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WOMEN'S HISTORY, 1960 - PRESENT EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA.

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Presentation on theme: "WOMEN'S HISTORY, 1960 - PRESENT EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA."— Presentation transcript:

1 WOMEN'S HISTORY, PRESENT EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY:  WHAT LED TO THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT OF THE 1960s AND 1970s – AND HOW MUCH DID IT ACHIEVE?  WHY DIDN'T THE ERA PASS? BROAD: WHICH REFORM MOVEMENT IN THE U.S. HAVE SUCCEEDED, TO WHAT EXTENT, AND WHY?

3 REVIEW (20 TH CENTURY)  WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT, (STARTED IN 1848 AT SENECA FALLS) CARRIE CHAPMAN CATT, NATIONAL WOMEN'S PARTY

4 1916 – PROTESTING WILSON'S REFUSAL TO SUPPORT WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE

5 The Stomach Tube" "The Stomach Tube" "The sensation is most painful," reported a victim in "The drums of the ears seem to be bursting and there is a horrible pain in the throat and breast. The tube is pushed down twenty inches; [it] must go below the breastbone." The prisoners were generally fed a solution of milk and eggs. NWP AND OTHER SUFFRAGISTS USED NONVIOLENT TACTICS LATER USED BY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT (BUT GENERALLY NOT CREDITED FOR IT!) THESE INCLUDED HUNGER STRIKES WHEN IMPRISONED

6 WOMEN SERVED IN THE MILITARY AND WORKED IN FACTORIES DURING WWI – STRONGER CLAIM TO RIGHTS OF CITIZENS

7 NWP PICKETING THE WHITE HOUSE IN 1917

8  19 TH AMENDMENT – DRAFTED BY ELIZABETH CADY STANTON AND SUSAN B. ANTHONY 1876 – FINALLY PASSED BY CONGRESS 1919 AND RATIFIED 1920 RECALL: AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN GOT THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO VOTE IN 1870 (15 TH AMENDMENT)

9  ALICE PAUL, B.A. SWATHMORE, PH.D. PENN, LL.B (LAW DEGREE) (LL.B.) WASHINGTON COLLEGE OF LAW – BUT A WOMAN COULDN’T PRACTICE LAW THEN!  PRESIDENT OF NWP – FELT SUFFRAGE WASN'T ENOUGH.  DRAFTED EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT (ERA) – SUBMITTED TO CONGRESS 1923: MEN AND WOMEN SHALL HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND EVERY PLACE SUBJECT TO ITS JURISDICTION.” PROPOSED IN EVERY CONGRESS, DIDN'T PASS CONGRESS UNTIL 1972 AND NEVER RATIFIED! " MEN AND WOMEN SHALL HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES AND EVERY PLACE SUBJECT TO ITS JURISDICTION.” PROPOSED IN EVERY CONGRESS, DIDN'T PASS CONGRESS UNTIL 1972 AND NEVER RATIFIED!

10  1921: MARGARET SANGER FOUNDED AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE (TODAY PLANNED PARENTHOOD  BIRTH CONTROL ALLOWED SOME WOMEN (MOSTLY BOURGEOIS) TO MORE CONTROL OVER THEIR OWN BODIES.  BUT IT WAS ILLEGAL IN MANY STATES, AND WHERE IT WAS LEGAL, ONLY FOR MARRIED WOMEN

11  BY 1928, 39% OF ANNUAL COLLEGE GRADUATES WERE WOMEN  BUT ONLY SECRETARIAL, TEACHING AND NURSING JOBS WERE AVAILABLE TO EDUCATED WOMEN

12 WWII – MILLIONS OF WOMEN WORKED IN MUNITIONS FACTORIES AND SERVED IN MILITARY

13  AFTER THE WAR – SENT HOME TO ENJOY THEIR NEW APPLIANCES...

14 ... AND HAVE BABIES! COLLEGE GRADUATION RATE, 1960 – DOWN TO 30% -- 60% OF WOMEN WHO ATTENDED COLLEGE DROPPED OUT TO MARRY.

