Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 LIORA KUPFER LIZZIE SCHADER. AP PSYCH We decided to take AP psych instead of regular psych because we were motivated to take a challenging."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 11 LIORA KUPFER LIZZIE SCHADER
AP PSYCH We decided to take AP psych instead of regular psych because we were motivated to take a challenging course and wanted to gain credit for college.
MOTIVATION Motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
AARON RALSTON Aaron Ralston was an experienced mountaineer that got his wrist stuck between a rock and a cliff. Nothing he did could remove the large rock so to escape he broke his bones and cut off his arm.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Instinct theory- focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors Due to the popularity of Darwin’s theory popularity, early instinct psychologists were simply naming behaviors rather than explaining them. Drive-reduction theory- focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact
THEORIES MOTIVATION 2 Arousal theory – focuses on finding the right level of stimulation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs- describes how some of our needs take priority over others
INSTINCT Instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned Chatper 5- imprinting in birds Chapter 7- return of salmon to their birthplace
DIFFERENCE OF ORGANISMS The more complex an organism’s nervous system is, the more they are able to learn. Human’s can change their behavior to build different houses but the bird must build one type of nest.
GENES STUDIES Twin studies show us that genes predispose us to typical behaviors because twins separated at birth reported having similar habits and hobbies. John Garcia’s studies on taste aversion show us that genes predispose us to typical behaviors because rats learned to stop drinking the water because they had gotten radiation poisoning. Even if they got nausea several hours after receiving radiation poisoning they still avoided the water.
HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis- the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. “Human’s bodies work to maintain a state of regularity”
DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY Drive reduction theory- idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need by, say, eating or drinking. -when a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive—an aroused, motivated state
ZUCKERMAN’S STUDY Those who enjoy high arousal are most likely to enjoy intense music, novel foods, and risky behaviors (Zuckerman, 1979).
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Hierarchy of needs - Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 2 The order of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is not universally fixed. People have starved themselves to make a political statement. Nevertheless, the simple idea that some motives are more compelling than others provides a framework for thinking about motivation.
POOR VS. WEALTHY NATIONS In poorer nations that lack easy access to money and the food and shelter it buys, financial satisfaction more strongly predicts feelings of well-being. In wealthy nations, where most are able to meet basic needs, home-life satisfaction is a better predictor. Self-esteem matters most in individualist nations, whose citizens tend to focus more on personal achievements than on family and community identity.
ANCEL KEYS STUDY OF SEMISTARVATION Ancel Keys conducted a study where he fed 36 male volunteers just enough to maintain their initial weight. Then, for six months, they cut this food level in half. The effects soon became visible. Without thinking about it, the men began conserving energy; they appeared listless and apathetic. After dropping rapidly, their body weights eventually stabilized at about 25 percent below their starting weights. Especially dramatic were the psychological effects. Consistent with Maslow’s idea of a needs hierarchy, the men became food-obsessed. They talked food. They daydreamed food. They collected recipes, read cookbooks, and feasted their eyes on delectable forbidden foods. Preoccupied with their unfulfilled basic need, they lost interest in sex and social activities.
DOROTHEA DIX “nobody wants to kiss when they are hungry” ~ Dorothea Dix The basic needs of humans must be met before they are able to progress in life and experience intense emotion
IRISH PROVERB “The full person does not understand the needs of the hungry”~ Irish proverb It is hard to understand another person’s situation if you’ve never experienced what they are going through especially with something as devastating as hunger
TSANG’S 1938 STUDY Over 90% of the stomach was removed from seven rats and their behavior in a maze and in activity cages was studied. After one day's fasting the gastrectomized rats were almost as well motivated as normals in the first trial of the maze. With additional trials on the same day the operated rats increased much faster than the normal rats in both time and error scores. The activity records showed that the gastrectomized animals were three times more active one hour before feeding than one hour after feeding; but they were less active than normal rats. The results show that the enteric tract is the principal source of the motivation, an empty stomach being probably the necessary condition. Contractions of the stomach per se are not the cause of the motivation.
