2The kind of violence that is designed to vent rage, anger, Two Kinds of ViolenceINSTRUMENTAL The kind of violence that is directed toward strangers and is designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal.EXPRESSIVEThe kind of violence that is designed to vent rage, anger,or frustration.
3Roots of Violence Human instincts Substance abuse Ineffective families Regional valuesCultural valuesPersonal traitsRoots of ViolenceFirearm availabilityGangingAbused childrenSocial movementsExposure to violenceNational values
4INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR: RapeAssaultMurderRobberyHate CrimesWorkplace ViolenceTerrorism
5The Subculture of Violence The subculture’s norms are separate from society’s central, dominant value system.A potent theme of violence influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships.
6Question Is there a “subculture of violence” in Miami? If so, How would you describe itsenvironment and values?
8Victims and Attribution Theory Generally, when considering someone else’s actions, especially behavior that has negative consequences – we are inclined to believe that others are disposed to act the way they do.In other words, we tend to put the onusfor bad outcomes on the personrather than the environment.Key Term: Blaming the Victim.
9Battered Women The battered woman syndrome is defined as a collection of symptoms and reactions by a woman to a pattern of continuedphysical and psychological abuseinflicted on her by her mate.These symptoms include:Learned helplessnessLowered self-esteem - trappedImpaired functioning – restricted activitiesDiminished alternativesAnger or rage- hypervigilant
10Characteristics of Batterers: Battered WomenCharacteristics of Batterers:Lower socioeconomic status.History of family abuse either as a child or between parents.Early experiences with substance abuse.Early experience with coercive or aggressive behavior.Fear of being abandoned by their parents.
11Battered Women Characteristics of Batterers (cont’d) Poor self-concepts, inferior verbal skills, inferior problem solvers.Excessive control.Extreme jealousy.Overreact to signs of rejection.Behavior ranges from rage to desperation toward their partner.
12The Effects of Physical-Sexual Abuse of Children Short term effects include: mood and anxiety disorders among children; inappropriate sexual behavior; and, impaired school performance.Long term effects include: a greater risk of developing mental disorders; suffering subsequent re-victimization experiences; and engaging in criminal conduct as adults.
13Risk Factors of Abusive Parents Less knowledge of child development.Unrealistic expectations of child development.Easily annoyed.Aggressive means of resolving conflict.Limited access to social support.Disagreement with partner on child rearing.
14Rape / Sexual Assault Sexual assault is non-consenting sexual contact, i.e., intercourse,that is obtained by usingforce or coercion against the victim.
15Forcible RapeRape is a violent, coercive act of aggression against women and not a forceful expression of sexuality.Rape may not be reported to the police in as many as 2/3 of all cases.
16Types of Rape Gang vs. Individual Rape Date Rape Serial Rape Marital RapeAcquaintance RapeStatutory Rape
17Causes of Rape Evolutionary and Biological Factors Male Socialization HypermasculinityPsychological AbnormalitiesSocial LearningSexual Motivation
18Other Causal Factors of Rapists Victim-Offender RelationshipsAggressionHeightened sexual arousal during aggressive stateAntisocial personality disorderDeviant sexual fantasiesAttitudes justify aggressivenessLoss of control of emotions such as anger that are acted out in sexual aggression.Feminist theory (male domination and exploitation), social-learning theory (observation and imitation), and evolutionary theory (testosterone).
19Rape Trauma Syndrome 3 types of reactions Emotional responses: fear, guilt, shame, blame themselves, loss of autonomy, loss of trust, and loss of control.Disturbance in functioning: sleep, appetite, and social withdrawal.Changes in lifestyle: socioeconomic impact, i.e., losing income, divorce, becoming unemployed
20Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD may occur when individuals suffer a severe trauma and,weeks or months later, continue to experience intense,fear-related reactions when reminded of the trauma.Symptoms Include:Frequent re-experiencingPersistent avoidance of stimuliIncreased physiological arousal, i.e, startle responses or disrupted sleepingRetreatism – the world is a dangerous placeFeeling of helplessness to deal with stressors
21Question Why are women who have been sexually assaulted in the past or who were sexually abused as children,more likely to suffera subsequent sexual attack?
22Groth’s Typology of Rapists Anger rape occurs when sexuality becomes a means of expressing and discharging pent-up anger and rage.The sadistic rape involves both sexuality and aggression. Ritualism, torment and torture often occur. Intensely exciting to the sadist.Victims have a characteristic rapist wants to harm or destroy.A power rape involves an attacker who does not want to harm his victim as much as he wants to possess her sexually.
23Invasion of women’s privacy when the case is tried in court Rape and the LawChallengesfor theProsecutionThe culture of suspiciousness of women and a shift in the burden of proofInvasion of women’s privacy whenthe case is tried in court
24RAPE REFORM Shield laws, i.e., Michigan v. Lucas (1991). “Crimes of sexual assault” – a gender-neutral definition now applied to federal and some state statutes.Changing the language from use of force to threat of force.Prosecutor’s still influenced by the circumstances of the crime.Perception’s of the victim’s character is still a critical factor when determining “real” rape and who are “real” rape victims.
