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D OMESTIC V IOLENCE /S EX O FFENDER C ROSSOVER & ITS EFFECTS ON C HILDREN By: A. Mervyn Davies, M.A., LPC, CACIII, F.A.P.A. Telephone: (970) 353-0422 Email:

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Presentation on theme: "D OMESTIC V IOLENCE /S EX O FFENDER C ROSSOVER & ITS EFFECTS ON C HILDREN By: A. Mervyn Davies, M.A., LPC, CACIII, F.A.P.A. Telephone: (970) 353-0422 Email:"— Presentation transcript:

1 D OMESTIC V IOLENCE /S EX O FFENDER C ROSSOVER & ITS EFFECTS ON C HILDREN By: A. Mervyn Davies, M.A., LPC, CACIII, F.A.P.A. Telephone: (970) 353-0422 Email: davseveinc@qwestoffice.netdavseveinc@qwestoffice.net Website: www.davselventures.comwww.davselventures.com Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

2 C ULTURAL AND H ISTORICAL C ONTEXT FOR S EXUAL A SSAULT Ownership of women and children by male head of household in Roman, British common law, and early U.S. law Early rape laws designed to compensate owner of the victim for “damaged goods” First child abuse laws came 50 years after cruelty to animal laws were developed Parental rights take precedence over child rights Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

3 C ULTURAL AND H ISTORICAL C ONTEXT FOR S EXUAL A SSAULT Family reunification primary goal of Child Protection systems Denial of sex offenders’ crossover in policy and law Marital rape legal in Colorado until 1989 Marital Rape is the most common form of rape (Basile, 2012, Bowker, 1983, Russell, 1990) Marital rape was found to be twice the rate of stranger rape. (Russell, 1990) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

4 I NTIMATE P ARTNER S EXUAL V IOLENCE (IPSV) In both sexual assault and domestic violence Survivors/victims often have difficulty identifying the sexual violence as a crime IPSV is often overlooked by the criminal justice system Research established that women who are being raped as well as battered are in greater danger of being killed than women who are battered but not raped. (Brown, 1987, Campbell, 1989) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

5 In Wife Rape, Raquel Bergen (1996) reports that 70% of the women in her sample experienced brutal “battering rapes” (i.e. where rape follows a physically violent attack). Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

6 In famous words of pioneer researchers in this field David Finkelhor and Kersti Yllo (1985): “When you are raped by a stranger you live with a frightening memory. When you are raped by your husband you have to live with your rapist.” Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

7 C HARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO BATTER They belong to all cultures They belong to all socioeconomic levels Takes little responsibility for themselves Poor impulse control Feels violence is justified Family history of domestic violence Traditional expectations of women/men Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

8 C ONTINUED … High levels of job dissatisfaction Irrational Assumptions Depression and self-pity are likely Use of Alcohol is highly correlated Low Stress Management Skills Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

9 C HARACTERISTICS OF THOSE WHO ARE VICTIMIZED BY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE They belong to all cultures They belong to all socioeconomic levels Low stress management skills Overly responsible for the batter and others Usually isolated with little contact with family and friends May have job skills, but no control over own finances Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

10 C ONTINUED … Traditional views of their role in relationships and marriage Believes their partner will change in spite of evidence to the contrary Usually emotionally neglected as a child Often in denial Unable to or difficult to verbalize and recognize needs Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

11 Terrible decisions (not intending harm) Not caring – thinking of themselves, low re- offense rates Predators N OT ALL O FFENDERS ARE THE SAME Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

12 S IMILARITIES BETWEEN D OMESTIC V IOLENCE O FFENDERS AND S EX O FFENDERS Offenders select known victims; someone known to them Power and control issues Cyclical nature of offending behavior Denial Co-occurrence of DV & SO Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

13 C ONTINUED … Secrecy Manipulation High re-offense rate High rate of co-occuring child abuse Grooming (April 2003, DV/SO Crossover Committee) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

14 D IFFERENCES BETWEEN D OMESTIC V IOLENCE O FFENDERS AND S EX O FFENDERS Cultural, Societal response Legal system response, containment Religious perspective Disclosure of offenses No cure vs. rehabilitation Level of containment after re-offense Criteria for discharge from treatment Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

15 C ONTINUED … Level of monitoring Lethality risk Restriction regarding contact with children Consequence More fatalities in DV Tolerance for denial in treatment (April 2003, DV/SO Crossover Committee) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

16 Having interest in more than one type of sexual behavior Crossing in age ranges Crossing in gender Crossing in types of offending C ROSS - OVER B EHAVIORS Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

17 68% of convicted sex offenders have committed DV 89% of convicted DV offenders have engaged in non-consensual sex with partners 77% of convicted S.O. offenders have engaged in non-consensual sex with partners 73% of convicted DV offenders have had sex with partners while asleep or unconscious. 69% of convicted S.O. offenders have had sex with partners while asleep or unconscious. (Davies & Simons, 2009) T HINKING ABOUT CROSS - OVER BETWEEN D OMESTIC V IOLENCE (DV) & S EX O FFENDERS (S.O.) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

18 Neither a Paraphilic diagnosis or a personality disorder significantly increased recidivism; however, with both recidivism significantly increased. Offenders with personality disorders are less likely to complete treatment. Offenders who do not complete treatment are more likely to recidivate. (Abracen, et al, 2012) M ENTAL I LLNESS AND R ECIDIVISM Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