GLUCOSE AND INSULIN main type of sugar in the blood and is the major source of energy for the body's cells. Glucose comes from the foods we eat or the body can make it from other substances. Glucose is carried to the cells through the bloodstream. Several hormones, including insulin, control glucose levels in the blood
When a rat is food-deprived, its blood sugar levels wane and the lateral hypothalamus churns out the hunger-triggering hormone orexin. When given orexin, rats become ravenously hungry (Sakurai et al., 1998).
VENTROMEDIAL HYPOTHALAMUS -Stimulating would cause you to stop eating Destroying would cause you to be hungry
SET POINT Set point- “weight thermostat” that alters due to hunger and weight
BASAL METOBALIC RATE Basal metobalic rate- body’s resting rate of energy expenditure- reduces caloric intake by half, energy level drops as well
NEOPHOBIA Neophobia- fear trying and experiencing new things
VARIETY IN TASTE Hot cultures like hot spices. Countries with hot climates, in which food historically spoiled more quickly, feature recipes with more bacteria-inhibiting spices (Sherman & Flaxman, 2001). India averages nearly 10 spices per meat recipe; Finland, 2 spices.
UNIT BIAS unit bias- people believe that the amount given to them is the appropriate portion size nutrition experts took 31 percent more when given a big rather than small bowl 15 percent more when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small one For cultures struggling with rising obesity rates, the principle—that ecology influences eating—implies a practical message: Reduce standard portion sizes, and serve food with smaller bowls, plates, and utensils.
ANOREXIA NERVOSA ¾ of diagnosed are females 15% below normal weight Obsessed with losing weight
BULIMIA NERVOSA Those diagnosed binge on fatty foods Use vomiting, laxatives and fasting to lose weight after their binge Exercise excessively Weight fluctuations Easier to hide than anorexia
BINGE EATING DISORDER Binge eating disorder- binge eating accompanied by feelings of remorse
PIKE AND RODIN STUDY Mothers of girls with eating disorders tend to focus on their own weight and on their daughters’ weight and appearance
JACOBI’S STUDY Families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self-evaluation (Jacobi et al., 2004).
PATE AND YATES STUDY Families of anorexia patients tend to be competitive, high-achieving, and protective (Pate et al., 1992; Yates, 1989, 1990).
ANOREXIC SUFFERERS Perfectionist standards Fear the possibility of falling short of expectations Intensely concerned about other’s news Low self-evaluation
EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE Genetics may influence susceptibility to eating disorders Twins are somewhat more likely to share the disorder if they are identical rather than fraternal (Fairburn et al., 1999; Kaplan, 2004).
DIFFERENCE IN CULTURES These disorders have cultural and gender components Body ideals vary across culture and time. In India, women students rate their ideals as close to their actual shape In much of Africa—where plumpness means prosperous and thinness can signal poverty, AIDS, and hunger—bigger seems better
GENDER DIFFERENCES In one study of New Zealand university students and 3500 British bank and university staff, men were more likely to be overweight and women were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (Emslie et al., 2001; Miller & Halberstadt, 2005).
GENDER DIFFERENCES 2 In another study at the University of Michigan, men and women donned either a sweater or a swimsuit and completed a math test while alone in a changing room For the women but not the men, wearing the swimsuit triggered self- consciousness and shame that disrupted their math performance. (Fredrickson et al., 1998).
LEVER’S STUDY 9/10 women prefer to have a better body than their partner 6/10 men want to have a mate with a better body rather than themselves
CLINICALLY OBESE Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more rising obesity rates around the world trail the American rates by just a few years and are projected to increase further, resulting in a “global epidemic” of diabetes
OBESITY Life threatening risks Diabetes High blood pressure Heart disease Arthritis Cancer
APPLE VS PEAR Risks are greater for apple-shaped people who carry their weight in pot bellies than for pear-shaped people with ample hips and thighs
OBESE PEOPLE stereotype slow Lazy sloppy BMI of 30 or more
ECONOMIC IMPACT Obese people make $7000 less a year compared to people that aren’t obese (Gortmaker, 1993) When conducting a study on job discrimination a person who acted the same with a fat suit on was rated as less qualified than when they were not wearing the fat suit (Pingitore)
LOSING WEIGHT when caloric intake plunges, weight will decrease and then level off because metabolism drops
FIDGETING Fidgeting contributes to weight loss because it is a chance to burn extra calories
GENETIC INFLUENCE ON WEIGHT ☼Adoptive sibling’s weights are not correlated ☼Identical twins have similar weights ☼given an obese parent, a boy is three times, and a girl six times, more likely to be obese than their counterparts with normal-weight parents ☼Scientists have discovered many different genes that influence body weight. One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO, which nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese
SLEEPING AND WEIGHT GAIN When you are sleep deprived, levels of leptin (which reports body fat to the brain) fall and ghrelin (the stomach hormone that stimulates appetite) counts rise
SOCIAL INFLUENCE One research team followed the social networks of 12,067 people whom they had closely studied for 32 years (Christakis & Fowler, 2007). They discovered that people were most likely to become obese when a friend became obese. If the friend who became obese is a close mutual friend, the odds of one’s likewise becoming obese almost tripled. (Their analysis showed that the correlation among friends’ weights was not simply a matter of seeking out similar people as friends.)
