2 Gender Perspective Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaisonat Nordic Centre for Gender in Military OperationsGender Advisor to COM RC N AfghanistanGender Field Advisor to COM PRT MES Afghanistan
3 Agenda Background UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions Terms and definitionsGender perspectives in military operationsImplementation in peace keeping operationsMission specific examples- Group discussionsQuestions
4 Aim Course participants will be introduced to: Terms and definitions related to Gender in Peacekeeping OperationsThe background of UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions, “Women, peace and security”Practical examples and Lessons Learned
5 What is Gender? Socially constructed roles Opposed to biological and physical characteristicsLearned and changeable according to social, economic, political and cultural contextsThey are affected by several factors including age, race, class and ethnicityRelationships between men and women, girls and boys
6 Gender terms and definitions SexGenderGender perspectiveGender balanceGender HierarchyGender SystemGender-based violenceSexual violenceGender equalityGender equityTo begin, we necessitate a common definition for gender in order to assure that our perceptions and discussions revolve around the same knowledge and definitions.There are many different definitions of gender but the key message to bear in mind is that the concept of gender associated to each individual is a social construction and therefore varies from culture to culture. Characteristics which are perceived as female in one context or culture could be interpreted as masculine in others. (source)“The term gender includes both women and men, refers to a person’s sex and societal expectations placed on a person by virtue of their sex” (Resolution 1325: A resolution for Peace – Operation p.18)When discussing the relationship between men and women terms like Gender Hierarchy and Gender Systems are commonly used. These terms refer to the social relationship between men and women that form the society where the distribution of power and money often are unequally distributed. Due to norms that most often value men and what is perceived as masculine reflects what the perception of femininity is (Resolution 1325: A resolution for Peace – Operation p.18).
7 Three themes which we should not mix up Assumptions and culture about being male and being female – changes and varies between areas and over time.Actual roles and patterns: economical, political, legal and social roles for men and women. These result in patters/trends of access to power and resources. Changes slowly but faster during war and conflict resolution. Many similarities between countries but cannot be assumed (but makes it possible to ask generic questions).Biological differences between men and women (most notably medical importance). The same in all countries and ‘non-changing’. Ex. maternal mortality.
8 Focus on that Gender perspective is essential for the operational effects Education, training and understandingLeadership
9 What is the first thing that hits your mind when you hear? Men, War and conflictsWhy would different perceptions of these words be of importance to a military organisation or operation?Assign the audience to start off by discussing in smaller groups which words, roles and situations come to mind when they hear the words: men, war and conflict. Compel each group to brief you on what was discussed.Then ask them to discuss what comes to mind with the words: women, war and conflict. Ask them to brief you.Are there any differences or similarities between the different groups of words? Are the briefings based of facts or assumptions?Hopefully the discussion will give the audience a hint of why military organisations have decided to integrate a gender perspective within the organisation as the result of these discussions normally show that the expectations of men and women differ very much in the eyes of certain groups.
10 What is the first thing that hitts your mind when you hear? Women, War and conflicts
11 Traditional Gender Constructions MenWomenSoldierDefend, ﬁghtProtectorPublic spheredo the necessary ‘evil’ Mother, Wife, DoughterCare, nurture, nurseProtectedPrivate spherethe good and beautifulGender, Sex and the Postnational Defense – Annika Kronsell (2012)When thinking about men and women and their different gender roles in war and conflict we tend to create a dichotomy where women and men are perceived as each others opposites. When doing so it is easy to forget that gender roles vary from culture to culture and also change during conflict.For instanceThere are many female and girl soldiersThere are lone fathers that are fully responsible for the familyThere are women that who in the public sphereThere are men and boys that are victims of sexual violence
12 What is a gender perspective and why is it important? To have a gender perspective is to be able to detect if and when men and women are being affected differently by a situation/operation due to their gender.It is also used as a tool to provide special protection and uphold the freedom of movement for women and girls and in order to strengthen their rights and security.On the other hand, it is of great importance not to look upon men, women, boys and girls as an entity. A problem often accuring when speaking about the ”civil population” or the ”protection of civilians”. To have a gender perspective is to be able to detect if and when men and women are being affected differently by a situation/operation due to their gender.The importance of a gender perspective is that it acts as a tool to better and increase effectiveness in as many societal aspects as possible as well and increase the integration between the sexes.According to the UN resolution 1325, NATO recognises that women, girls and boys are potentially more vulnerable to threats, intimidation and assaults during armed conflict and therefore it is important to have a gender perspective as it is a tool to increase operational effectiveness. By identifying an often overlooked populace, recognizing their specific needs and providing the appropriate comprehensive response, the operational environment is positively influenced.(NATO, BI-Strategic Command Directive (BI-SCD) 40-1, p.3)
13 Unless we know who is affected — women or men, girls or boys — and who among them is most at risk, at what time and place, the protection/security we provide may be off target.
