Presentation on theme: "WWW.FORSVARSMAKTEN.SE/SWEDINT Gender Perspective Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Perspective Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations Gender Advisor to COM RC N Afghanistan Gender Field Advisor to COM PRT MES Afghanistan
Agenda Background UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions Terms and definitions Gender perspectives in military operations Implementation in peace keeping operations Mission specific examples - Group discussions Questions
Aim Course participants will be introduced to: Terms and definitions related to Gender in Peacekeeping Operations The background of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions, “Women, peace and security” Practical examples and Lessons Learned
What is Gender?
Gender terms and definitions Sex Gender Gender perspective Gender balance Gender Hierarchy Gender System Gender-based violence Sexual violence Gender equality Gender equity
Three themes which we should not mix up Assumptions and culture about being male and being female – changes and varies between areas and over time. Actual roles and patterns: economical, political, legal and social roles for men and women. These result in patters/trends of access to power and resources. Changes slowly but faster during war and conflict resolution. Many similarities between countries but cannot be assumed (but makes it possible to ask generic questions). Biological differences between men and women (most notably medical importance). The same in all countries and ‘non-changing’. Ex. maternal mortality.
Focus on that Gender perspective is essential for the operational effects Education, training and understanding Leadership
What is the first thing that hits your mind when you hear? Men, War and conflicts
What is the first thing that hitts your mind when you hear? Women, War and conflicts
Traditional Gender Constructions Men Soldier Defend, ﬁght Protector Public sphere do the necessary ‘evil’ Women Mother, Wife, Doughter Care, nurture, nurse Protected Private sphere the good and beautiful Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defense – Annika Kronsell (2012)
What is a gender perspective and why is it important? To have a gender perspective is to be able to detect if and when men and women are being affected differently by a situation/operation due to their gender. It is also used as a tool to provide special protection and uphold the freedom of movement for women and girls and in order to strengthen their rights and security.
Unless we know who is affected — women or men, girls or boys — and who among them is most at risk, at what time and place, the protection/security we provide may be off target.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (article 1 and 2) All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
UNSCR 1325 (2000) Original resolution – participation, protection & gender mainstreaming UNSCR 1820 (2008) Protection – sexual violence UNSCR 1888 (2009) Protection – sexual violence (implementation) UNSCR 1889 (2009) Peace building, 1325 anniversary & indicators UNSCR 1960 (2010) Sexual violence (ending impunity) UNSCR 2106 (2013) Conflict related sexual violance UNSCR 2122 (2013) Participation UN ”Women, Peace & Security” Resolutions
The 3 Pillars of WPS The Deputy Secretary-General developed 3 key strategies to implement the UNSCR 1325: Protection Prevention Participation -Method: Gender Mainstreaming
Protection The UNSCR on Women, Peace and Security reaffirm the need to implement fully international humanitarian and human rights law that protects the rights of the entire population during and after conflicts. Which mandates exist to protect vulnerable groups? -Outside military protection -domestic protection -judicial protection
Participation The UNSCR 1325 encourages the Secretary-General to implement his strategic plan of action calling for an increase in the participation of women at all decision- making levels in conflict resolution and peace processes. Implementation can be achieved through: -Peace negotiations -Female Key Leaders -Elections
Prevention Understanding the impact of armed conflict on the entire population in ordet to effectively institutionalise arrangements to guarantee protection, as a method to prevent. The full participation in the peace process can significantly contribute to the maintenance and promotion of international peace and security. For example: -with the use of correct information -higher female participation and representation, etc.
Gender and Operations Planning Directive
Gender Analysis Activity Profile - Who does what, where and when? Resources Profile - Who accesses, controls and benefits from valued resources? Influencing factors - Community norms and social hierarchies, demographic factors, institutional structures, laws, training & education etc. Assessments - Consequences, impact, inputs and needs
Tasks at tactical level in Military Operations 25 Patrolling Protection activities Assistance to national security forces Humanitarian aid support Check-point duties
MenWomenBoysGirls Robbery Assault Homicide Gang violence Forced to rape their own family members Rape and sexual torture Human trafficking Domestic violence Sexual assault Dowry death Sexual harassment Rape 'Honour' killings Stalking Forced sterilisation Human trafficking Gang violence Child abuse, rape Bullying Abduction Human trafficking Buying/selling for prostitution Infanticide Child abuse, rape Human trafficking Abduction Child marriage Buying/selling for prostitution Whose security?