HU’S STUDY In a massive long-term study of 50,000 nurses, researchers found—even after controlling for exercise, smoking, age, and diet—that each two-hour increase in daily TV watching predicted a 23 percent obesity increase and a 7 percent diabetes increase (Hu et al., 2003).
COMPARING GENERATIONS EATING HABITS Compared with our counterparts in the early 1900s, we are eating a higher-fat, higher-sugar diet, expending fewer calories, and suffering higher rates of diabetes at younger ages ( Just since 1971, women are eating 300 more calories a day and men nearly 200 calories more They are eating three times as many meals in fast-food restaurants ( Today’s teens consume twice as much soda as milk—the reverse of a quarter- century ago
INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS In order to combat obesity, new stadiums, theaters and subway cars are widening their seats to accommodate the population growth
ENVIRONMENTAL REFORMS Psychologist Kelly Brownell has been campaigning for these and other environmental reforms: Establish a fast-food–free zone around schools. Slap an extra tax on calorie-laden junk food and soft drinks Use the revenues to subsidize healthy foods and to finance health-supportive nutritional advertising.
LOSING WEIGHT Millions can vouch that it is possible to lose weight; they have done it lots of times. But short of drastic surgery to tie off part of the stomach and small intestine, most who succeed on a weight-loss program eventually regain the lost weight or more (Mann et al., 2007). Ryan Benson lost 122 pounds to win the first season of the TV reality show, “The Biggest Loser.” But then, like so many, he found maintaining the loss an even bigger challenge.
LOSING WEIGHT 2 For those who wish to take off a few pounds, researchers have offered these tips. Begin only if you feel motivated and self-disciplined. For most people, permanent weight loss requires making a career of staying thin—a lifelong change in eating habits combined with gradually increased exercise. Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. Keep tempting foods out of the house or out of sight. Go to the supermarket only on a full stomach, and avoid the sweets and chips aisles. Eat simple meals, with only a few different foods; given more variety, people consume more. Eat healthy foods. Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats such as those found in olive oil and fish help regulate appetite and artery-clogging cholesterol (Taubes, 2001, 2002). Don’t starve all day and eat one big meal at night. This eating pattern, common among overweight people, slows metabolism. Moreover, those who eat a balanced breakfast are, by late morning, more alert and less fatigued (Spring et al., 1992).
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SEX In the 1960s, gynecologist- obstetrician William Masters and Virginia Johnson made headlines by recording the physiological responses of volunteers who masturbated or had intercourse. With the help of 382 female and 312 male volunteers—a somewhat atypical sample, consisting only of people able and willing to display arousal and orgasm while being observed in a laboratory—Masters and Johnson monitored or filmed more than 10,000 sexual “cycles.” Their description of the sexual response cycle identified four stages, similar in men and women.
SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE sexual response cycle: the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution MENWOMEN EXCITEMENT PHASE -Genital areas engorged with blood-Vagina expands and secretes lubricant -- Beasts and nipples may enlarge PLATEAU PHASE -breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase - Penis becomes fully engorged, fluid visible at tip -breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase -Vaginal secretion continues to increase, the clitoris retracts, and orgasm feels imminent DURING ORGASM -further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates -further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates -arousal and orgasm facilitate conception by helping propel semen from the penis, positioning the uterus to receive sperm, and drawing the sperm further inward
GENDER SIMILARITY IN ORGASMS When men and women undergo PET scans while having orgasms, the same subcortical brain regions glow
REFRACTORY PERIOD A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
SEXUAL DISORDERS a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning For men- premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (inability to have or maintain an erection) For women, the problem may be orgasmic dysfunction (infrequently or never experiencing orgasm).