15 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (article 1 and 2) All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.In 1948 the UN adapted the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and that was the starting point for the juridical framwork stating that women and men are equal (Gender Makes Sense – CCOE). Though it is interesting to note the wording ”in a spirit of brotherhood”. Maybe it says something about who it was directed towards?Human rights regulate the dimensions between the state and the individual were the state is obligated to:- Protect- Promote- Fulfilthe human rights
16 UN ”Women, Peace & Security” Resolutions UNSCR 1325 (2000) Original resolution – participation, protection & gender mainstreamingUNSCR 1820 (2008) Protection – sexual violenceUNSCR 1888 (2009) Protection – sexual violence (implementation)UNSCR 1889 (2009) Peace building, 1325 anniversary & indicatorsUNSCR 1960 (2010) Sexual violence (ending impunity)UNSCR 2106 (2013) Conflict related sexual violanceUNSCR 2122 (2013) ParticipationAccording to the United Nations, before the Second World War, 90 per cent of casualties in conflicts were combatants. Today, 90 per cent of casualties are civilians of whom the majority are women and children. Widespread sexual and gender-based violence in conflict situations, the lack of institutional arrangements to protect women and continued under-representation of women in peace-processes remain major impediments to building sustainable peace.A NATO action plan to mainstream UNSCR 1325 and related Resolutions into NATO-led operations and missions was endorsed at the Lisbon Summit in November 2010.Considerable progress has been made by Allied Command Transformation (ACT), which has ensured that a gender perspective is included in the curriculum of NATO Training Centres and Centres of Excellence and in pre-deployment training.NATO and its operational partners in Afghanistan and Kosovo have attached great importance to incorporating a gender perspective in crisis management, operational planning and exercise planning from the higher political and strategic level to the field-level. The gender perspective has also been included in many NATO planning directives and related relevant documents such as handbooks, codes of conduct and standard operating procedures.Though the Alliance has no influence on measures or policies taken at national level, it is required that personnel deployed in NATO-led operations and missions and serving within NATO structures are appropriately trained and meet required standards of behaviour. Several nations have initiated gender-related training for subject matter experts and raised general awareness on UNSCR 1325 and related Resolutions ahead of national force deployments.NATO’s next Crisis Management Exercise in 2014 includes – for the first time ever – a gender perspective as one of its objectives. These annual exercises are designed to practice Alliance crisis management procedures at the strategic political level, and involve civilian and military staffs in Allied capitals, at NATO Headquarters, and in both Strategic Commands.
17 The 3 Pillars of WPSThe Deputy Secretary-General developed 3 key strategies to implement the UNSCR 1325:ProtectionPreventionParticipation-Method: Gender MainstreamingThere are three fundamental pillars to implementing landmark resolutions on women peace and security. The Deputy Secretary-General has developed key strategies to implement the security council resolution 1325 to ensure that the resolution serve as a tool to demand the protection and empowerment of women and girls. The provisions of the resolution had to be translated into practical policy recommendations which is why the 3 P’s provide the appropriate framework in developing national action plans.Member states need help in translating the provisions of resolution 1325 into policies and programs which is why United Nations peace operations are essential to this effort.The peacekeepers should no longer focus purely on military tasks and the efforts to implement UNSCR 1325 are no longer directed only at parties to conflict. Peace operations now deal with human rights, the rule of law, humanitarian aid, and a range of other issues that directly affect women.Since the adoption of 1325, gender mainstreaming has become a core component of peace operations and the United Nations has gender advisers in most complex peace support operations.
