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Steve Parelli presents: Other Sheep Executive Director Alternative... Copyright © 2012 by Stephen Parelli ____________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Steve Parelli presents: Other Sheep Executive Director Alternative... Copyright © 2012 by Stephen Parelli ____________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steve Parelli presents: Other Sheep Executive Director Alternative... Copyright © 2012 by Stephen Parelli ____________________________________________

2 ... theological perspectives on key Bible passages concerning sexual minorities Sodom and Gomorrah – Genesis 19

3 Chair of Old Testament translation for the NIV Bible, President of the Evangelical Theological Society, longtime Old Testament professor/scholar at Calvin Seminary and author of the New International Commentary on Joshua. "There is nothing in the Old Testament that corresponds to homosexuality as we understand it today" -Marten H. Woudstra

4 But, what about Sodom & Gomorrah ? Sodom and Gomorrah – Genesis 19

5 Not A Story About Homosexuality Not A Story About Homosexuality

6 Sodom & Gomorrah Chapter I In Three Parts Not a Story about HomosexualityNot a Story about Homosexuality The Sins of Sodom and GomorrahThe Sins of Sodom and Gomorrah Conclusion: The Real RapeConclusion: The Real Rape

7 Sodom & Gomorrah Chapter I Part One Not A Story About Homosexuality

8 Genesis 19:4-5 “…the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter: And they called unto Lot, and said unto him, Where are the men which came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them.” KJV

9 “Sodom tells us no more about attitudes toward what we call homosexuality than the story of the rape of Dinah tells us about attitudes toward heterosexuality.” Theodore W. Jennings Jr. - Professor of Biblical and Constructive Theology at the Chicago Theological Seminary -not a story about homosexuality-

10 “Pro-gay theologians are correct in saying that this passage does not provide a strong argument against prohibiting homosexual acts.” page 184 “Pro-gay theologians are correct in saying that this passage does not provide a strong argument against prohibiting all homosexual acts.” page 184 Copyright 1993 “Ex-Gay” authors Davis and Rentzel comment on Genesis 19:4-5 Conservative evangelical and former national (North America) Executive Director of Exodus International, the largest Ex-Gay group in the world

11 Dr. Robert Gagnon, Associate Professor of New Testament at Pittsburg Theological Seminary, is perhaps the most prominent proponent for “the biblical witness against homosexual practice.” “…to the extent that the story does not deal directly with consensual homosexual relationships, it is not an ‘ideal’ text to guide contemporary Christian sexual ethics.” p. 71 (2001) Dr. Robert Gagnon, of Pittsburg Theological Seminary

12 “The notorious story of Sodom and Gomorrah – often cited in connection with homosexuality – is actually irrelevant to the topic.” p71, fn 74 (2001) Dr. Robert Gagnon, of Pittsburg Theological Seminary Dr. Robert Gagnon (photo left) footnotes Richard B. Hays (photo right): Richard B. Hays (born May 4, 1948) is Dean and George Washington Ivey Professor of New Testament at Duke Divinity School in Durham, North Carolina. Another prominent proponent for “the biblical witness against homosexual practice.”

13 Sodom & Gomorrah Chapter I Part Two The Sins of Sodom and Gomorrah

14 What were the sins of Sodom? Robert E. Goss

15 male rape Sodom and Gomorrah “is the story most frequently cited by homophobic Christians for their hatred of [LGBTs]. Sodom has become the image of human depravity and moral decay, but the story in Genesis 19 has nothing to do with same-sex sexuality; it has to do, rather with male rape.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

16 “The messengers are foreigners within the city, and the men of Sodom surround the house and insist that ‘we might know them (yadha). The Hebrew word to ‘know’ (yadah) is occasionally used as a euphemism for sexual intercourse, and here in this chapter and Judges 19, yadah, needs to be translated and contextualized in...” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

17 “... in the sexual codes of the penetrator and the penetrated in the ancient world. A more apt colloquial translation would be to ‘womanize, make into a woman.’ In the context, it suggests ‘penetrating a male like a woman,’ or anal intercourse. Ancient New Eastern societies subjected... ” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

18 “... those they had conquered, enemies, strangers, and trespassers to phallic anal penetration to indicate their subordinate status.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ “The story in Genesis 19 has nothing to do with same-sex sexuality; it has to do, rather, with male rape.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

19

20 What were the sins of Sodom? Robert E. Goss

21 ”When chapter 19 is read with chapter 18, the inhospitality of Sodom is contrasted with the rural social code of hospitality. Hospitality is part of the cultural code and the editor’s theological motif operative in Genesis … The editor contrasts... ” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

22 “... the rural, pastoral welcoming of strangers ( by Abraham, Gen. 18 ) with...”

