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By Wydonia Jean-Louis.  The understandings of factors that influence expression of violence and aggression have become important questions in our society.

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Presentation on theme: "By Wydonia Jean-Louis.  The understandings of factors that influence expression of violence and aggression have become important questions in our society."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Wydonia Jean-Louis

2  The understandings of factors that influence expression of violence and aggression have become important questions in our society. The present article reviews the role of the neuropsychological factors, including the potential roles of the prefrontal brain and temporal lobe dysfunction. Mechanisms that allow such damage to influence behavior are discussed, as well as the evidence for such mechanisms. The article examines the influence of these factors in a wide range of populations, including batters, juvenile delinquents, adult criminals, sexual offenders, psychopaths, and schizophrenics. The potential role of additional factors, such as alcohol, are briefly examined. Conclusions focus on the influence these finding have in aggression in society and possible.

3  The Philosophical and ideological theory that should be applied to sex- offenders is Retribution. Which mean “is a “just deserts” model that demands that punishment match the degree of harm criminals have inflicted on their victims-What they justly deserved?”(P.6) Each offender should be held responsible for their offense.” By holding offenders responsible and blameworthy for their actions, we are treating them as free morals agents, not as mindless rag dolls being blown around by the wind of negative forces in the environment”.(P.6) If you are so what sane then there is a likelihood you understand right from wrong, with this being said time should fit the crime.

4  Society In societies eye this is a man crime and they‘re capable of imaging such a crime. Statistics have shown that our hormones levels are different, for example testerones in men are higher. Which is the motor behind males sex drive, and estrogen in women regulate our hormones. According to the article” Plasma Testosterone Levels in the Rapist, “The doctor found differences in testosterone level in incarcerated offenders charged with rape and child molesters.” Plasma testosterone level was measured in 52 rapists and child molesters who had completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, the Megarge Over-controlled Hostility Scale, and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. The rapists were classified according to the degree of the violence during the commission of rape. The ranges and means of the Plasma testosterone level for the rapist and child molester controls were within normal limits. The group of rapists who were judged to be most violent had significantly higher mean Plasma testosterone level than normal, child molesters and other rapists in this study. Alcoholic rapists had a significantly higher mean Plasma testosterone level than non-alcoholic rapists.”(266) Researchers tried different methods to try to understand, why individuals become rapists or child molesters. This one study used testosterone as an indicator. The study was done at “Atascadero State Hospital, a part of the California State Program for Treatment of mentally disordered offenders.”(257) we can also look at offender’s up-bringing as an indicator as well. Some boys and girls are exposed to violence which carries over into their lifestyle.

5  Prior to 1996, sexual violence in female correctional institutions had not been studied (Hensley, Castle, and Tewksbury, 2003). Recently, however, sexual violence has received more attention, in part due to the enactment of the prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003(Smith, 2006). French (1978) described two types of sexual coercion within the prison subculture: coercion between convicts and coercion between convicts and staff members.” This article goes further by stating some of these sexual encounters are forced. Incarcerated women are susceptible to a number of different sexually harmful behaviors broadly consisting of harassment, assault (including strip searches), and rape. If rape assaults keep be recycle then there is likelihood, society will here to come up with a plan to address future predators in the community

6  A Taquita Watson, who was care-provider, was charged with sexually assault on an elderly person.” An in-home caregiver sexually assaulted a 106-year-old woman who was bedridden, according to Florida police. Taquita Watson Lashay Watson, 29, of Pensacola, was arrested at about 2 p.m. Monday after investigators learned she used “ a sexual instrument” on the woman whom she’d been assigned to care for over the past three months, according to a Pensacola Police Report. Cops are investigating whether Watson victimized any other patients. She has worked as a caretaker for eight years. The Smoking Gun reported. In another police report obtained by the site, the Oct. 26 crime is described in gruesome detail: Watson allegedly “ took a [ sex toy] and jar of Vaseline from her pocketbook… pulled [ the victim’s] pants and diaper down and told her that this “ would make her feel good. “ she reportedly assaulted the woman despite her screams and pleas to stop.”  “The victim waited for days until Watson left and called police. She was given a sexual assault examination, which revealed that she had “obvious signs of trauma” to her vagina, according to police report. Watson charged with sexual assault and held in lieu of $ 25,000 bond.”

7  The local media has been covering the Penn State assistant coach who has been sexually abusing young boys for years. This man in a high position used his authority over children, to repeat rape and sodomized boys. These offenses were seen by others and this young’s cried out for help and nothing was done to stop it. This assistant coach felt he was untouchable an on a rampage that this continue until some boys were young adults. He used materials items to attract these boys and persuasive the parents he was looking out for their best interest. This man was able to assault these boys now that he lived his life, charges were brought against him. So most likely he will live his life in PC, until his death, or his lawyers get an appeal.

8  For example, T.J.Parsell was sentence to four to fifteen years for a hold up of a photo-mat. Mr. Parsell was initiated immediately into the torturous system of sexual violence among inmates. On the first day in general population, four older inmates drugged Parsell and took turns raping him. When they were through they flipped a coin to decide who would “own” him. This example can cause a person to come out into the community hostile and angry. This experience, help understand Parsell why he should get involve and help with trying to Eliminate Rape within the prisons walls.