18 ProtectionThe UNSCR on Women, Peace and Security reaffirm the need to implement fully international humanitarian and human rights law that protects the rights of the entire population during and after conflicts. Which mandates exist to protect vulnerable groups? -Outside military protection -domestic protection -judicial protectionThe UNSCR on Women, Peace and Security reaffirm the need to implement fully international humanitarian and human rights law that protects the rights of women and girls during and after conflicts.After Conflict: female voters are four times as likely to be targeted for intimidation in elections in fragile and transitional states.In Burundi, the Democratic Republic of congo, Iraq and Sierra Leone, Sudan and Timor-Leste, less than 8% of post conflict spending was specifically budgeted to empower women or promote gender equality.Rape has been a rampant tactic in modern wars. Conservative estimates suggest that 20,000-50,000 women were raped during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while approx. 250, ,000 women and girls were targeted in the 1994 Rwandan genocide.“Facts and Figures, Peace and Security, UN Women, United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
19 ParticipationThe UNSCR 1325 encourages the Secretary-General to implement his strategic plan of action calling for an increase in the participation of women at all decision-making levels in conflict resolution and peace processes. Implementation can be achieved through: -Peace negotiations -Female Key Leaders -ElectionsThe women, peace and security agenda encompasses women’s full participation in decision-making regarding conflict prevention, resolution, and post-conflict rebuilding; accountability for violations of women’s human right; and women’s protection concerns.As well as appoint more women as special representatives and envoys to pursue good offices on his behalf and in this regard calls on member states to provide candidates to the secretary general, for inclusion in a regularly updated centralized roster.As of September 2012, 3 out of 25 International Court of Justice Judges were women.Among sitting international criminal judges, 10 of 18 were women. Out of all 24 judges who have served the latter, 13 have been women.In Morrocco, 16 commissioners sat on the 2004 Equity and Reconcilliation Commisson; only 1 was a woman.
20 PreventionUnderstanding the impact of armed conflict on the entire population in ordet to effectively institutionalise arrangements to guarantee protection, as a method to prevent. The full participation in the peace process can significantly contribute to the maintenance and promotion of international peace and security. For example: -with the use of correct information -higher female participation and representation, etc.It is important to incorporate a gender perspective to help prevent the destructive and detrimental situations women experience post conflict. The implementation of the United Nations resolutions and the increase in integration would have a positive effect on peace keeping operations where field operations include a gender component.The expansive role and contribution of women in the UN field based operations, and especially among military observers, civilian police, human rights and humanitarian personnel would benefit the strategies adopted to implement durable peace and reconciliation.
22 Gender Analysis Activity Profile - Who does what, where and when? Resources Profile- Who accesses, controls and benefitsfrom valued resources?Influencing factors- Community norms and social hierarchies, demographic factors, institutional structures, laws, training & education etc.Assessments- Consequences, impact, inputs and needsThe planners should consider and at all times assume that lives, experiences, security threats, freedom of movements, healthiness, and access to health care, resources and influence are not the same for men, women, boys and girlsThese differences and their consequences should be analyzed and taken into consideration to provide recommendations and guidance.“Gender analysis is defined as the systematic gathering and examination of information on gender differences and social relations in order to identify and understand inequities based on gender. It could also be understood as “methods used to understand the relationship between men and women in the context of the society”. An example would be when during military planning activities the different security concerns of women and men in the area of operation are assessed or power relations in the community are taken into account to ensure women and men have equal access to assistance where the military is engaged in supporting humanitarian assistance. Other examples would include understanding how customary conflict-resolution mechanisms affect women and men differently and how their social status may change as a result of war”.Bi-SC Directive 40-1, p.5
24 Find out if there are different threats against women and men Find out if there are different threats against women and men. Think through different aspects such as the level of crime in the region.