15  THE HAPPY HOUSEWIFE OF THE 1950s  HIGH USE OF ALCOHOL AND PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

16 BUT MEN DRANK HEAVILY TOO – THE COCKTAIL PARTY

17 GUESS WHO'S CLEANING UP? BUT SHE'S HAPPY ABOUT IT, OF COURSE! BUT SHE'S HAPPY ABOUT IT, OF COURSE!

18  BETTY FRIEDAN, THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE, BESTSELLER  SMITH COLLEGE GRADUATE  "THE PROBLEM WITHOUT A NAME" – THE TRAPPED HOUSEWIFE"  BASED ON QUESTIONNAIRES HER SMITH CLASSMATES ANSWERED  ARGUED WOMEN COULD DO BOTH: HAVE FAMILIES AND HAVE CAREERS FEB. 4TH, FEB. 4TH, 2006

19 "THE PROBLEM THAT HAS NO NAME–WHICH IS SIMPLY THE FACT THAT AMERICAN WOMEN ARE KEPT FROM GROWING TO THEIR FULL HUMAN CAPACITIES– IS TAKING A FAR GREATER TOLL ON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH OF OUR COUNTRY THAN ANY KNOWN DISEASE. -- BETTY FRIEDAN -- BETTY FRIEDAN

20  1963: JFK'S COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN DOCUMENTED  EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN: AVERAGE FEMALE WORKER'S WAGES = 58.9 % OF AVERAGE MALE WORKER’S EARNINGS.  LEGAL DISCRIMINATION: DIVORCE, ALIMONY, CHILD SUPPORT LAWS  LACK OF RESOURCES FOR WORKING MOTHERS

21  1963: EQUAL PAY ACT – ILLEGAL TO PAY WOMEN LESS THAN MEN FOR "EQUAL WORK" ON THE SAME JOBS – BUT WHAT'S "EQUAL WORK"?  1964: CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 OUTLAWS EMPLOYMENT AND PUBLIC ACCOMODATION DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF GENDER.

22 THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION  1960: FDA APPROVED THE BIRTH CONTROL PILL = THE PILL  FIRST EASY AND RELIABLE CONTRACEPTIVE  1965: GRISWOLD V. CONNECTICUT. SUPREME COURT HELD CONSTITUTION IMPLIES A "RIGHT OF PRIVACY," AND STATES CANNOT PROHIBIT MARRIED WOMEN FROM BUYING CONTRACEPTIVE  ALL AN UNMARRIED WOMAN HAD TO DO WAS BUY A CHEAP WEDDING RING AT WOOLWORTH'S AND GO TO THE DOCTOR USING "MRS." IN FRONT OF HER NAME

23  CONCERNED ABOUT OVERPOPULATION  GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OF BIRTH CONTROL  CHANGE IN SEXUAL MORES IN 1960s – PREMARITAL SEX MORE OPEN (PERHAPS MORE COMMON)  THE PILL/ SEXUAL REVOLUTION WAS BOTH LIBERATING (FEWER UNWANTED PREGNANCIES) AND NOT LIBERATING (NOW MANY MEN TOOK POSITION THAT EVERY WOMAN HAD A DUTY TO HAVE SEX WITH THEM ON DEMAND AND HAD NO EXCUSE NOT TO)

24 THE WOMEN'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – © 1980.

25  1966: NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN (NOW FOUNDED)  FOUNDED BY BETTY FRIEDAN AND OTHER OLDER MIDDLE-CLASS WOMEN  BACKED ERA  INITIALLY REFUSED TO SUPPORT ABORTION, OR TAKE POSITIONS ON RAPE AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, AND ALSO REFUSED MEMBERSHIP TO "RADICAL" WOMEN  BUT SUPPORTS ALL THAT TODAY EXCEPT THE RADICALS (THERE ARE NONE)

26  1971: NATIONAL WOMEN'S POLITICAL CAUCUS FOUNDED BY FRIEDAN, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MEMBERS BELLA ABZUG AND SHIRLEY CHISHOLM (AND OTHERS)

27  OTHER FEMINISTS CAME OUT OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND ANTI-WAR MOVEMENTS (COMPARE HOW WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT CAME OUT OF ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT  FLORYNCE KENNEDY, LAWYER AND FOUNDER, FEMINIST PARTY "A WOMAN WITHOUT A MAN IS LIKE A FISH WITHOUT A BICYCLE."