GENETIC INFLUENCE study of several hundred Australian identical and fraternal twins reveals that women’s orgasm frequency is genetically influenced (Dawood et al., 2005). genetic factor that accounted for 51 percent of the variation in frequency of orgasm via masturbation could account for only 31 percent of the variation in frequency of orgasm via intercourse.
HORMONES Estrogen - sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity Testosterone - the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty Man embracing his estrogen: breezyhttp://www.spike.com/video-clips/x8gnap/john-tucker-must-die-theyre- breezy
SEXUAL DESIRE RISES DURING OVULATION One study invited partnered women not at risk for pregnancy to keep a diary of their sexual activity. (These women were either using intrauterine devices or had undergone surgery to prevent pregnancy.)On the days around ovulation, intercourse was 24 percent more frequent(Wilcox et al., 2004). Other studies find that women fantasize more about sex with desirable partners and wear more sexually attractive clothing around ovulation (Haselton et al., 2006; Pillsworth & Haselton, 2006; Sheldon et al.,2006). In a study of 5300 strip-club lap dancers, their hourly tips almost doubled on the days near ovulation, compared with days during menstruation (Miller et al., 2007)
SEXUAL AROUSAL fluctuations in male hormones are partly a response to sexual stimulation. When James Dabbs and his colleagues(1987, 2000) had heterosexual male collegians converse separately with another male student and with a female student, the men’s testosterone levels rose with the social arousal, but especially after talking with the female.
LOSS OF SEX DRIVE When men are castrated, their sex drive typically falls as testosterone levels decline When sex offenders take Depo-Prevera, a drug that reduces testosterone level to that of a prepubertal boy, similarly lose much of their sexual urge
HUMAN NEEDS Hunger is a greater need than sex because although sex is needed to reproduce in order to maintain population, food is needed to keep people alive
LEVELS OF ANALYSIS FOR SEXUAL MOTIVATION Compared with our motivation for eating, our sexual motivation is less influenced by biological factors. Psychological and social-cultural factors play a bigger role.
EROTICA Surprising to many (because sexually explicit materials are sold mostly to men) is that most women report or exhibit nearly as much arousal to the same stimuli (Their brains do, however, respond differently, with fMRI scans revealing a more active amygdala in men viewing erotica
EROTICA 2 Depictions of women being sexually coerced—and enjoying it—tend to increase viewers’ acceptance of the false idea that women enjoy rape, and they tend to increase male viewers’ willingness to hurt women (Malamuth & Check, 1981; Zillmann, 1989). Viewing images of sexually attractive women and men may also lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships. After male collegians view TV or magazine depictions of sexually attractive women, they often find an average woman, or their own girlfriend or wife, less attractive (Kenrick & Gutierres, 1980; Kenrick et al., 1989; Weaver et al., 1984). Viewing X-rated sex films similarly tends to diminish people’s satisfaction with their own sexual partner (Zillmann, 1989).Some sex researchers suspect that reading or watching erotica may create expectations that few men and women can fulfill.
SEXUAL AROUSAL DURING SLEEP Sleep researchers have discovered that genital arousal accompanies all types of dreams, even though most dreams have no sexual content. In nearly all men and some 40 percent of women, dreams sometimes contain sexual imagery that leads to orgasm (Wells, 1986). In men, nighttime orgasm and nocturnal emissions (“wet dreams”) are more likely when orgasm has not occurred recently.
TWIN STUDY A recent twin study found that environmental factors accounted for almost three- fourths of the individual variation in age of sexual initiation (Bricker et al., 2006). Family and cultural values matter.
SEXUAL IGNORANCE One survey of Canadian teens revealed that although 9 in 10 claimed to be knowledgeable, many were unaware that STIs can be transmitted through oral sex(which two-thirds had engaged in); only 19 percent had heard of HPV (human papillomavirus, a leading cause of genital warts and cervical cancer); only 37 percent mentioned infertility as a possible result of chlamydia.