19 R ISK OF B EING S EXUALLY A SSAULTED AS AN A DULT Adverse childhood experienced (ACE) N = 17,500 Woman ACE’s 1 = 9% 2 = 10% 3 = 19% 4 = 20% 5 = 35% (Anda, 2005) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

20 ACE’ S CONTINUED… Five or more ACE’s = 15 times more likely of being at risk for Domestic Violence (Anda, 2005) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

21 C HILD WITNESSES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE The number one predictor of child abuse is woman abuse (Stark and Flitcraft, 1988). Children in DV homes are physically abused or neglected at a rate of 1500% higher than the national average (Ford, 1991). The more severe the abuse of the mother, the worse the child abuse (Bowker, Arbitell & McFerron, 1988) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

22 C HILD WITNESSES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE At least half of all men who batter also batter their children (Pagelow, 1989). Approximately 7.5 million children witness DV each year (Jaffe, Wolfe, and Wilson, 1990). A child’s exposure to the father abusing the mother is the strongest risk factor for transmitting violent behavior from one generation to the next. (Psychological Association, Violence & the Family Report, 1996). Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

23 C HILD WITNESSES OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Male children who witness the abuse of mothers by fathers are more likely to become men who batter in adulthood than those male children from homes free of violence (Rosenbaum & O’Leary, 1981). Interviews with children in DV homes indicated that as many as 87% not only knew about the violence against their mother, but could also accurately describe violence incidents (Jaffe, et al, 1990). Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

24 I MPACT OF DV ON CHILDREN Behavioral, social and emotional problems Exhibit aggressive behavior Higher antisocial behavior Greater depression More anxiety (Brown and Bizostek, 2003) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

25 L ONG TERM EFFECTS ON CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO D OMESTIC V IOLENCE Impaired academic performance Reduced levels of motor and social skills Behavioral problems in adolescence Juvenile delinquency Alcohol or substance abuse Changes in brain physiology and function Emotional difficulties in adulthood including depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. (McDonaled, Jourilies (SP), et al, 2006) Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

26 American Psychological Association in 1996 – abusers seek sole custody more often then non-violent parents Abusers gain custody approximately 70% of the time (National Center for State Courts) Girls are 5 to 6 times more likely to be sexually abused by a battering father than by a non-battering father (YWCA.org) Children of batters are 6.5 to 19 times more likely to be victims of incest than children of non-battering parents C HILD C USTODY /A BUSE F ACTS Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

27 The website is: http://lightbox.time.com/2013/02/27/photographer-as- witness-a-portrait-of-domestic-violence/?iid=lb-gal- viewagn#end http://lightbox.time.com/2013/02/27/photographer-as- witness-a-portrait-of-domestic-violence/?iid=lb-gal- viewagn#end P HOTOGRAPHER AS W ITNESS : A P ORTRAIT OF D OMESTIC V IOLENCE Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

28 Abel et al, 1983 & 2000Age 11 Emerick & Dutton, 1993Age 13 (hands on) English et al, 2000Age 11-13 Ahlmeyer et al, 1999 & 2000Age 11 (Heil, 2005) A GE OF ONSET OF DEVIANT AROUSAL Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

29 From 1994 to 2010 the rate of intimate partner violence in the U.S. declined by 64% (U.S. Department of Justice, 2012) 1990-2004 rates of reported sexual abuse of children declined by 49% and teenage sexual assaults by 67% (Finkelhor & Jones, 2006) From 1995-2010 the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault victimization declined 58% (U.S. Department of Justice, 2013) I NTIMATE P ARTNER V IOLENCE Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

30 Societal Goal: The overall goal of treatment is prevent re-offense (future victimization). Client Goal: Sex offender treatment should induce attitudinal and behavioral change that promote a healthy lifestyle within the client. Treatment failure has profound implications on society. G OALS OF T REATMENT Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

31 Mandated treatment Clear treatment goals are set Contracts between clients, the program and the supervising agency Communicating values Setting limits Limiting confidentiality D IFFERENCES IN TREATING SEX OFFENDERS AND OTHER CLIENTS Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

32 Withholding trust Resisting the appeal to narcissism Working with other professionals Respecting without colluding Treatment includes ongoing assessment, sexual interest/arousal testing and polygraph D IFFERENCES IN TREATING SEX OFFENDERS AND OTHER CLIENTS – CONT … Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

33 Style of the therapist (supportive vs. confrontational) Client’s perception of the therapist related to positive treatment outcome Treatment engagement has been shown to be predictive of treatment progress Therapeutic Alliance: Basis for treatment change Challenging in sex offender treatment as clients exhibit: shame, low self-esteem poor coping, and intimacy deficits Therapeutic relationship can represent a secure base from which clients can explore themselves, their behaviors, and their environment. (Beech & Fordham, 1997; Homes, 1997; Levenson & Macgowan, 2004 ; Marshall, 1996,Serran, Fernandez, Marshall & Mann, 2003) F ACTORS THAT I NFLUENCE T REATMENT S UCCESS Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

34 The role of a therapist is critical to treatment success as indicated by maintained treatment participation and within-treatment behavioral change. Negative therapist characteristics influences premature termination of treatment. Positive therapist characteristics positively influence behavior change (i.e., treatment internalization). Clients demonstrated improved skills and reduction in cognitive distortions regarding offending. Instilling hope to clients provides a strong motivation for behavior change. (Simons, Tyler, and Lins, 2009) I MPLICATIONS Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies

35 Many Variables Description of re-offenses Time periods Population RECIDIVISM Copyright 2013; A. Mervyn Davies


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