25 Tasks at tactical level in Military Operations PatrollingCheck-point dutiesHumanitarian aid supportProtection activitiesAt the heart of your mission will be : protection of the civilian population10-15 MINUTE BRAINSTORMING : How is men and women´s participation (mixed teams) and integrating gender perspectives, relevant in the above tasks?Egs of operational necessity of having women;Egs at hand from EUFOR mission in Chad; UNMIL all-female police unit; Afghanistan, etcRemember:Are both women and men consulted and involved, including civil society?Are the different security needs of women, men, boys and girls being taken into account?Are you equipped to meet these different needs?What to look for…soldiers..What is the normal ”picture” in the sorroundings? What differs ?Circumstances in the town/village? Girl-schools? Higher education? Female teachers? Health clinics open ? Health facilities serves women? Female health provider? Trained midwifes?Can women or girls be seen? Where and When? Move freely? Leave compound? Using local roads?Women participating in any unusual matter in society ?Living conditions ?Obvious needs ?Signs of propaganda ?Signs of corruption, abuse of power ?Security threats against women observed ?Signs of Gender Based Violence / Sexual Exploitation and Abuse/ Trafficking ?”…being the eyes and ears of the international community !”Assistance tonational security forces25
26 Whose security? Men Women Boys Girls Robbery Assault Homicide Gang violenceForced to rape their own family membersRape and sexual tortureHuman traffickingDomestic violenceSexual assaultDowry deathSexual harassmentRape'Honour' killingsStalkingForced sterilisationChild abuse, rapeBullyingAbductionBuying/selling for prostitutionInfanticideChild marriageOften, biggest threat to security is GBV. Women and men affected differently. Women : mostly in private areas, sexual violence as weapon of war. Men : also can be victims of GBV. Constitute most of the victims of gun violence. YOU NEED TO BE AWARE OF THESE DIFFERENT SECURITY NEEDS AND RISKS in order to be able to protect the civilian population.Can be addressed by talking to more women and having more women.Other advantages of talking to women and having more – operational necessity. Information collection/ early warning . Other egs?
27 MONUSCO Task:You are tasked to perform a gender analysis on the following incident report; The electric utilities has cout down all power supplies to a village clouse by the administrative border.Elbolaget har stängt av strömmen till en by som ligger i närheten av den administrativa gränsen’.På vilket sätt påverkas män/kvinnor/flickor/pojkar av det som hänt?Vem gör vad när, var och med vilka resurser?Vad blir konsekvenserna av detta?
28 MONUSCO – Safe and secure environment Democratic Republic of Congo.In a area with a lot of disturbance close to a refugee camp there was a electricity breakage.The troops positioned stated that in their task to be “Safe and secure and environment”.In this particular area, not women but men was the ones collecting firewood. (Due to ethnicity, cultural aspects)Is there a gender perspective?Who uses the electricity? – Whole populationTo What? - Heating, light, cooking, readingHow do they replace electricity if the breakage would last for hours or days? – Fire and firewoodWhere do they collect the firewood? – In the woods, close to the border.What kind of consequences could this cause? – Risk for detention, arrest or gunfire and increased tension in the area due to movement in the area along the border line. Family support at risk loosing the men.Who collects wood
31 Women, Peace and Security Way Ahead:Improve the involvement of women at all levels in the peace process and ensure women’s participation in the struggle of bringing peace, develompent and good governance.Gender Perspectives in Operations should be planned, executed and evaluated in line with the operational objectives.Doctrines, policiesOrders and plans.Decisive conditions and End State“Looking the other way makes you a part of the problem. Protecting the people not only requires protecting them from physical harm but also corruption and abuse of power”- COMISAF Directive 2009
32 Mission Documents Oplan With gender annex FRAGOs SOPs TTPs Assessments and reportsOn arrival in the mission area it is good to comprehend the existing mission documents,like the OPLAN, Fragmentation Orders (FRAGOs), Standard Operating Procedures(SOPs), Tactical Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), assessments and reports.In the ISAF operation gender is for example included inThe OPLAN with a Gender AnnexIn several FRAGO’s, regarding engaging the female population and including a gender perspective in planning.TTPs have been developed to conduct search operations with a gender perspective.These mission documents give clear tasks to the operational and tactical level when itcomes to gender mainstreaming throughout the mission. (CCOEp-56)Mission documents should alsoprovide clear guidance when it comes to including gender in reporting. Strong andeffective monitoring and reporting mechanisms should always be in place, making surethat human rights violations, gender based violence and indications of domestic orinternational trafficking of human beings are reported, addressed and handled.To the greatest extent possible, reporting on gender issues should be integrated withother standard reporting procedures and lessons learned / best practices mechanisms.Reports should include information about the situation of men and women, boys and girls;the impact of military interventions; and statistics disaggregated by sex. In addition toregular reporting procedures, reports may also include oral briefings, progress reports, or thematic reports. In Periodic Mission Reviews, gender should be specifically addressed(CCOEp-56)
33 ”Only if women play a full and equal part can we build the foundations for enduring peace, development, good governance, human rights and justice.”- Kofi A. Annan Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2006.