ALCOHOL AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY Sexually active teens are typically alcohol-using teens those who use alcohol prior to sex are less likely to use By depressing the brain centers that control judgment, inhibition, and self- awareness, alcohol tends to break down normal restraints, a phenomenon well known to sexually coercive males.
MEDIA INFLUENCE An average hour of prime-time television on the three major U.S. networks contains approximately 15 sexual acts, words, and innuendos. The partners are usually unmarried, with no prior romantic relationship, and few communicate any concern for birth control or sexually transmitted infections The more sexual content adolescents view (even when controlling for other predictors of early sexual activity), the more likely they are to perceive their peers as sexually active, to develop sexually permissive attitudes and to experience early intercourse
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS A recent Centers for Disease Control study of sexually experienced 14- to 19-year- old U.S. females found 39.5 percent had STIs To comprehend the mathematics of transmitting these infections, imagine this scenario: Over the course of a year, Pat has sex with 9 people, each of whom over the same period has sex with 9 other people, who in turn have sex with 9 others. How many “phantom” sex partners (past partners of partners) will Pat have? Laura Brannon and Timothy Brock
PREVENTION Thailand promoted 100 percent condom use by commercial sex workers. Over a four- year period, as condom use soared from 14 to 94 percent, the annual number of bacterial STIs plummeted from 410,406 to 27,362
PREDICTORS OF SEXUAL RESTRAINT High intelligence Teens with high rather than average intelligence test scores more often delay sex, evidently because they appreciate possible negative consequences and are more focused on future achievement than on here-and-now pleasures(Halpern et al., 2000). Religious engagement Actively religious teens and adults more often reserve sex for marital commitment (Rostosky et al., 2004; Smith, 1998). Father presence In studies following hundreds of New Zealand and U.S. girls from age 5 to 18, a father’s absence was linked to sexual activity before age 16 and teen pregnancy (Ellis et al., 2003). These associations held even after adjusting for other adverse influences, such as poverty. Participation in service learning programs Several experiments have found lower pregnancy rates among teens volunteering as tutors or teachers’ aides or participating in community projects, than found among comparable teens randomly assigned to control conditions (Kirby, 2002; O’Donnell et al., 2002).
SEXUAL ORIENTATION sexual orientation: an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES In Europe and America the most accurate figure seems to be about 3 or 4 percent of men and 1 or 2 percent of women(Laumann et al., 1994; Mosher et al., 2005; Smith, 1998). Estimates derived from the sex of unmarried partners reported in the 2000 U.S. Census suggest that 2.5 percent of the population is gay or lesbian (Tarmann, 2002). Fewer than 1 percent of survey respondents—for example, 12 people out of 7076 Dutch adults in one survey (Sandfort et al., 2001)—reported being actively bisexual. A larger number of adults in that study reported having had an isolated homosexual experience.
FRATERNAL BIRTH EFFECT Men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay, about one-third more likely for each additional older brother If the odds of homosexuality are roughly 2 percent among first sons, they would rise to nearly 3 percent among second sons, 4 percent for third sons, and so on for each additional older brother Blanchard suspects a defensive maternal immune response to foreign substances produced by male fetuses. With each pregnancy with a male fetus, the maternal antibodies may become stronger and may prevent the fetus’ brain from developing in a male-typical pattern. Consistent with this biological explanation, the fraternal birth-order effect occurs only in men with older brothers from the same mother (whether reared together or not). Sexual orientation is unaffected by adoptive brothers(Bogaert, 2006).
EROTICISM In men, a high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to women (if heterosexual) or men (if homosexual). In women, a high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to both men and women (Lippa, 2006, 2007). When shown pictures of heterosexual couples, in either erotic or nonerotic contexts, heterosexual men look mostly at the woman while heterosexual women look more equally at both the man and the woman (Lykins et al., 2008). And when shown sexually explicit film clips, men’s genital and subjective sexual arousal is mostly to preferred sexual stimuli(for heterosexual viewers, depictions of women). Women respond more nonspecifically to depictions of sexual activity involving males or females (Chivers et al., 2007).Baumeister calls this phenomenon the gender difference in erotic plasticity.