9  On page 323, The United States and Canada have the best reintegrate offenders back into the community.” In recent years, government entities at the local, state and federal levels have invested millions of dollars in prisoner reentry services. Called, the Second Chance Act” (323). There are three recommendation that will help offenders not to reoffend are housing, job training and financial support. There is a problem with this program, which is that 70% of their population is white offenders. The larger populations are African American males who are likely being discriminated against when seeking employment. (P.325)

10  The final and most significant policy recommendation stemming from the current study is that programs need to be in place to assist recently released offenders with their psychological adjustment. Both the current study and past research(Rollo, 1998; O’Brien, 2001) have identified clear psychological and social difficulties with the return from prison.Just as there are” pains of imprisonment”( Johnson 2002; Liebling, 1999; Sykes, 1958), “ pains of reentry” have now been documented. Although a comprehensive “ best practices” literature has yet to materialize for reentry, it is reasonable for reentry programs targeting psychosocial needs to adhere to the principles of the “ what works” literature for offender rehabilitation(Taxman, Young, et al., 2002) The “ what work” literature indicates that offender treatment programs work best when they target get the criminogenic needs of high risk offenders using cognitive and / or behavioral approaches (see, for example, Cullen & Gendreau, 2000; Gendreau, 1996).(p.325-326) Just these two pages alone address that high-risk offenders need special forms of treatment to help prevent future crimes in a community.

11  When you think of rape, you try to hope there is a cure for this type of crime. So my recommendation is start with the brain, we know there are drugs out there to help balance imbalance people with bipolar. Scientist should get together and figure out a type of drug that is available to remove sexual images out of the minds of criminal. Another aspect of rape is power, create a drug or sport the will challenge the individual or substitute the same adrenaline. Aggression is also involved, create in a community base program or in the prison system that catered to aggression, anger manage is good. But there should be more to the program like replace frustration with relaxation. Sedated would be a good move, and corporate faith. People under estimate faith, this is a tough subject, being women we are always looking to find cure,but are face with a dilemma if it happen to you. Sex offender and child molesters should be known within any community, there no way to look at it. If the individual has this appetite for sexual offenses they should be monitored closely. Each offender should be label from severe to mild, and be required to submit blood monthly blood to monitor the testosterone level. There are some known facts that not all children of sexual abuse, grow to be sex offenders. But there should a specialize programs to document and follow the cycle of sexual abuse in all communities from the rich to the poor. We know as citizen it is our constitution rights not to invade on our privates, but crimes need special actions.

12  Sex registration is good but a lot of sex offenders goes undocumented, and will offend. We can take another approach which is to educate ourselves and our children. We live in a dangerous world and predators are always lurking. Though women out- number men, we are still the under- dog when it come assaults. We can occupied time with self-defense physically and mentally, but would want to have to fight every day of their life. We have probation and parole officers but the offenders out number them, so some will fall between the cracks. If we look at the new laws being passed, it will be a good decision to have sex offenders serve more time than non-violence offenders. Another important fact keeps these offenders out of employment where the young and old are valuable to them.

13  According to the book of corrections, it stated that there are three phrases an offender can go through to reintegrate into their community. Phrase 1- Protect and Prepare: The use of institution- based programs designed to prepare offenders to reenter society. These services include education, treatment for mental health and substance abuse issues, job training, mentoring, and a complete diagnostic and risk assessment. Phrase 2- Control and Restore: The use of community-based transition programs to work with offenders prior to, and immediately following, their release from jail or prison. Services provided in this phase include education, monitoring, life skills training, assessment, job skills development, and mental health and substance abuse treatment. Phrase 3- Sustain and Support: This phrase uses community-base, long term support programs designed to connect offenders no longer under the supervision of the justice system with a network of social services agencies and community-based organizations to provide ongoing services and mentoring relationships.”(p. 278) According to the book recidivism among sex-offenders are high, so House Arrest should be one of the tools used to monitor offenders. “ House Arrest is a program used by probation and parole agencies that requires offenders to remain in their homes at all times except for approved periods( travel to work, school, or other approved destinations)”.(280). With this in place inform the offender that they’re not to be 50 feet within an area where children and female are present for example, playgrounds or malls unless they are supervised.

14  Another way to address this issue is to house all violent sex-offenders and child molesters in the same prison unit at different levels for example, victim of abuse, physical, mental and sexually, aggression toward women and children and all others. Get federal funds to research their behaviors in order to counter act their impulses to offend. Have specialize doctors involve to see cognitive sensors on the brain and figure out what are their impulse button.  The idea of rape is a tough subject to cover, because it is view as a crime a male would commit, so there was little examples in regards to women. Women do rape and most often in Prisons setting, but little research were done to address the issue. Within the prison women may be coercion into same sexually behavior to survive. For women who rape, there should another form treatment to address their issue. Mental health should be the number one factor involve. There is something mental going on or some form of self- hate, abuse and aggression may be an issue.

15  Title: Corrections  Second Edition, 2009  Stohr, Mary, Walsh, Anthony, Hemmens  Psychosomatic Medicine Vol.38, NO. 4  Author: Richard T. Rada, MD, D.R. Laws, PHD, Robert Kellner MD, PHD  Title: Plasma Testosterone Levels in the Rapist  Title: Fish: A Memoir of a Boy in a Man Prison  Author: T.J. Parsell  2006  Journal of Social Issues Vol. 37, Issue 4  Malamath, N.M. (1981), Rape Proclivity Among males. Journal of Social  Issues, 37  38-157)  30 Suffolk U.L. Rev. 863(1996-1997) Rape and AIDS in Prison: On a Collision to a New Death Penalty; Vetstein, Richard D.  Title: Sex and Sexuality in Women’s Prison Prisons: A Preliminary Typological Investigation  Author: Angela Pardue, Bruce A. Arrigo, Daniel S. Murphy  2011  The Prison Journal 91(3) 279-304)  Sage Publication  Taquita Lashay Watson Rapes 106 Year old Woman with "Sexual Instrument"  The Huffington Post  ( Andy Campbell) November 06, 2012  Aggression and Violence Behavior  Volume 1, Issue Spring 1996 pages 3-25  Golden, J. Charles, Jackson, L. Michele  Peterson-Rohne, Angela, Gontkovsky, T., Samuel

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