Two Kinds of Violence INSTRUMENTAL The kind of violence that is directed toward strangers and is designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal. EXPRESSIVE The kind of violence that is designed to vent rage, anger, or frustration.
Exposure to violence Abused children Social movements National values Human instincts Ineffective families Cultural values Substance abuse GangingGanging Regional values Personal traits Firearm availability Roots of Violence
INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR: Rape Assault Murder Robbery Hate Crimes Workplace Violence Terrorism
The Subculture of Violence The subculture’s norms are separate from society’s central, dominant value system. A potent theme of violence influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships. The subculture’s norms are separate from society’s central, dominant value system. A potent theme of violence influences lifestyles, the socialization process, and interpersonal relationships.
Question Is there a “subculture of violence” in Miami? If so, How would you describe its environment and values?
Characteristics of Victims of Violent Crime Victim RaceGenderAgeEmployment Marital Status Income Victim - Offender Relationship
Victims and Attribution Theory Generally, when considering someone else’s actions, especially behavior that has negative consequences – we are inclined to believe that others are disposed to act the way they do. In other words, we tend to put the onus for bad outcomes on the person rather than the environment. Key Term: Blaming the Victim.
The battered woman syndrome is defined as a collection of symptoms and reactions by a woman to a pattern of continued physical and psychological abuse inflicted on her by her mate. These symptoms include : Learned helplessness Lowered self-esteem - trapped Impaired functioning – restricted activities Diminished alternatives Anger or rage- hypervigilant Battered Women
Characteristics of Batterers: Lower socioeconomic status. History of family abuse either as a child or between parents. Early experiences with substance abuse. Early experience with coercive or aggressive behavior. Fear of being abandoned by their parents.
Battered Women Characteristics of Batterers (cont’d) Poor self-concepts, inferior verbal skills, inferior problem solvers. Excessive control. Extreme jealousy. Overreact to signs of rejection. Behavior ranges from rage to desperation toward their partner.
The Effects of Physical-Sexual Abuse of Children Short term effects include: mood and anxiety disorders among children; inappropriate sexual behavior; and, impaired school performance. Long term effects include: a greater risk of developing mental disorders; suffering subsequent re- victimization experiences; and engaging in criminal conduct as adults.
Risk Factors of Abusive Parents Less knowledge of child development. Unrealistic expectations of child development. Easily annoyed. Aggressive means of resolving conflict. Limited access to social support. Disagreement with partner on child rearing.
Rape / Sexual Assault Sexual assault is non-consenting sexual contact, i.e., intercourse, that is obtained by using force or coercion against the victim.
Forcible Rape Rape is a violent, coercive act of aggression against women and not a forceful expression of sexuality. Rape may not be reported to the police in as many as 2/3 of all cases. Rape is a violent, coercive act of aggression against women and not a forceful expression of sexuality. Rape may not be reported to the police in as many as 2/3 of all cases.
Types of Rape Gang vs. Individual Rape Serial Rape Acquaintance Rape Date Rape Marital Rape Statutory Rape
Causes of Rape Evolutionary and Biological Factors Male Socialization Hypermasculinity Psychological Abnormalities Social Learning Sexual Motivation
Other Causal Factors of Rapists Victim-Offender Relationships Aggression Heightened sexual arousal during aggressive state Antisocial personality disorder Deviant sexual fantasies Attitudes justify aggressiveness Loss of control of emotions such as anger that are acted out in sexual aggression. Feminist theory (male domination and exploitation), social- learning theory (observation and imitation), and evolutionary theory (testosterone).
Rape Trauma Syndrome 3 types of reactions Emotional responses: fear, guilt, shame, blame themselves, loss of autonomy, loss of trust, and loss of control. Disturbance in functioning: sleep, appetite, and social withdrawal. Changes in lifestyle: socioeconomic impact, i.e., losing income, divorce, becoming unemployed
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PTSD may occur when individuals suffer a severe trauma and, weeks or months later, continue to experience intense, fear-related reactions when reminded of the trauma. Symptoms Include: Frequent re-experiencing Persistent avoidance of stimuli Increased physiological arousal, i.e, startle responses or disrupted sleeping Retreatism – the world is a dangerous place Feeling of helplessness to deal with stressors
Question Why are women who have been sexually assaulted in the past or who were sexually abused as children, more likely to suffer a subsequent sexual attack?
Groth’s Typology of Rapists Anger rape occurs when sexuality becomes a means of expressing and discharging pent-up anger and rage. A power rape involves an attacker who does not want to harm his victim as much as he wants to possess her sexually. The sadistic rape involves both sexuality and aggression. Ritualism, torment and torture often occur. Intensely exciting to the sadist.Victims have a characteristic rapist wants to harm or destroy.
Rape and the Law Challenges for the Prosecution Invasion of women’s privacy when the case is tried in court The culture of suspiciousness of women and a shift in the burden of proof
RAPE REFORM Shield laws, i.e., Michigan v. Lucas (1991). “Crimes of sexual assault” – a gender-neutral definition now applied to federal and some state statutes. Changing the language from use of force to threat of force. Prosecutor’s still influenced by the circumstances of the crime. Perception’s of the victim’s character is still a critical factor when determining “real” rape and who are “real” rape victims.
Murder Common law defines murder as “the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought.” Murderer and the victim may be influenced by relationships and interpersonal interactions, i.e., spousal, personal, and student relations. Strangers?