Gay more than straight men also express interest in occupations that attract many women, such as decorator, florist,and flight attendant (Lippa, 2002).
SAME SEX ATTRACTION IN ANIMALS At Coney Island’s New York Aquarium, penguins Wendell and Cass spent several years as devoted same-sex partners. Central Park Zoo penguins Silo and Roy show similar devotion. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl (1999) has identified several hundred species in which at least occasional same-sex relations have been observed. Grizzlies, gorillas, monkeys, flamingos, and owls are all on the long list. Among rams, for example, some 6 to 10 percent—to sheep-breeding ranchers, the “duds”—display same-sex attraction by shunning ewes and seeking to mount other males (Perkins & Fitzgerald, 1997). Some degree of homosexuality seems to be a natural part of the animal world.
THE BRAIN AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION Researcher Simon LeVay (1991) studied sections of the hypothalamus taken from deceased heterosexual and homosexual people. As a gay scientist, LeVay wanted to do “something connected with my gay identity.” To avoid biasing the results, he did a blind study, not knowing which donors were gay. For nine months he peered through his microscope at a cell cluster he thought might be important. Then, one morning, he broke the codes: One cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual men than in women and homosexual men. “I was almost in a state of shock,” LeVay said (1994). “I took a walk by myself on the cliffs over the ocean. I sat for half an hour just thinking what this might mean.”
SAVIC AND LINDSTROM It should not surprise us that brains differ with sexual orientation, a finding confirmed by a recent discovery that gay men and straight women have brain hemispheres of similar size, whereas in lesbian women and straight men, the right hemisphere is larger (Savic & Lindström, 2008).
GENES IN SEXUAL ORIENTATION “First, homosexuality does appear to run in families,” note Brian Mustanski and Michael Bailey (2003). “Second, twin studies have established that genes play a substantial role in explaining individual differences in sexual orientation.” Identical twins are somewhat more likely than fraternal twins to share a homosexual orientation (Lángström et al., 2008). (Because sexual orientations differ in many identical twin pairs, especially female twins, we know that other factors besides genes are at work.)
FRUIT FLY STUDY Experimenters have, by genetic manipulations, created female fruit flies that during courtship act like males (pursuing other females) and males that act like females (Demir & Dickson, 2005). “We have shown that a single gene in the fruit fly is sufficient to determine all aspects of the flies’ sexual orientation and behavior,” explained Barry Dickson (2005).
PRENATAL HORMONES AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION Elevated rates of homosexual orientation in identical and fraternal twins suggest that not just shared genetics but also a shared prenatal environment may be a factor. In animals and some exceptional human cases, abnormal prenatal hormone conditions have altered a fetus’ sexual orientation. In studies, when pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later showed homosexual behavior (Money, 1987).
GAY-STRAIGHT DIFFERENCES Brain asymmetry is greater in straight men than gay men One hypothalamic cell cluster is large in straight men than women and gay men Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as does a straight women’s to sex related hormones
SHOULD THE CASE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION MATTER? Those who believe—as do 41 percent of Americans (up from 13 percent in 1977 [Gallup Polls]) and most gays and lesbians—that sexual orientation is biologically disposed also express more accepting attitudes toward homosexual people (Allen et al., 1996; Haslam & Levy, 2006; Kaiser, 2001;Whitley, 1990). To gay and lesbian activists, the new biological research is a double-edged sword(Diamond, 1993). If sexual orientation, like skin color and sex, is genetically influenced, that offers a further rationale for civil rights protection. Moreover, it may alleviate parents’ concerns about their children being unduly influenced by gay teachers and role models. At the same time, this research raises the troubling possibility that genetic markers of sexual orientation could someday be identified through fetal testing, and a fetus could be aborted simply for being predisposed to an unwanted orientation.
BAUMRIND’S FINDINGS Sex education separated from the context of human values may give some students the idea that sexual intercourse is simply a recreational activity. Diana Baumrind (1982), a University of California child-rearing expert, has observed that an implication that adults are neutral about adolescent sexual activity is unfortunate because “promiscuous recreational sex poses certain psychological, social, health, and moral problems that must be faced realistically.”
NEED TO BELONG Human beings, contended the personality theorist Alfred Adler, have an “urge to community” Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary (1995) have assembled evidence for this deep need to belong.