28  YOUNG FEMINISTS PROTESTING THE 1968 MISS AMERICA PAGEANT THROW THEIR BRAS IN THE "FREEDOM TRASH CAN" NO BRA BURNING! A RIGHT-WING MYTH BUT N.B. – WHY NOT BURN A BRA? IT'S NOT THE FLAG!

29  BOSTON WOMEN'S HEALTH COLLECTIVE, 1973

30  MISCELLANEOUS NEW LEFT GROUPS SUPPORTED FEMINISM

31 MARCH IN NYC, 1971

32  MS. MAGAZINE – 1973, GLORIA STEINEM, EDITOR

33  1976: WOMEN AGAINST VIOLENCE IN PORNOGRAPHY AND MEDIA FOUNDED, SAN FRANCISCO  1977: FIRST TAKE BACK THE NIGHT RALLY IN NYC ANDREA DWORKIN, ONE OF THE FIRST, ALONG WITH LAURA LEDERER, TO DRAW THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PORNOGRAPHY AND RAPE

34  VALERIE SOLANAS  1968: THE SCUM MANIFESTO (SOCIETY FOR CUTTING UP MEN)  SAME YEAR: SHOT ANDY WARHOL  AND THE NUTS, INCLUDING

35 THE GAINS

36  1972: TITLE IX OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT: BANS GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN ANY EDUCATION PROGRAM  WOMEN'S ATHLETIC TEAMS AT HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

37  1972: CONGRESS PASSED THE ERA "SECTION 1. EQUALITY OF RIGHTS UNDER THE LAW SHALL NOT BE DENIED OR ABRIDGED BY THE UNITED STATES OR BY ANY STATE ON ACCOUNT OF SEX. SECTION 2. THE CONGRESS SHALL HAVE THE POWER TO ENFORCE, BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION, THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ARTICLE. SECTION 3. THIS AMENDMENT SHALL TAKE EFFECT TWO YEARS AFTER THE DATE OF RATIFICATION."  HAD TO BE RATIFIED BY MARCH 22, CONGRESS PURPORTED TO EXTEND DEADLINE UNTIL JUNE 30, 1982.

38  1973: FRONTIERO V. RICHARDSON. SUPREME COURT REFUSED TO HOLD THAT WOMEN ARE PROTECTED CLASS UNDER 14 TH AMENDMENT – BECAUSE IT THOUGHT THE ERA WOULD BE RATIFIED  1973: ROE V. WADE AKA "THE CANCER ON THE BODY OF THE LAW." SUPREME COURT HELD THAT SUBSTANTIVE DUE PROCESS RIGHT OF PRIVACY INCLUDES RIGHT TO ABORTION  MANY ( NOT ALL) FEMINISTS SUPPORTED ABORTION RIGHTS (SOME STATES HAD ALREADY LEGALIZED ABORTION  BUT REPUBLICAN MEN HAVE USED THIS AS POLITICAL ISSUE EVER SINCE

39  FIRSTS: SANDRA DAY O'CONNORGERALDINE FERRARO SUPREME COURT, 1981DEM. VP NOMINEE, 1984

40 AND TODAY  SINCE 1982, MORE WOMEN THAN MEN GRADUATE FROM COLLEGE: > 60% OF ALL DEGREES AWARDED GO TO WOMEN  AND YET: AVERAGE FEMALE PAY = 78% OF AVERAGE MALE PAY  EVEN IN THE PROFESSIONS MEN EARN SLIGHTLY MORE THAN WOMEN ON THE AVERAGE

41  THREE WOMEN SUPREME COURT JUSTICES  JUSTICES SOTOMAYOR AND KAGAN ARE UNMARRIED AND HAVE NO CHILDREN  JUSTICE GINSBURG HAS ONE DAUGHTER WHO WAS GROWN BEFORE JUSTICE GINSBURG FIRST BECAME A JUDGE – BEFORE THAT SHE WAS A PROFESSOR

42  HILLARY CLINTON, FIRST SERIOUS WOMAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE  SPEAKING OF THE 18 MILLION VOTES SHE GOT IN THE 2008 DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY, SHE SAID, "THERE ARE ABOUT 18 MILLION CRACKS IN THE GLASS CEILING." BUT HOW DID SHE CRACK IT?

43 SHE MARRIED A MAN WHO BECAME PRESIDENT!

44 WHY DIDN'T THE ERA PASS DO WOMEN HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS TODAY?


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