23 ”... the urban hostility [shown] them [by the residents of Sodom at Lot’s door, Gen. 19]... ” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ How the movie The Four Feathers illustrates the moral essence of hospitality in the Near East

24 Harry Faversham: Why are you protecting me? Abou Fatma: God put you in my way. I have no choice.

25 The desert law of Hospitality

26 ”When Jesus says that it will be more tolerable for Sodom than for those not hearing God’s messengers, he has in mind not the Sodomites’ sexual practices but their inhospitality.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ

27 ”But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not... I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city.” Luke 10:10-12

28 ”And punishments came upon the sinners... Insomuch as they used a more hard and hateful behavior toward strangers. For the Sodomites did not receive those, whom they knew not when they came....” Wisdom of Solomon 19:13-14

29 Hateful behavior towards strangers. To treat unjustly those who we do not yet know and those we assume to know. Unjust treatment of others.

30 What were the sins of Sodom? Robert E. Goss

31 Attention needs to be given not just to “the violation of hospitality,” but also “to the patriarchal violence to male strangers and to the daughters, ‘the other’ inscribed within the biblical text.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ patriarchal violence to Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

32 ”The laws of hospitality are fused with the patriarchal gender code that privileges males over females. That code requires that Lot protect male honor over female honor. In other words... ” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ patriarchal violence to Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

33 ”... It is better to shame a woman than a man.” Here we see “the themes of hospitality and sexual violence” interplay with “the Hebrew cultural script of honor and shame.” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ patriarchal violence to Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

34 ”... So Lot offers the sexual capital of his household, his virgin daughters, in exchange for preserving the honor of the strangers. The mob rape...” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ patriarchal violence to Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

35 ”... Would dishonor not only the messengers but also Lot, his household, all his clan, and all those people associated with him” Robert E. Goss, Queering Christ patriarchal violence to Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

36 Patriarchal violence against: Male strangers Women (here, Lot’s daughters)

37 Sodom & Gomorrah Chapter I Part Three Conclusion: The Real Rape – Violence against the text of Gen. 19, and in turn against sexual minorities

38 Ezekiel the Prophet (1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo) The sin of Sodom according to the Prophet Ezekiel was… “Behold, this was the iniquity of they sister Sodom: Unjust dealings with others – especially with the weak and vulnerable. Ez. 16:49

39 “... pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy.” Ez. 16:49

40 “In numerous biblical texts, there are no indications of the sin of Sodom as referring to same-sex behaviors.” Robert Goss, Queering Christ. Robert Goss, Queering Christ. Hypocrisy – unjust patriarchal dominanceHypocrisy – unjust patriarchal dominance Violence – against the stranger and womenViolence – against the stranger and women Oppression of the week and vulnerableOppression of the week and vulnerable Unjust - in one’s overall dealings with othersUnjust - in one’s overall dealings with others Hypocrisy – unjust patriarchal dominanceHypocrisy – unjust patriarchal dominance Violence – against the stranger and womenViolence – against the stranger and women Oppression of the week and vulnerableOppression of the week and vulnerable Unjust - in one’s overall dealings with othersUnjust - in one’s overall dealings with others What is the “Sodomy”?

41 “... The real act of sodomy [i.e., the act of raping something/ someone] is the particular application of the [Sodom and Gomorrah] story to [sexual minorities] and the translation of textual violence [i.e., to “rape” the story of Genesis 19 and then turn it] into [justification for] social violence.” Robert Goss, Queering Christ “... The real act of sodomy [i.e., the act of raping something/ someone] is the particular application of the [Sodom and Gomorrah] story to [sexual minorities] and the translation of textual violence [i.e., to “rape” the story of Genesis 19 and then turn it] into [justification for] social violence.” Robert Goss, Queering Christ


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