps. 106:34-43) preface: modified view (1:1--3:6) –successful only in the mountains, not in the plains (military superiority of chariots vs. infantry) –Israel overpowered (Jg. 1:19)
14 Breaching the Covenant many enclaves (Jg. 1:21, 27-36; 2:1-4) : –glaring evidence Israel had breached covenant responsibility before Yahweh –warnings vs. Israelite treaties & intermarriages w/Canaanites had been issued (Dt. 7:3-4; Jos. 23:12- 13;Jg. 3; 14:1-3) elevate Canaanites to a position of theological acceptance threatening the very definition of Israel as the people of God
15 A Shifting of Divine Purpose: from Extermination to Coexistence Angel at Bokim announcement: the fatal nature of this covenant failure... cause for great grief (Jg. 2:1-5) Yahweh’s intention:... troublers for the Israelites (Jg. 2:11-15, 20-23; 3:2)
16 Alien Military Threat Continues judges: military leaders rather than magistrates (2:16) Deborah: only one holding court (Jg. 4:5) emphasis: military leadership rather than their role in hearing civil cases
18 Arrangement of Judges: Preface in Two Windows First Window (1:1--2:5): conquest/settlement of Israel in the land punctuated with the failure to dislodge many of the enclaves of Canaanites provisional treaties made w/some Canaanites, a direct violation of the covenant code
2nd Window (2:6--3:6): apostasy of the nation: indulged in pagan religions new generation failed miserably: repeatedly abandoned Yahweh to the Canaanite fertility gods –turned the nation over to her enemies Hallmark of the Tribal League
20 Arrangement of Judges: History of the Judges (3:7-16:31) repeating cycle of... Apostasy, Oppression, Repentance, Deliverance, and Temporary Peace over & over demonstrated their vacillation and faithlessness led to the nation's repeated oppression, with military superiority shifting back and forth
oppressed by –Cushan-rishathaim of northwest Mesopotamia (3:7-8) –Eglon of Moab (3:12-14) –Jabin of northern Canaan (4:1-3a) –bedouin clans of Midian & Amalek (6:1-5, 33) –Ammonites (10:6-9) –Philistines (13:1)
22 Because of repentance, a judge sent to rescue the nation (3:9-10, 15, 31; 4:3b-10; 6:6-12, 34-35; 10:10-16; 11:29; 13:2-5). Following the deliverances, usually a time of temporary peace before the cycle began all over again (3:11, 30; 5:31b; 8:28)
12 judges 6 described in varying detail: Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson 6 described in brief notations Shamgar, Tola, Jair, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon
24 Barak, a military leader who worked closely with Deborah Abimelech, a leader who unsuccessfully attempted to establish the first Israelite monarchy.
25 Arrangement of Judges: Appendices (17-21) “Israel had no king”... “Everyone did as he saw fit” (17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25) 1st Incident: Levite kidnapped by the clan of Dan (Danites migrating from central Palestine to northern Palestine) –demonstrates religious syncretism & idolatry –had not yet been able to establish a land holding in the coastal plain (18:1)
26 Arrangement of Judges: Appendices (17-21) 2nd Incident: civil war that almost exterminated the Benjamites instigated by a corporate attempt at sodomy and a devastating gang rape
27 Story of Ruth (Ruth) theme: how God preserved the immediate ancestral family of David from extinction central: a repeating play on words between the names of the characters and the events
28 An Israelite Elimelech (My God is King), his wife Naomi (Pleasant), and his two sons Mahlon (Sickness) and Kilion (Consumption) left Bethlehem (the House of Bread) to live in Moab, because of a great famine. In Moab, the sons married Moabite women, but in time, all the males died. When Naomi determined to return to her Israelite homeland, Orphah (Back of the Neck) elected to stay in her native Moab
29 Ruth (Friend), however, refused to part with her mother-in-law When the two women returned, Naomi refused to be called by her former name, choosing rather to be called Marah (Bitter). With no male heirs, it appeared that the family line was doomed (1).
30 Ruth & Boaz Ruth -- the right to glean in the fields of Boaz, a wealthy bachelor Near relative was in a position to marry Ruth & preserve the family line of her deceased husband (cf. Dt. 25:5-6) Child born, and the family line of Naomi was preserved (4:14-17) The ancestral family of David, Israel's greatest king