Presentation on theme: "Psych 101 Chapter 11 1 Prologue to Chapter 11 Chapter 11 explores gender and sexuality it examines similarities and differences between men and women in."— Presentation transcript:
Psych 101 Chapter 11 1 Prologue to Chapter 11 Chapter 11 explores gender and sexuality it examines similarities and differences between men and women in U.S. culture it addresses psychological and biological aspects of sex and sexuality what is sex? what is gender? what does is mean to be male in this culture? female? how do we learn to become male or female?
Psych 101 Chapter 11 2 Definitions Sex is defined by one’s male or female genitals Gender is defined by one’s psychological experience of one’s sex gender identity: the subjective experience of being male or female gender role: all of the behaviors that communicate the extent to which one is masculine or feminine
Psych 101 Chapter 11 3 Definitions Sexuality is defined as the behaviors in which we engage to obtain sexual pleasure and to all the behaviors that are interwoven with sexual behavior Sexual orientation is defined as one’s tendency to prefer romantic and sexual partners of the opposite or same sex opposite sex: heterosexuality same sex: homosexuality
Psych 101 Chapter 11 4 Gender and Sexual Orientation Gender Identity and Gender Roles gender identity develops early in childhood; to a large extent it is a function of what one is taught and expected to do in a culture based on one’s sex gender roles are the behaviors and characteristics that a culture expects of boys/men and girls/women Androgeny: having characteristics of both sexes
Psych 101 Chapter 11 5 Gender similarities and differences the sexes are more alike then they are different differences exist in certain skills and abilities between the sexes males are typically better at mathematics and spacial orientation/perception tasks females are typically better at language and communication tasks
Psych 101 Chapter 11 6 Theories of gender identity Psychoanalytic theory according to Freud, children usually take on the manners and ways of their same-sexed parent Identification: a defense mechanism to avoid castration anxiety generated while the child is in the Oedipus complex Oedipus and Electra complexes occur in children around the age of 2 to 5 years of age
Psych 101 Chapter 11 7 Theories of gender identity Social Learning Theory Bandura and others maintain that children learn gender-appropriate behavior through observation and through reinforcement as well as punishment of various gender behaviors Modeling and vicarious reinforcement of gender identity
Psych 101 Chapter 11 8 Sexually Attractive or Not?
Psych 101 Chapter 11 9 Sexual Orientation Heterosexuality vs homosexuality Approximately 1-2% of the population has a strictly homosexual orientation; perhaps as many as 10% by some studies; around 30% have experimented with homsexual behavior Bisexuality: being attracted to varying extents to members of both sexes
Psych 101 Chapter 11 10 Sexual Orientation Origins of homosexuality a number of theories exist as to the origins of homosexuality biological theories and the “sexing” of the brain as a result of exposure to sex hormones during the early gestation period sociocultural theories and the role of a dominant mother and an absent or ineffective father
Psych 101 Chapter 11 11 Sexual Orientation Homosexuality is probably a result of a complex interaction between both biological and sociocultural variables Gays and lesbians in the military is a current controversial debate involving sexual orientation is orientation by choice or by nature? discrimination against behavior or not?
Psych 101 Chapter 11 12 Biological and Psychological Aspects of Sexuality
Psych 101 Chapter 11 14 Sexual anatomy Female anatomy includes: uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes cervix vulva, labia majora, and labia minora Male anatomy include: testes, epididymus, vas deferens prostate gland, seminal vesicles penis and scrotum
Psych 101 Chapter 11 15 Sexual anatomy Development of sexual anatomy in the embryo/fetus up to about 7-12 weeks after conception, there is no physical difference between sexes differentiation of male/female sexual anatomy is complete by about 12 weeks after conception this is a critical time in the life-cycle of the developing embryo/fetus
Psych 101 Chapter 11 16 Genitals are now forming in this male 8 week-old child
Psych 101 Chapter 11 18 The sexual response cycle The human sexual response cycle consists of four (4) phases: the excitement phase the plateau phase the orgasm phase the resolution phase
Psych 101 Chapter 11 19 Sexual motivation Sexual motivation is similar to other primary motives in hypothalamic control like hunger and thirst but sexual motivation is different from other primary motives Sexual motivation is influenced by external stimuli, learning, and emotions Sexual motivation is varied substantially from person to person
Psych 101 Chapter 11 20 Sexual motivation Differences in sexual motivation from other primary motives sex is not necessary to individual survival (although it may be unpleasant without it) sex is, however, necessary for species survival sexual appetite waxes and wanes across the lifespan sexual motivation is less linked to deprivation than other primary motives
Psych 101 Chapter 11 21 Sexual motivation Differences (continued) sexual behavior leads to a DECREASE in energy rather than an increase in energy and so it is exactly contrary to that of other of the primary motives sexual behavior can be fulfilled in substantially many different ways (unlike hunger or thirst which must be met be rather specific stimuli)
Psych 101 Chapter 11 22 Hormones and sexual behavior Lower animals’ sexual behavior is predominately triggered by the presence of sex hormones that trigger estrus and the “rutting season” Human sexual behavior is far less influenced by hormones and there is no estrus or rutting season in humans
Psych 101 Chapter 11 23 Hormones and sexual behavior Pheromones and increasing sexual motivation? what are pheromones? perfumes with pheromones? uses of pheromones? origins of pheromones? Jovan’s “Anderone” perfume; vanilla musk, etc.