MARRIAGE AIDS TO SURVIVAL Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rate. By keeping children close to their caregivers, attachments served as a powerful survival impulse. As adults, those who formed attachments were more likely to reproduce and to co-nurture their offspring to maturity. Married people are less at risk for depression, suicide, and early death than are unattached people.
OSTRACISM Ostracism- social exclusion most socially excluded teens do not commit violence, but some do. Charles “Andy” Williams, described by a classmate as someone his peers derided as “freak, dork, nerd, stuff like that,” went on a shooting spree at his suburban California high school, killing 2 and wounding 13
CYBER OSTRACISM In Study a study, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging.
BEING LEFT OUT Ostracism even by strangers or by a despised outgroup, such as the Australian branch of the KKK takes a toll and elicits increased activity in a brain area, the anterior cingulate cortex, that also activates in response to physical pain
SCHOOL VIOLENCE In a series of experiments, Jean Twenge and her collaborators (2001,2002, 2007; Baumeister et al., 2002; Maner et al., 2007) told some students (who had taken a personality test) that they were “the type likely to end up alone later in life,” or that people they had met didn’t want them in a group that was forming. They told other students that they would have “rewarding relationships throughout life,” or that “everyone chose you as someone they’d like to work with.” Those excluded became much more likely to engage in self-defeating behaviors and to underperform on aptitude tests. The rejection also interfered with their empathy for others and made them more likely to act in disparaging or aggressive ways against those who had excluded them (blasting them with noise, for example). “it is disturbing to imagine the aggressive tendencies that might arise from a series of important rejections or chronic exclusion from desired groups in actual social life.” Indeed, reports Williams(2007), ostracism “weaves through case after case of school violence.”
JOB VS. CAREER Amy Wrzesniewski and her colleagues have identified person-to-person variations in people’s attitudes toward their work. Across various occupations, some people view their work as a job, an unfulfilling but necessary way to make money. Others view their work as a career, an opportunity to advance from one position to a better position. The rest—those who view their work as a calling, a fulfilling and socially useful activity—report the highest satisfaction with their work and with their lives.
FLOW flow: a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills. Flow experiences boost our sense of self-esteem, competence, and well-being. Microsoft is developing an attentional user interface that aims to “detect when users are available for communication, or when the user is in a state of flow”
LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH LIFE To want work but not have it is to feel less satisfied with life. These data are from 169,776 adults in 16 nation
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology: the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY personnel psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY organizational psychology: a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
HIRING NEW PEOPLE As a new AT&T human resource executive, psychologist Mary Tenopyr (1997) was assigned to solve a problem: Customer service representatives were failing at a high rate. After concluding that many of the hires were ill-matched to the demands of their new job, Tenopyr developed a new selection instrument: 1.She asked new applicants to respond to various questions (without as yet making any use of their responses). 2.She followed up later to assess which of the applicants excelled on the job. 3.She identified the individual items on the earlier test that best predicted who would succeed.
INTERVIEWER ILLUSION Interviewers often overrate their discernment, a phenomenon psychologist Richard Nisbett (1987) has labeled the interviewer illusion. “I have excellent interviewing skills, so I don’t need reference checking as much as someone who doesn’t have my ability to read people,” is a comment sometimes heard by I/O consultants. Four factors explain this gap between interviewers’ intuition and the resulting reality: Interviews disclose the interviewee’s good intentions, which are less revealing than habitual behaviors Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected and lost track of. Interviewers presume that people are what they seem to be in the interview situation. details of the particular situation (such as wanting to impress in a job interview). Interviewers’ preconceptions and moods color how they perceive interviewees’ responses
STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS structured interviews: interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales. A review of 150 findings revealed that structured interviews had double the predictive accuracy of unstructured seat-of-the-pants interviews (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998;Wiesner & Cronshaw, 1988). Structured interviews also reduce bias, such as against overweight applicants
APPRAISING EMPLOYEES Performance appraisal methods include checklists on which supervisors simply check specific behaviors that describe the worker (“always attends to customers’ needs,” “takes long breaks”). graphic rating scales on which a supervisor checks, perhaps on a five-point scale,how often a worker is dependable, productive, and so forth. behavior rating scales on which a supervisor checks scaled behaviors that describe a worker’s performance. If rating the extent to which a worker “follows procedures,” the supervisor might mark the employee somewhere between “often takes shortcuts” and “always follows established procedures” (Levy,2003).