25MurderCommon law defines murder as “the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought.”Murderer and the victim may be influenced by relationships and interpersonal interactions, i.e., spousal, personal, and student relations.Strangers?
26Extent of Murder Rate doubled from mid 60s to late 90s Began rising in Since then therate hasdeclinedBegan rising inlate 1980s &early 1990s to9.8/100,00in 1991Extent of MurderPeaked in 1980at 10.2 per100,000then declined
27MURDER PATTERNS Most victims knew or were acquainted with attacker Most involved firearms (70%); majority handgunsMURDER PATTERNSFemales more likely to be killed by boyfriend or husbandEnvironmental patterns are similar to rapes
28Types of MurdersThrill killing - impulsive violence motivated as an act of daring or recklessness.Gang killing - violence is part of the group activity.Cult killing - occur when members of religious cults are ordered to kill by their leaders.Serial murder - murders who perpetrate over a period of time.Mass murder - multiple victims during a single, violent outburst.
29Mass MurderThe mass murderer kills four or more victims in one location during a period of time that lasts anywhere from a few minutes to several hours (Wrightsman).A special type of mass murderer is the spree killer. The spree killer kills victims at two or more different locations with no “cooling-off” interval between the murders. The killing constitutes a single event (Wrightsman).
30Typology of Mass Murders ProfitkillersRevengekillersLoverkillersTerroristkillers
31There is no single distinct type of serial killer. Serial KillersSerial murderers kill four or more victims, each on separate occasions. Serial killers usually select a certain type of victim who fulfills a role in the killer’s fantasies (Wrightsman).There is no single distinct type of serial killer.Subtypes include: the visionary, the mission-oriented, the hedonistic, the power-oriented (Holmes).
32Serial Killers Hedonistic killer Mission-oriented killers Killers motivated to rid the world of aparticular type of undesirable person,such as a prostitute.Hedonistic killerThrill-seeking murders who gettheir excitement and sometimessexual pleasure fromtheir acts.Power /control oriented killersMurders that enjoy havingcomplete control overtheir victims.VISIONARY KILLERSResponse to some inner voice or visionthat demands that some person orcategory of persons be killed.
33AssaultPatterns are quite similar to murder except the victim survives.The NCVS indicates that only about 57 percent of all serious assaults are reported to the police.Typical offender is young, male, and white; although African Americans are disproportionate offenders’ compared to their representation in the population (34%).
34Extent of AssaultIn 2000, the rate for assault was about 324 per 100,000 and is in declineDown 17% from 1996And down 25% from 1991
35Assault in the Home Sexual abuse Child abuse Spousal abuse Elderly abuse
36RobberyCommon law defines robbery as “the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of a person by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the person in fear.”Typical offender are disproportionately young, male minority group members.
37Conklin’s Typology of Robbers PROFESSIONALOPPORTUNISTADDICTALCOLOLIC
38Hate Crimes or Bias Crimes Violent acts directed toward a particular personor members of a groupmerely because the targets share a discernibleracial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic.
39Typology of Hate Crimes THRILL-SEEKINGMISSIONREACTIVE
40Factors That Produce Hate Crime Poor or uncertain economic conditions.Racial stereotypes in films and T.V.Hate-filled discourse on talk shows or in political advertisements.Use of racial code language such as “welfare mothers” and “inner city thugs.”An individual’s personal experiences with members of particular minority groups.“Scapegoating,” which is blaming of a minority group for the misfortunes of society as a whole.
42Question Is hate a more heinous motivation than revenge? If so, Should hate crimes be punished more severelythan crimes motivated by revenge?
43Workplace ViolenceThird leading cause of occupational injury or death.The most common type of victimization is assault.Retail sales workers are at the greatest risk.Causal factors: economic structuring (layoffs), leadership styles, sexual harassment, and poor service.
44Political Crime and Terrorism Political crime is an act that carries with it the intent to disrupt and change the government and must not merely be a simple common law crime committed for reasons of greed or egotism. These are sometimes referred to as convictional criminals – those who believe their actions will benefit society.Terrorism generally involves the premeditated illegal use of force (violence) against innocent people to achieve a political objective or to commit a political crime.Terrorism can also include economic or social reform efforts.
45Characteristics of Terrorism Political in aims and motives.Exploitation of fear (terror) through violence or the threat of violence.Psychological effects (fear through intimidation).Perpetrated by some organizational entity with an identifiable chain of command capable of conspiratorial conduct.Perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity.
46Characteristics of Terrorism (cont’d) Designed to create power when there is no power.To terrorists, there are no rules of warfare or codes of conduct.The goal is that through the publicity generated from their violence, terrorists will have the leverage to effect political change.
47Forms of Terrorism Revolutionary Political Nationalistic Cause Based State-SponsoredEnvironmentalNuclear
48What Motivates Terrorism? Emotional individuals who act out their psychosis.Ideological prompted behavior.Feelings of alienation and failure to comprehend post-technological society.