MONUSCO Task: You are tasked to perform a gender analysis on the following incident report; The electric utilities has cout down all power supplies to a village clouse by the administrative border.
MONUSCO – Safe and secure environment
Women, Peace and Security Way Ahead: Improve the involvement of women at all levels in the peace process and ensure women’s participation in the struggle of bringing peace, develompent and good governance. Gender Perspectives in Operations should be planned, executed and evaluated in line with the operational objectives. Doctrines, policies Orders and plans. Decisive conditions and End State “Looking the other way makes you a part of the problem. Protecting the people not only requires protecting them from physical harm but also corruption and abuse of power” - COMISAF Directive 2009
Mission Documents Oplan – With gender annex FRAGOs SOPs TTPs Assessments and reports
”Only if women play a full and equal part can we build the foundations for enduring peace, development, good governance, human rights and justice.” - Kofi A. Annan Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2006.
Major Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaison at Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations Questions?
Gender/Sex ”Gender refers to the social attributes associated with being male and female learned through socialisation and determines a person’s position and value in a given context. This means also the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relationsships between women and those by men. These atrributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialisation processes. Notably, gender does not equate to woman” NATO Bi-SC Directive 40-1 ”Sex defines the biological differences between men and women. These characteristics are congenital and their differences are limited to psysiological reproductive functions” Gender Makes Sense – CCOE
Identify Training Need (Why) TOPICS TO LEARN Definition & Concept of Gender UNSCR 1325 and related Resolutions NATO Directive BI-SC 40-1 Operational impact of Gender Women Empowerment (KLE) Cooperation with other actors (stakeholders) dealing with Gender Gender in relation to CIMIC/Development Projects Standards of behavior / Code of Conduct Gender and Security Gender Based Violence and Violation of Human Rights Gender in relation to the specific culture Gender in relation to Human Rights / Local Legislation Gender in relation to refugees
The PRT activities support the 3 pillars of security, governance and development
Gender perspective at staff Level Executive Level Commander, Deputy Commander, Chief of Staff ‒Benefits (how GENAD can contribute to their work) ‒Relate to mission accomplishment Operational Level Operational Staff (J-2, 3, 5,9) ‒Benefits of using a Gender Perspective ‒Use OPORD and MDMP as basis for format Subordinate Commands (Executive Officer, Staff) Tactical Level Identify units based on mission Structure to mission ‒Joint Regional Detachments (JRD) ‒ Liaison Monitoring Teams (LMT, LOT) ‒Civilian Military Cooperation (CIMIC)
41 Guidance (Why) UNSCR WPS On women, peace and security Implementation Plan (Policy) NATO Action Plan (Operations) Mainstreaming UNSCR 1325 into NATO-led Operations and Missions Bi-SC Directive 40-1 (Military) Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspective in the NATO Command Structure
Gender mainstreaming is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality’. * UN DPKO UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, DPKO/DFS Guidelines: “Integrating a Gender Perspective into the work of the United Nations Military in Peacekeeping Operations” March 2010, , 11 am, Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations
COA dev. OPLAN dev. OPLAN review MAB rehearsal COA DBOPLAN Updated OPLAN CO’s guidance WngO OPORD CO’s guidance and Intent MA COA dev. OPP sequence ORDER/ FRAGO TASKS - ID - WO. XXXX FRAGO OPS ”Kick-Off” - OPO WAR GAMING OCM COA DB rehearsal CONOPS WngO ? GENDER PERSPECTIVE must be incuded
Decisive Conditions - DCs Own Force Credibility Ceasefire established Zones of Separation established Border re- established Refugees returned (women,men,boys and girls) Elections Successful Equal participation Mil security achieved Military handover Females are incuded in SSR Former Warring Factions (FWF) Passed through DDR Women,men,boys and girls Civilian auth. in place and control Active participation of women Example of an Operational Design for a CRO/PSO CRO-Crisis Respons Operation. COG Stage II: Orientation End State Human trafficing prevented