Presentation on theme: "M ANCHESTER, 23-25 M AY 2013 "E THNICITY, R ACE AND N ATIONALISM IN E UROPEAN M EDIA AND F ILM : R IGHTS, R ESPONSIBILITIES, R EPRESENTATIONS " Mateja."— Presentation transcript:
M ANCHESTER, 23-25 M AY 2013 "E THNICITY, R ACE AND N ATIONALISM IN E UROPEAN M EDIA AND F ILM : R IGHTS, R ESPONSIBILITIES, R EPRESENTATIONS " Mateja Sincic PhD candidate IMT Institute for Advanced Studies Lucca (Italy) Women under (Domi) nation: The Manipulation of Gender Imagery in Former Yugoslavia (Makavejev’s, Draskovic’s and Zilnik’s film contributions)
O UTLINE Research Question Gendered Symbolism: from Supra Nationalism to Super Nationalism From Sexual Freedom to Rape and Alienation: Makavejev ( WR: The Mysteries of the Organism, 1971) Draskovic ( Vukovar Poste Restante, 1994) Zilnik ( Marble Ass, 1995) In Lieu of a Conclusion
R ESEARCH Q UESTION How the passage from a supra national idea, embodied in Yugoslavia’s “brotherhood and unity” to a super nationalistic one, depicted in the aggressive purity of the ethnos in the Nineties, affected the creation and manipulation of gender imagery? How and to what extent the success of nationalism was linked to the repression of sexuality and gender inequality?
G ENDERED S YMBOLISM : FROM S UPRA N ATIONALISM TO S UPER N ATIONALISM The Yugoslav system: progressive legal rights for women but no gender equality (Ramet, S 1999) The outbreak of the 1990s wars marked a stronger political marginalization of women (Kesic, O 1999) Influential role of the aggressive, nationalist male elites Women’s bodies became everybody's business (Kesic, V 2003) “Women as icons of nationhood, to be elevated and defended, or, denigrated and disgraced” (Enloe, C 1990)
Gender and nationalism are strongly correlated: distinction between “us” and “them” (Yuval Davis, N 1997) Women as “objectified others” (Papic, Z 1994) Women: symbols of national purity The purity of ethnical reproduction: vital for the existence of the nation (Kligman and Gal, 2000) An assault of women’s bodies: assault on the nation (Mostov, J 2000) Women under hiber-nation rather than domi-nation? G ENDERED S YMBOLISM : FROM S UPRA N ATIONALISM TO S UPER N ATIONALISM
Nationalism and gender imagery: A. Construction of nationalistic propaganda: women as symbols of national purity B. Need for national diversification: women as symbolical boundaries of the nation C. Nationalism escalates in warfare: women as material borders of the nations G ENDERED S YMBOLISM : FROM S UPRA N ATIONALISM TO S UPER N ATIONALISM
“WR: Misterije Organizma” ( WR: The Mysteries of the Organism, 1971) Socialism, “must not exclude human sensual pleasures from its programme” Praying for equality and free love, “only by liberating both love and labour can we create a self-regulating worker’s society” On Hitler’s picture: “Look at these women, those stupid cows, those slaves. They love (...) honour (...) and obey authority” Challenging the centre and the traditional structures of power, the emancipated women dies (Parvulescu, C 2009) F ROM S EXUAL F REEDOM TO R APE AND A LIENATION : M AKAVEJEV ’ S, D RASKOVIC ’ S AND Z ILNIK ’ S CONTRIBUTIONS
“Vukovar, Jedna Prica” ( Vukovar Poste Restante, 1994) Amplification of the dimension of the “other” Top-down manipulations which destroy everything, even love “We're no longer fat or thin, smart or mysterious; we're either Croats or Serbs” A raped Croat or Serb woman stood for a raped Croatia or Serbia (Kesic, V 2003) “Vukovar is becoming a graveyard” Sudden amnesia: from “brotherhood and unity” to violence and rape F ROM S EXUAL F REEDOM TO R APE AND A LIENATION : M AKAVEJEV ’ S, D RASKOVIC ’ S AND Z ILNIK ’ S CONTRIBUTIONS
“Dupe od Mramora” ( Marble Ass, 1995) Transgender: Zilnik emphasizes the constructed nature of gender identities (Moss, K 2008) Merlinka’s mission: women’s protection and “Balkan pacification” “People from the battlefields brought fridges, Mercedeses and gold while my Johnny brought home a destroyed cupboard” Merlinka: “Me a whore? I'm a nurse, a saint. I've saved a lot of young girls of being raped” High societal costs of war: collective alienation and individual despair F ROM S EXUAL F REEDOM TO R APE AND A LIENATION : M AKAVEJEV ’ S, D RASKOVIC ’ S AND Z ILNIK ’ S CONTRIBUTIONS
I N L IEU OF A C ONCLUSION Somehow fifty years of socialist emancipation simply vanished as an integral part of the male-centered nationalistic projects. Women still have to decide if they really want a solution, a way out. Or, they will choose, yet again, hiber-nation and domi-nation over activation?
Daniel Goulding, Liberated Cinema: The Yugoslav Experience, 1945- 2001, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002 (1985). Pavle Levi, Disintegration in Frames: Aesthetics and Ideology in the Yugoslav and Post-Yugoslav Cinema, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007. Zarana Papic, “From State Socialism to State Nationalism: The Case of Serbia in Gender Perspective”, Refuge, vol. 14, no. 3, (1994). Constantin Parvulescu, “Betrayed Promises: Politics and Sexual Revolution in the Films of Marta Meszaros, Milos Forman, and Dusan Makavejev”, Camera Obscura, vol. 24, no. 2, (2009). Sabrina P. Ramet (ed.), Gender Politics in the Western Balkans – Women and Society in Yugoslavia and the Yugoslav Successor States, University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. Nira Yuval-Davis, Gender & Nation, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1997. Dubravka Zarkov, The Body Of War: Media Ethnicity and Gender in the Break-Up of Yugoslavia, Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2007. M AIN S OURCES
WR: Misterije Organizma (WR: Mysteries of the Organism) directed by Dusan Makavejev, screenplay Dusan Makavejev, cinematography by Aleksandar Petkovic, Predrag Popovic, running time: 85 Min, Yugoslavia, West Germany, 1971. Vukovar: Jedna Prica (Vukovar Poste Restante) directed by Boro Draskovic, screenplay Boro Draskovic, Maja Draskovic, cinematography by Aleksandar Petkovic, running time: 96 Min, FR Yugoslavia, 1994. Dupe od Mramora (Marble Ass) directed by Zelimir Zilnik, screenplay Zelimir Zilnik, cinematography by Miodrag Milosevic, running time: 87 Min, FR Yugoslavia, 1995. F ILMS