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Powering the Future: Biofuels. Activity: Oil viscosity Explain the importance of identifying fuel viscosity Carry out viscosity tests on a variety of.

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Presentation on theme: "Powering the Future: Biofuels. Activity: Oil viscosity Explain the importance of identifying fuel viscosity Carry out viscosity tests on a variety of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Powering the Future: Biofuels

2 Activity: Oil viscosity Explain the importance of identifying fuel viscosity Carry out viscosity tests on a variety of different fuels Evaluate the pros and cons of different transport fuels

3 To help combat climate change the UK has a target to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by % of the UK renewable energy could come from biomass heat and electricity by To meet the European Renewable Energy Directive, the UK is aiming for 10% of transport energy to be from renewable sources by % of the sustainable renewable road transport fuel used in the UK between April 2012 and April 2013 came from UK feedstocks. Facts and Figures

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5 Oilseed rape is currently grown for use as a food crop as well as production of biofuels. In 2009 the UK biofuel produced from oilseed rape was13% of total biofuel feedstocks. Estimates suggest that it would require 40% of the UK arable land to produce 5% of the UK transport fuel from oilseed rape. It is therefore vital that research finds alternatives to current biofuels. © John Innes Centre

6 Oilseed rape exploding pods: Controlling pod shattering could lead to greatly increased yields of oilseed rape. © John Innes centre

7 Algae light microscope image: In order to develop biofuels from algae, research is being conducted to find suitable strains that produce high levels of oils, can tolerate heat and high concentrations of carbon dioxide, and are easy to harvest. © Plymouth Marine Laboratory

8 Bubble Columns: Microalgae can be grown in large bioreactors and continually harvested unlike crops or macroalgae. They could be grown using the waste carbon dioxide from industrial processes, power stations or waste treatment plants. The oil they produce can then be converted into liquid fuel. © Plymouth Marine Laboratory

9 Scanning Electron Microscope image of algae: Algae can harvest the power of the sun through photosynthesis and convert this into biomass including oil. They are fast growing and more efficient than plants at absorbing carbon dioxide. © Plymouth Marine Laboratory

10 Fluorescent staining of oil in algae: In order to develop algal biofuels research is being conducted to find suitable strains that produce high levels of oils, can tolerate heat and high concentrations of carbon dioxide, and are easy to harvest. © Plymouth Marine Laboratory

11 Viscosities and molecular structures Substance Dynamic 25°C (mPa.s) Molecular structure Refined sunflower oil % (sat f.a.s) 20% (monounsat f.a.s) 70% (polunsat.f.a.s) Refined corn oil % (sat f.a.s) 31%(monounsat f.a.s) 57% (polunsat.f.a.s) Olive oil % (sat f.a.s) 75% (monounsat f.a.s) 10% (polunsat.f.a.s) Glycerol1420 (20°C)C3H8O3C3H8O3 Biodiesel5.75RCOOCH 3 Bioethanol1.1 (20°C)C 2 H 5 OH Water1 (20°C)H2OH2O

12 Activity: Oil viscosity Explain the importance of identifying fuel viscosity Carry out viscosity tests on a variety of different fuels Evaluate the pros and cons of different transport fuels

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