Psych 101 Chapter 11 24 Atypical and Abnormal Sexual Behavior
Psych 101 Chapter 11 25 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Transvestism and transsexualism transvestism: obtaining sexual pleasure by dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex transsexualism: being “trapped” in the body of the opposite sex with varying efforts to have one’s physical anatomy changed to be that of the sex with which you identify hormone treatments transsexual surgery
Psych 101 Chapter 11 26 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Fetishism sexual arousal primarily or even exclusively by specific physical objects examples may include: the “toe sucker” the “Frederick’s of Hollywood” outfits frottage copophilia “golden showers”
Psych 101 Chapter 11 27 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Sexual sadism and masochism sadism: receiving sexual pleasure by inflicting pain on others masochism: receiving pain inflicted by others both of these atypical sexual behaviors are learned as a result of complex classical conditioning (remember Pavlov?) they can be mild or severe and lead to physical injury
Psych 101 Chapter 11 28 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Voyeurism and exhibitionism voyeurism: obtaining sexual pleasure by watching others undressing or engaging in sexual activities voyeurs include the “peeping Tom”, some inhabitants of strip joints, and those who frequent sexual orgies exhibitionism: obtaining sexual pleasure by exposing one’s genitals to others; the “flasher”
Psych 101 Chapter 11 29 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Forced sexual behavior: rape, incest, and molestation Rape: forcing another individual to engage in a sex act psychological effects of rape strategies to resist rape strategies to avoid rape Sexual abuse of children: incest, child rape, and pedophilia
Psych 101 Chapter 11 30 Atypical/abnormal sexual behavior Sexual harassment any unwanted sexual advances, touching, sexually suggestive remark/comment using one’s position to coerce sexual behavior or favors from a subordinate what should one do when sexually harassed?
Psych 101 Chapter 11 31 Sexual dysfunction and sexual health
Psych 101 Chapter 11 32 Sexual dysfunction Dysfunctions of sexual desire inhibited sexual desire sexual aversion disorder frigidity and impotence Dysfunctions of sexual arousal female sexual arousal disorder vaginismus, dyspareunia male erectile dysfunction
Psych 101 Chapter 11 33 Sexual dysfunction and health Orgasm dysfunction inhibited female orgasm premature ejaculation Health problems related to sexual anatomy Cancers and sexual anatomy cervical, uterine, ovarian, and breast cancers prostate and testicular cancers
Psych 101 Chapter 11 34 Sexual health problems Sexually transmitted diseases there are about 35 STDs now recognized STDs include: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, pubic lice, genital herpes, and genital warts several STDs have been associated with increased risk for cancers, e.g., genital warts and cervical cancers evidence mounting that some breast cancers may be STD-caused; contagious cancers
Psych 101 Chapter 11 35 Sexual health problems Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by HIV-1 and HIV-2 retrovirus transmissable by exchange of body fluids is a plague of tremendous proportion and will greatly influence your life whether you are infected or not is 100% fatal; symptoms don’t appear until 2- 7 years after initial infection
Psych 101 Chapter 11 36 Application of psychology Date rape is a widespread occurrence Men should remember: it is always rape when she says “no” it is always rape if it is not clear that she has consented to sex; she must say “yes” it is always rape if she is drunk, high, or otherwise impaired even if she says “yes”
Psych 101 Chapter 11 37 Questions? Any questions over Chapter 11?
Psych 101 Chapter 11 38 Application of psychology Women should remember: communicate your wishes about sex clearly and early on in an encounter combining alcohol/drugs and sexual situations is potentially lethal to you in this day of AIDS even “nice guys” commit rape abstinence is the best policy; make sure your male wears a condom if you do not abstain to protect your life