34 Questions? Major Linda Johansson Head of Section, Capability and Liaisonat Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations
36 Gender/Sex NATO Bi-SC Directive 40-1 ”Gender refers to the social attributes associated with being male and female learned through socialisation and determines a person’s position and value in a given context. This means also the relationships between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relationsships between women and those by men. These atrributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialisation processes. Notably, gender does not equate to woman”NATO Bi-SC Directive 40-1”Sex defines the biological differences between men and women. These characteristics are congenital and their differences are limited to psysiological reproductive functions”Gender Makes Sense – CCOETo begin, we necessitate a common definition for gender in order to assure that our perceptions and discussions revolve around the same knowledge and definitions.There are many different definitions of gender but the key message to bear in mind is that the concept of gender associated to each individual is a social construction and therefore varies from culture to culture. Characteristics which are perceived as female in one context or culture could be interpreted as masculine in others. (source)“The term gender includes both women and men, refers to a person’s sex and societal expectations placed on a person by virtue of their sex” (Resolution 1325: A resolution for Peace – Operation p.18)When discussing the relationship between men and women terms like Gender Hierarchy and Gender Systems are commonly used. These terms refer to the social relationship between men and women that form the society where the distribution of power and money often are unequally distributed. Due to norms that most often value men and what is perceived as masculine reflects what the perception of femininity is (Resolution 1325: A resolution for Peace – Operation p.18).
37 Identify Training Need (Why) TOPICS TO LEARNDefinition & Concept of GenderUNSCR 1325 and related ResolutionsNATO Directive BI-SC 40-1Operational impact of GenderWomen Empowerment (KLE)Cooperation with other actors (stakeholders) dealing with GenderGender in relation to CIMIC/Development ProjectsStandards of behavior / Code of ConductGender and SecurityGender Based Violence and Violation of Human RightsGender in relation to the specific cultureGender in relation to Human Rights / Local LegislationGender in relation to refugees
38 The PRT activities support the 3 pillars of security, governance and development
39 Gender perspective at staff Level Executive LevelCommander, Deputy Commander, Chief of StaffBenefits (how GENAD can contribute to their work)Relate to mission accomplishmentOperational LevelOperational Staff (J-2, 3, 5,9)Benefits of using a Gender PerspectiveUse OPORD and MDMP as basis for formatSubordinate Commands (Executive Officer, Staff)Tactical LevelIdentify units based on missionStructure to missionJoint Regional Detachments (JRD)Liaison Monitoring Teams (LMT, LOT)Civilian Military Cooperation (CIMIC)Deliberate and detailed E&T PlanIndividual = Courses, contentCollective = injects to CT&EXAnalysed by level of commandPol-MilStrategicOperationalTacticalNational Linkages
41 Guidance (Why) UNSCR WPS Implementation Plan (Policy) On women, peace and securityImplementation Plan (Policy)NATO Action Plan (Operations)Mainstreaming UNSCR 1325 into NATO-led Operations and MissionsBi-SC Directive 40-1 (Military)Integrating UNSCR 1325 and Gender Perspective in the NATO Command StructureThe basis of gender and security is found in UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on “women, peace and security”.At SACT, the integration of gender perspective is executed two-fold:internally, it means considering women to hold higher posts within the NATO structure and raising awareness within our HQ of the value-added of gender perspective.Externally, it is following through JFTs vision to implement UNSCR 1325 and integrate gender perspective into all of ACT’s work, particularly in the field of education and training, incorporate UNSCR 1325 into existing NATO training, and provide recommendations for pre-deployment training.There will be a GENAD in all exercises – it is not just the interaction that is important, but the perspective and it’s impact on the OE and influence in planningINTEGRATION, PERSPECTIVE and OPERATIONALIZATIONUnder the current PE, we have a Gender Advisor – or GENAD and a Deputy Gender Advisor. With the restructuring of the new PE, the Gender Advisor will sit directly in the Command Group and accessible to SACT, DSACT and the COS. The GENDAD will be an advisor like any other – the such as POLAD or LEGAD.
