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Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Senescence  Influences:  genetic  lifestyle  environment  historical period  Multidimensional and multidirectional  Average life expectancy has increased 25–30 years over past century Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

3 Aging at the Level of DNA and Body Cells  Programmed theories: Genes are “programmed” to cause changes resulting in aging.  Telomeres: a type of DNA at the end of chromosomes that limit the number of times a cell can divide (usually 40-60)  “random” damage theory: DNA is gradually damaged by spontaneous mutations or through external influences that cause mutations. The more damage, the more difficult cell repair and replacement becomes.  Damage may also result in abnormal or cancerous cells  Release of free radicals (naturally occurring, highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen) may cause age-related DNA and cellular abnormalities

4 Aging at the Level of Organs and Tissues  Cross-linkage theory:  Over time, protein fibers that make up the body’s connective tissues form bonds (links) with one another.  As these fibers cross one another, tissue becomes less elastic.  Regular exercise and a vitamin-rich, low fat diet reduce cross linkage.  Gradual failure of the endocrine system  A decline in growth hormone is related to loss of muscle, increase of body fat and thinning of the skin  Declines in immune system functioning  Increase susceptibility to infectious and cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

5 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Changes  Heart:  few resting changes but reduced performance under stress, exercise  hypertension, atherosclerosis  disease declining due to better lifestyle  Lungs:  maximum vital capacity declines after age 25  stiffness makes breathing harder with age Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

6 Motor Performance in Adulthood  Athletic skills  peak from the early twenties to early thirties  decline gradually until sixties or seventies, then more rapidly  Continued training  slows loss  retains vital capacity, muscle, response speed Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Pete Saloutos/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

7 Aging and 10-km Running Time Figure 13.2 (From H. Tanaka & D. R. Seals, 2003, “Dynamic Exercise Performance in Masters Athletes: Insight into the Effects of Primary Human Aging on Physiological Functional Capacity,” Journal of Applied Physiology, 5, p © The American Physiological Society (APS). All rights reserved. Adapted with permission.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

8 Immune System in Early Adulthood  Declines after age 20:  shrinking thymus: reduced maturity and differentiation of T cells  B cells rely on T cells to function  Stress weakens immune response:  psychological stressors  physical stressors Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Subbotina Anna/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

9 Reproductive Capacity  Increase in delayed childbearing  Fertility risks for women:  problems jump sharply at 35 – 44 years  reduced number, quality of ova  Fertility risks for men:  problems gradual, starting age 35  decreased sperm volume, motility  increased percentage abnormal sperm Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

10 Variations in Health  U.S. early adulthood death rates exceed other industrialized nations:  extreme obesity  gun-control policies  SES variations:  poverty  lack of universal health care  environmental factors: pollution, crowding, stressors, lack of social support Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Rommel Canlas/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

11 Leading Causes of Death in Early Adulthood Figure 13.3 (Adapted from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011b.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

12 Causes of Overweight and Obesity  Heredity  Ethnicity  Declining physical activity  Increase in calorie, sugar, and fat intake over last four decades  Basal metabolic rate declines with age Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

13 Consequences of Obesity  Health problems:  heart disease  diabetes  various forms of cancer  early death  Social discrimination:  finding mates  housing  education, careers  Mistreatment Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © pedalist/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

14 Treating Obesity  Lifestyle changes:  diet  exercise  Record-keeping:  food intake  body weight  Social support  Problem-solving skills  Extended intervention Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Flashon Studio/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

15 Dietary Fat  Saturated fat from meat and dairy  plays a role in breast and colon cancer and in heart disease  should account for 7% or less of daily calories  Replace saturated fat with unsaturated fat from fish, vegetables  Total fat should account for 30% or less of daily calories Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

16 Exercise  Over half of Americans are inactive:  more women than men  low SES:  less safe neighborhoods  less social support for exercising  Recommendations:  30 minutes per day of moderately intense physical exercise  increased intensity offers greater health protection Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

17 Benefits of Exercise  Reduces fat, builds muscle  Boosts immune system, resistance to disease  Cardiovascular benefits  Mental health benefits:  reduces anxiety, depression  enhances cognitive functioning, well-being  Longer life Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

