Presentation on theme: " There is a paucity of data regarding sexual violence in illegal immigrants as these abuses are almost never reported due to fear of deportation and lack."— Presentation transcript:
There is a paucity of data regarding sexual violence in illegal immigrants as these abuses are almost never reported due to fear of deportation and lack of an effective reporting process. 1 The United Nations estimates that as many as 70 percent of female immigrants who cross the border without husbands or families are abused in some way. 9 Most cases of rape are attributed to smugglers taking women across the border, or to bandits who prey on migrants. There have also been reported cases of US Border Patrol agents accused of sexual assault. 3,4,5,7 Research by the University of Arizona suggests that as many as 80-90 percent of migrant women have suffered sexual abuse. 6 Rape is so common it has been called “the price you pay for crossing the border” among female border crossers, including female children. Some women take birth control pills before crossing for this reason. 2,10 There is a lack of defined policies for law enforcement reporting and treatment of immigrant rape victims. 7 Care of Female Immigrants Experiencing Sexual Violence at the U.S.-Mexico Border Lauren A. Barnett, Carlos R. Gonzales The University of Arizona College of Medicine Sexual violence is an unfortunate consequence of any culture where subordination of women is prevalent. 6 Female immigrants are at risk of sexual violence because they rely heavily on men in order to make the journey across the border. 6 To examine the prevalence of sexual violence against female immigrants crossing the U.S. Mexico border, and to provide suggestions for treating these women who present to our health care system. An informal literature review including web based searching and database searching. Key search terms were “immigrant,” “rape,” “sexual violence,” and “abuse.” Relevant articles were identified including: 1 peer reviewed journal article, 1 textbook, 5 web publications, 3 news articles. All literature cited was published after 2004, with the majority published after 2009. Methods Background Illegal Immigrant Apprehensions by U.S. Border Patrol In Fiscal Year 2012 8 Findings Objective The prevalence of abuse against female border crossers is estimated to be as high as 70-90 percent. Healthcare providers should inquire about violence and sexual assault in any patient, including pediatric, who is a female border crosser and treat these patients in the same manner we would treat any other patient. Peer-reviewed data regarding abuse in illegal immigrants is difficult to come by, and more investigation into evaluation of these patients by healthcare providers is needed. “The smugglers have us locked… inside a house, on the floor, like animals… We continued, and at night, the “coyotes” [smugglers] wanted to rape [two] young women, thirteen and eighteen years, but we didn’t leave their side and they did not do it in the end.” Anonymous 4 References Conclusions 1.Amnesty International. Invisible Victims: Migrants on the Move in Mexico. London, United Kingdom: Amnesty International Publications; 2010. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR41/ 014/2010/en/8459f0ac-03ce-4302-8bd2-3305bdae9cde/ amr410142010eng.pdf. Accessed April 3, 2013. 2.Calamaio C. Women face extra dangers in migration. Border Beat. April 24, 2009. http://borderbeat.net/news/665-women-face-extra- dangers-in-migration. Accessed March 20, 2014. 3.Dilanian K. Border Patrol is grappling with misconduct cases in its ranks. Los Angeles Times. September 7, 2010. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/sep/07/nation/la-na-border-patrol-20100908. Accessed April 3, 2013. 4.Rhoad M. Violence on the Mexico-US border. International Planned Parenthood Federation. http://www.ippfwhr.org/en/blog/violence- mexico-us-border. June 16, 2012. Accessed March 20, 2014. 5.Slack J, Whiteford S. Violence and migration on the Arizona-Sonora border. The Society for Applied Anthropology. 2011;70(1): 11-21. 6.Staudt K, Payan T, Kruszewski ZA, eds. Human Rights Along the U.S.-Mexico Border. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press; 2009. 7.Stop Prisoner Rape. No Refuge Here. Los Angeles, CA: Stop Prisoner Rape; 2004. 8.United States Border Patrol. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year 2012 Statistics.http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/ usbp_statistics/usbp_fy12_stats/. Accessed March 19, 2014. 9.Vanderpool T. Price of admission. Tucson Weekly. June 5, 2008. http://www.tucsonweekly.com/ tucson/price-of- admission/Content?oid=1091501. Accessed March 30, 2013. 10.Watson J. More women are risking rape, death on illegal journey to US. Associated Press. April 28, 2006. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/04/28/more_wom en_are_risking_rape_death_on_illegal_journey_to_us/?camp=pm. Accessed March 30, 2013. Future Directions Further investigation into this subject is needed and interdepartmental collaboration on a new research project is welcomed.