360 DEGREE FEEDBACK If you join an organization that practices 360-degree feedback, you will rate yourself, your manager, and your other colleagues, and you will be rated by your manager, other colleagues, and customers. The net result is often more open communication and more complete appraisal.
HALO ERRORS Halo errors occur when one’s overall evaluation of an employee, or of a personal trait such as their friendliness, biases ratings of their specific work-related behaviors such as their reliability
LENIENCY AND SEVERITY ERRORS Leniency and severity errors reflect evaluators’ tendencies to be either too easy or too harsh on everyone.
RECENCY ERRORS Recency errors occur when raters focus only on easily remembered recent behavior. By using multiple raters and developing objective, job-relevant performance measures, personnel psychologists seek to support their organizations while also helping employees perceive the appraisal process as fair.
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
MOTIVATION FROM CHALLENGES One study followed the lives of 1528 California children whose intelligence test scores were in the top 1 percent. Forty years later, when researchers compared those who were most and least successful professionally, they found a motivational difference. T Those most successful were more ambitious, energetic, and persistent. As children, they had more active hobbies. As adults, they participated in more groups and favored being sports participants to being spectators (Goleman, 1980). Gifted children are able learners. Accomplished adults are tenacious doers.
10 YEAR RULE 10-year rule: world-class experts in a field typically have invested “at least 10 years of hard work—say, 40 hours a week for 50 weeks a year.” A study of outstanding scholars, athletes, and artists found that all were highly motivated and self-disciplined, willing to dedicate hours every day to the pursuit of their goals (Bloom, 1985). These superstar achievers were distinguished not so much by their extraordinary natural talent as by their extraordinary daily discipline. Great achievement, it seems, mixes a teaspoon of inspiration with a gallon of perspiration.
ROBERT OWEN On a visit to Glasgow, Welsh-born Robert Owen—an idealistic young cotton-mill manager—chanced to meet and fall in love with the mill owner’s daughter. After their marriage, Owen, with several partners, purchased the mill and on the first day of the 1800s took control as its manager. Before long, he began what he said was “the most important experiment for the happiness of the human race that had yet been instituted at any time in any part of the world” (Owen, 1814). The exploitation of child and adult labor was, he observed, producing unhappy and inefficient workers. Believing that better working and living conditions could pay economic dividends, he undertook (with some resistance from his partners, whom he ultimately bought out) numerous innovations: a nursery for preschool children, education (with encouragement rather than corporal punishment), Sundays off, health care, paid sick days, unemployment pay for days when the mill could not operate, and a company store selling goods at reduced prices.
TYPES OF EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO CRABTREE Three types of employees Engaged: working with passion and feeling a profound connection to their company or organization. Not-engaged: putting in the time, but investing little passion or energy into their work. Actively disengaged:unhappy workers undermining what their colleagues accomplish. ENGAGED EMPLOYEES
GREAT MANAGERS (KENNETH TUCKER) ☺start by helping people identify and measure their talents. ☺match tasks to talents and then give people freedom to do what they do best. ☺care how their people feel about their work. ☺reinforce positive behaviors through recognition and reward.
TASK LEADERSHIP task leadership: goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
SOCIAL LEADERSHIP social leadership: group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
SMITH AND TAYEB STUDY Peter Smith and Monir Tayeb (1989) compiled data from studies in India, Taiwan, and Iran indicating that effective managers—whether in coal mines, banks, or government offices—often exhibit a high degree of both task and social leadership. As achievement-minded people, effective managers certainly care about how well work is done, yet at the same time they are sensitive to their subordinates’ needs.
VOICE EFFECT Although managers often think better of work they have directly supervised, studies reveal a voice effect: If given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision- making process, people will respond more positively to the decision (van den Bos & Spruijt, 2002). Positive engaged employees are a mark of thriving organizations.
HARLEY DAVIDSON CEO, Jeffrey Bleustein helped Harley-Davidson thrive, in part by replacing the organization’s command-and-control management style with one based on company-wide consensus planning and decision making.