18 Substance Use in Early Adulthood Peaks at 19 – 25 years, then declines:  up to 12% of men and 6% of women ages 19 – 25 are substance abusers  cigarettes, alcohol are most common  drugs:  marijuana  stimulants  prescription drugs  party drugs Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Edyta Pawlowska/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

19 Cigarette Smoking  About 19% of U.S. adults smoke cigarettes:  numbers slowly declining  fewer college graduates; more college students, high school dropouts  more men, but gender gap shrinking  Deadly health risks  Hard to quit: most treatment programs do not use effective strategies Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

20 Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood  10% of men, 3% of women are heavy drinkers  About one-third of heavy drinkers are alcoholics  Genetic, cultural factors in alcoholism  Causes mental, physical problems  High costs to society  Treatment is difficult: half relapse in a few months Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Kamira /Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

21 Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior  Most have intercourse by age 25  Most sex in context of a relationship:  70% had only one partner in past year  partners similar to each other  Sex less frequent than media suggest:  only one-third twice a week or more  more often in twenties, declines with age  Most satisfied with their sex lives; only a minority report sexual problems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

22 Homosexual Attitudes and Behavior  Public acceptance growing: majority say it’s “OK,” support civil liberties, job opportunities  Estimated 3.5% of U.S. population are homosexual or bisexual  Sexual behavior similar to that of heterosexuals  Tend to live in larger cities, college towns Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

23 Factors Related to Sexual Coercion Perpetrator CharacteristicsCultural Forces  Manipulative, remorseless  Approve of violence against women  Accept rape myths  Misinterpret social cues  Childhood sexual abuse  Sexual promiscuity  Alcoholism  Men taught to be dominant, competitive  Women taught to be submissive  Acceptance of violence  Dulled sensitivity due to media, pornography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

24 Sexual Coercion  Physical injury  STDs  General ill health  Rape: 18 percent of U.S. women  Perpetrators’ personal characteristics and cultural forces are predictive  Immediate: shock, confusion, withdrawal  Long-term: fatigue, depression, substance abuse, social anxiety, suicidal thoughts Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Arlem Furman/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

25 Preventing and Treating Rape and Abuse  Community services:  underfunded  few for victimized men  Routine screening  Validation of experience  Safety planning Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Kenfotos/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

26 Psychological Stress  Related to  social conditions  traumatic experiences, life events  daily hassles  Caused or worsened by low SES  Associated with  overweight and obesity  diabetes  cardiovascular problems  decreased immunity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

27 Cognitive Changes in Early Adulthood  Piaget:  postformal thought  Perry:  epistemic cognition  Labouvie-Vief:  pragmatic thought  cognitive-affective complexity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

28 Development of Epistemic Cognition  Dualistic thinking  Relativistic thinking  Commitment within relativistic thinking  Contributing factors:  opportunities to tackle challenging ill-structured problems  peer interaction  metacognition Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

29 Development of Pragmatic Thought  Adulthood brings  increased experience with real-world problems  new ways of thinking that thrive on contradiction and compromise  Increase in cognitive-affective complexity:  greater awareness of one’s own and others’ perspectives  improved emotion regulation Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

30 Age-Related Changes in Cognitive-Affective Complexity Figure 13.4 (From G. Labouvie-Vief, 2003, “Dynamic Integration: Affect, Cognition, and the Self in Adulthood,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, p. 203, copyright © 2003, Sage Publications. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications.) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

31 Expertise and Creativity  Expertise:  acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field  takes many years  enhances information processing  Essential for creativity:  move to problem finding  10-year rule  rise in creative productivity in early adulthood  requires multiple personal qualities Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

32 The College Experience  Formative, influential “developmental testing ground”  Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, and demands fosters diverse cognitive capacities:  reasoning about ill-structured problems  broader attitudes and values  Depends on participation in campus life Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Kzenon/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

33 Dropping Out of College  U.S. dropout rates:  44% at two-year schools  32% at four-year schools  Personal factors:  preparation, motivation, skills  financial problems, low SES  Institutional factors:  few support services  Early support crucial © milosljubicic/Shutterstock Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

34 Periods of Vocational Development  Fantasy period  Tentative period  Realistic period:  exploration  crystallization Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © Goodluz/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

35 Factors Influencing Vocational Choice  Personality  Family influences:  parent–child vocational similarity  Teachers  Gender stereotypes:  gender-role conformity diminishing slowly Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. © michaeljung/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk


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