What is Rape? 1.) The unlawful compelling of a person through physical force or duress to have sexual intercourse. 2.) Any act of sexual intercourse that is forced upon a person.
What is Date Rape? Non-consensual sexual intercourse by a friend or acquaintance. - Non-consensual —It is without agreement - Force is not necessarily involved; if someone is unable to give consent or does not agree to have sexual intercourse it is considered rape. (i.e. if someone is intoxicated, passed out, drugged up)
Drugs and Alcohol Alcohol is the number one drug used in rape cases. Rohyponol (roofies, circles, the forget pill) GHB (liquid X, salt water, scoop)
MYTHS “It can’t happen to me.” "She asked for it.” "Most offenders are men who differ from the victim in race or ethnicity.” "Most sexual assaults are committed by strangers at night in out-of-the-way places.” "Only women can be raped."
Why the College Campus? Most violent crime on a college campus. College women are more at risk than other women the same age who aren’t at college. On a college campus, sorority girls have a 74% more risk of rape or sexual assault. Frequent unsupervised parties, easy access to alcohol, single students living on their own, and the availability to private rooms.
General College Date Rape Statistics Approximately one in four college aged women is date raped or experiences an attempted date rape during her college years. * The age group with the highest rape victimization rate is 16-19 years old, 20-24 group being the second highest victimized rate. Women between the ages of 16-24 are four times more likely to be date raped than any other age group. 90% of date rapes occur when either the victim and/or attacker was drinking. 44% of women who were date raped have considered suicide. 8.5% of college men admit to sexually abusing women - but don't consider that rape. Sources include RAINN, University of South Florida, Federal Bureau of Investigation (Uniform Crime Statistics, 1996), U.S. Department of Justice, Violence against Women (Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. Of Justice
“Acquaintance Rape and the College Social Scene” Study recorded by: Sally K. Ward, Kathy Chapman, Ellen Cohn, Susan White and Kirk Williams This article is based on the study of one particular college and its statistics of unwanted sexual contact, and how alcohol plays a role. 518 women responded to a self-administered survey on a specific college campus not specified in the scholarly article Categorized by acquaintance rape by contact, attempted intercourse, and sexual intercourse. - gender, Greek status, and year in school
Dramatic Results 100% of the stranger attacks were at open parties 83% of those women who were targeted were under the influence of alcohol. What did it prove? Alcohol can lead to sexual aggression and intolerable actions. * Sensitive topic – individuals feel pressure to give honest answers * The study showed that a males perception and a women’s perception on the account of rape were completely different
“You Owe Me” Effects on Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape By: Susan A. Basow and Alexandra Minier Sexual Social Exchange Theory : social interactions are examined using a cost benefit analysis, whereby interactions are presumed to continue only if each party gains as much as or more than she or he supplies - 188 U.S. college students rated the characters’ sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability - Men’s misunderstanding of women’s sexual desires may create the feeling of “being led on” that serves to justify the rape in the view of the perpetrator
Reporting Rape Can be hard to do Not required but highly encouraged Can bring closure Call 911 or from the ER No time limit Statute of limitations in some states
Rape Trauma Syndrome Two phases Acute or Disruptive phase ○ Lasts days to weeks ○ Characterized by general stress symptoms Long-term or Reorganization phase ○ Lasts months to years ○ Re-establishes sense of control and lifestyle ○ Characterized by rape-specific symptoms
Recovering from Sexual Trauma Anxiety Anger Fear Guilt/Shame Flashbacks
Flashbacks A common experience after a traumatic event Can be smells, sounds, images, or sensations Can last a moment or long time
Depression Social withdrawnness Lack of interest Recurrent thoughts of suicide Feelings of worthlessness Changes in eating habits Inability to sleep Tiredness and lack of energy Loss of hope and recurrent pessimism
Eating Disorders Estimated 30-40% are result of sexual abuse Avoiding sexuality Self-punishment Controllable part of life
Dental Visits Can be unsettling Trouble with being touched Being alone Having objects in one’s mouth
Self Care Take a walk Journal your thoughts Call someone you trust Take a warm bath Read a loved book or magazine Workout at the gym Volunteer
Keep Safe! Things you can do- Be aware of what is going on around you! Follow your instincts. If you are unsure of an acquaintance, go with a group or on a double date. Meet in and go to public places. Have your own transport if possible. Or carry taxi fare.
If you go out in a group, make a safety plan with other members of the group. Include what to do if someone gets separated from the group. Go out with friends and return with friends. Adopt a “sober buddy” system. If someone has passed out, do not leave them alone. Be alert to the behavior of friends. Always pre-plan a safe ride home Communicate clearly your sexual limits.
Don’t leave a social event with someone you have just met or don’t know well. Be aware that excessive use of alcohol and drugs are often related to date rape.
Alcohol and Risk Reduction- Do not let alcohol or drugs decrease or interfere with your ability to take care of yourself and make sensible decisions. If you choose to drink, know your limits and stick with them. Do not accept beverages from someone you don’t know and trust. At a bar/club- accept drinks only from the bartender, waiter, or waitress. If someone offers to buy you a drink, go with them to the bar and watch the bartender make your drink. Carry it yourself!
Do not leave your drink unattended. If you realize you left your drink unattended, pour it out. Open containers yourself. Do not accept a drink in an open container. Avoid taking drinks from a punch bowl or other common containers. Don’t share drinks. Don’t drink anything that has an unusual taste, appearance, or smell. If you feel drunk and haven't drunk any alcohol- or if you feel like the effects of drinking alcohol are stronger than usual, get help right away. If you feel dizzy, disoriented, or physically uncomfortable in any way, tell someone you trust and ask for help in getting home.
EALIZE what situations place you in danger of committing rape or being a victim of rape. VOID and manage conflicts with partners and intimates. ERCEIVE clearly what others are doing. STABLISH and communicate your desires and limits about sex.
Prevention on the Societal Level The College Date Rape Attitude Survey (CDRAS) A measure intended to asses attitudes related to risk for committing rape in adolescents and young adults. Survey containing 20 items measuring 4 rape related attitudes: Entitlement, blame shifting, traditional roles, and overwhelming sexual arousal.
Entitlement: “If a women lets a man buy her dinner or pay for a movie or drinks she owes him sex”. Blame shifting: “Women provoke rape by their behavior”. Traditional Roles: “Most women enjoy being submissive in sexual relations”. Overwhelming sexual arousal: “Date rapists are usually motivated by an overwhelming, unfulfilled sexual desire”.
Results: Males are significantly more in agreement with rape-related attitudes. Prevention: As a society, we need to restructure the maladaptive schema underlying the thoughts and behaviors related to rape.