42 Gender mainstreamingis the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels.It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality’.* UN DPKOUN Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, DPKO/DFS Guidelines: “Integrating a Gender Perspective into the work of the United Nations Military in Peacekeeping Operations” March 2010, , 11 am,Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations
43 OPP sequence GENDER PERSPECTIVE must be incuded TASKS CO’s guidance Мастер слајд за припрему презентација на седницама Колегијума начелника ГШ ВС - ОЈ ГШ ВСOPP sequenceTASKS- ID- WO.XXXX FRAGOOPS ”Kick-Off”- OPOCO’s guidanceCO’s guidanceand IntentWAR GAMINGOCMMABCOA DBOPLANUpdatedOPLANCOAdev.COAdev.OPLANdev.OPLANreviewMAWngOCONOPSMABrehearsalCOA DBrehearsalORDER/FRAGOOPORDWngO ?We got 2 rehearsals, before CO presence, and you will conduct these rehearsals during the exercise.OCM-Order and coordination meetingThe purpose of the INITIATION stage is to establish the requirement to conduct operational planning as well as the general planning direction and planning limitations.Typical tasks at all levels include the formation of Operational Planning Groups (OPGs), the collection of information and data related to the potential area of operations, identification of external HQs and international agencies with which co-ordination and liaison may be required, as well as formulating preliminary military assessments.PREPARATION. In anticipation of a requirement to commence operational planning, a commander typically activates an OPG and begins collecting information, data and planning tools that may be required.Operational planning involves the collection, analysis, exchange and management of information compiled by individual planning staffs across different functional areas. The OPG should establish procedures to manage this information as well as exchange requirements among different planning staffs and within the OPG. Particular attention should be given to geographic data and Order of Battle data. This may entail establishing a “Theatre Database” for each planning situation, which supports planning requirements and planning tools.Develop information/knowledge about AOO/AOR such as gender related risks and treats in order to uderstand common operational picture in terms of genderAct as subject metter expert on Gender issuesIntegrate gender issues in RFIsIdetify main actors (state, non state, adversaries and partners) that are relevant to gender situationCoordinate on the development of the Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR) and Intelligence RequirementsCOG, DPsContribute that mission statement incorporate take into account gender perspectivsIncooporate gender perspective in CO PGsGENDER PERSPECTIVE must be incuded43
44 Decisive Conditions - DCs PfPSOCDecisive Conditions - DCsExample of an Operational Design for a CRO/PSOStage II:OrientationZones ofSeparationestablishedBorder re-establishedHumantrafficingpreventedCeasefireestablishedEnd StateCOGCivilian auth.in place and controlActive participation of womenElectionsSuccessfulEqual participationRefugees returned(women,men,boys and girls)Own ForceCredibilityMilitary handoverFemales areincuded in SSRFormer WarringFactions (FWF)Passed through DDRWomen,men,boysand girlsMil securityachievedCRO-Crisis Respons Operation.44