Since then the rate has declined Began rising in late 1980s & early 1990s to 9.8/100,00 in 1991 Extent of Murder Rate doubled from mid 60s to late 90s Peaked in 1980 at 10.2 per 100,000 then declined
Most victims knew or were acquainted with attacker Most involved firearms (70%); majority handguns Females more likely to be killed by boyfriend or husband Environmental patterns are similar to rapes MURDER PATTERNS
Types of Murders Thrill killing - impulsive violence motivated as an act of daring or recklessness. Gang killing - violence is part of the group activity. Cult killing - occur when members of religious cults are ordered to kill by their leaders. Serial murder - murders who perpetrate over a period of time. Mass murder - multiple victims during a single, violent outburst. Thrill killing - impulsive violence motivated as an act of daring or recklessness. Gang killing - violence is part of the group activity. Cult killing - occur when members of religious cults are ordered to kill by their leaders. Serial murder - murders who perpetrate over a period of time. Mass murder - multiple victims during a single, violent outburst.
Mass Murder The mass murderer kills four or more victims in one location during a period of time that lasts anywhere from a few minutes to several hours (Wrightsman). A special type of mass murderer is the spree killer. The spree killer kills victims at two or more different locations with no “cooling-off” interval between the murders. The killing constitutes a single event (Wrightsman).
Typology of Mass Murders Terrorist killers Revenge killers Profit killers Lover killers
Serial Killers Serial murderers kill four or more victims, each on separate occasions. Serial killers usually select a certain type of victim who fulfills a role in the killer’s fantasies (Wrightsman). There is no single distinct type of serial killer. Subtypes include: the visionary, the mission-oriented, the hedonistic, the power-oriented (Holmes).
VISIONARY KILLERS Response to some inner voice or vision that demands that some person or category of persons be killed. Mission-oriented killers Killers motivated to rid the world of a particular type of undesirable person, such as a prostitute. Hedonistic killer Thrill-seeking murders who get their excitement and sometimes sexual pleasure from. their acts. Power / control oriented killers Murders that enjoy having complete control over their victims. Serial Killers
Assault Patterns are quite similar to murder except the victim survives. The NCVS indicates that only about 57 percent of all serious assaults are reported to the police. Typical offender is young, male, and white; although African Americans are disproportionate offenders’ compared to their representation in the population (34%).
Extent of Assault In 2000, the rate for assault was about 324 per 100,000 and is in decline Down 17% from 1996 And down 25% from 1991
Assault in the Home Sexual abuse Child abuse Spousal abuse Elderly abuse
Robbery Common law defines robbery as “the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of a person by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the person in fear.” Typical offender are disproportionately young, male minority group members.
Conklin’s Typology of Robbers PROFESSIONALPROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNISTOPPORTUNIST ADDICTADDICT ALCOLOLICALCOLOLIC
Hate Crimes or Bias Crimes Violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic.
Typology of Hate Crimes THRILL-SEEKING REACTIVE MISSION
Factors That Produce Hate Crime Poor or uncertain economic conditions. Racial stereotypes in films and T.V. Hate-filled discourse on talk shows or in political advertisements. Use of racial code language such as “welfare mothers” and “inner city thugs.” An individual’s personal experiences with members of particular minority groups. “Scapegoating,” which is blaming of a minority group for the misfortunes of society as a whole. Poor or uncertain economic conditions. Racial stereotypes in films and T.V. Hate-filled discourse on talk shows or in political advertisements. Use of racial code language such as “welfare mothers” and “inner city thugs.” An individual’s personal experiences with members of particular minority groups. “Scapegoating,” which is blaming of a minority group for the misfortunes of society as a whole.
Question Is hate a more heinous motivation than revenge? If so, Should hate crimes be punished more severely than crimes motivated by revenge?
Workplace Violence Third leading cause of occupational injury or death. The most common type of victimization is assault. Retail sales workers are at the greatest risk. Causal factors: economic structuring (layoffs), leadership styles, sexual harassment, and poor service.
Political Crime and Terrorism Political crime is an act that carries with it the intent to disrupt and change the government and must not merely be a simple common law crime committed for reasons of greed or egotism. These are sometimes referred to as convictional criminals – those who believe their actions will benefit society. Terrorism generally involves the premeditated illegal use of force (violence) against innocent people to achieve a political objective or to commit a political crime. Terrorism can also include economic or social reform efforts. Political crime is an act that carries with it the intent to disrupt and change the government and must not merely be a simple common law crime committed for reasons of greed or egotism. These are sometimes referred to as convictional criminals – those who believe their actions will benefit society. Terrorism generally involves the premeditated illegal use of force (violence) against innocent people to achieve a political objective or to commit a political crime. Terrorism can also include economic or social reform efforts.
Characteristics of Terrorism Political in aims and motives. Exploitation of fear (terror) through violence or the threat of violence. Psychological effects (fear through intimidation). Perpetrated by some organizational entity with an identifiable chain of command capable of conspiratorial conduct. Perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity.
Characteristics of Terrorism (cont’d) Designed to create power when there is no power. To terrorists, there are no rules of warfare or codes of conduct. The goal is that through the publicity generated from their violence, terrorists will have the leverage to effect political change.
RevolutionaryRevolutionary PoliticalPolitical NationalisticNationalistic Cause Based Nuclear Environmental State-SponsoredState-Sponsored Forms of Terrorism Terrorism
What Motivates Terrorism? Emotional individuals who act out their psychosis. Ideological prompted behavior. Feelings of alienation and failure to comprehend post-technological society.