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©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Personal Safety Chapter 16.

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1 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Personal Safety Chapter 16

2 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 22 Personal Safety –Every year, more than 175,000 Americans die from injuries –The economic cost of injuries is more than $700 billion each year Differentiating Injuries –Injuries: predictable outcomes of factors that can be controlled or prevented –Intentional injury One that is purposely inflicted, by oneself or by another person –Unintentional injury Injury occurs when no harm is intended Fifth leading cause of death among Americans Leading cause of death for Americans under age 45

3 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 33 Unintentional Injuries What causes an injury? –Combination of human and environmental factors Human factors include inner conditions or attitudes that lead to an unsafe state, whether physical, emotional, or psychological Environmental factors include external conditions or circumstances Motor vehicle injuries –More than 43,000 Americans were killed and nearly 2.5 million injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2008 –Factors contributing to motor vehicle injuries Speeding Aggressive driving Fatigue and sleepiness Cell phones and other distractions Alcohol and other drugs Safety belts, air bags, and child safety seats

4 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 44 Preventing Motor Vehicle Injuries Obey the speed limit Always were a safety belt Never drive under the influence Keep your car in good working condition Allow for plenty of following distance Increase your following distance and slow down if weather is bad Choose interstate highways versus rural roads Always signal Stop completely at stop signs and follow all traffic laws Take special care at intersections Don’t pass on two-lane roads unless you’re in a designated passing area and have a clear view of the road

5 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 55 Motorcycles and Motorized Scooters About one out of every ten traffic fatalities among people aged involves someone riding a motorcycle Safety strategies: –Wear light colored clothing, drive with headlights on, correctly position yourself in traffic –Develop the necessary skills –Wear a helmet –Protect your eyes –Drive defensively and never assume that other drivers can see you

6 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 66 Bicycles Bicycles are considered vehicles; bicyclists must obey all traffic laws Head injuries common, helmets important Safety strategies: –Wear safety equipment –Wear light-colored, reflective clothing, and use lights –Ride with flow of traffic –Ride defensively –Stop at all traffic lights and stop signs –Continue pedaling at all times

7 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 77 Home Injuries Falls –Alcohol is a contributing factor in many falls Fires –Install smoke detectors Poisoning –National poison hotline Suffocation and choking –Heimlich maneuver Firearms –Always treat a gun as though it were loaded

8 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 88 Leisure Injuries Don’t swim alone or under the influence Use personal flotation devices when on a boat Make sure facilities are safe when playing sports Check all equipment and wear safety gear Drink plenty of fluids Do not use alcohol or drugs during recreational activities

9 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 99 Work Injuries 4.1 million Americans suffered injuries on the job in 2006 Many back injuries could be prevented through proper lifting techniques Repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) –Carpal tunnel syndrome

10 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 10 Figure 16.1 Correct lifting technique

11 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 11 Carpal Tunnel

12 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 12 Violence and Intentional Injuries In 2007, more than 1.4 million violent crimes occurred in the U.S. Factors contributing to violence –Social factors –Violence in the media –Gender –Interpersonal factors –Alcohol and other drugs –Firearms

13 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 13 Violence and Intentional Injuries Assault –Use of physical force by a person or persons to inflict injury or death on another –Men, teens, young adults, and members of minority groups, especially African Americans and Latinos, are most likely to be murder victims Homicide –In 2007, FBI estimated 17,000 murders occurred Gang-related violence –More than 1 million Americans belong to a gang Hate crimes –Occur when bias against another person’s race or ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or disability motivates a criminal act School violence and bullying Workplace violence Terrorism

14 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 14 Family and Intimate Violence Battering –Violence against intimate partners –95% of victims female Stalking and cyberstalking –Harassing behaviors such as following or spying on a person and making verbal, written, or implied threats –Cyberstalking can occur on the Internet, via , chat rooms, and electronic communication devices Violence against children –Every year, at least 1 million children are abused by parents –Another 1 to 2 million are victims of neglect Elder abuse –Each year, 1 to 2 million older adults are abused, exploited, or mistreated –Most abusers are family members who are serving as caregivers

15 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 15 Sexual Violence Sexual Assault: Rape –Statutory rape –Date rape –Who commits rape? Women are at greater risk of being assaulted by a man they know than by a stranger –Factors contributing to date rape –Date-rape drugs Rohypnol GHB “Special K” –Dealing with a sexual assault Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR) recommendations –The effects of rape

16 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 16 Sexual Violence Child sexual abuse –Incest –Surveys suggest that as many as 27% of women and 16% of men were sexually abused as children –An estimated 150,000 to 200,000 new cases of child sexual abuse occur each year Sexual harassment –Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal, visual, or physical conduct of a sexual nature –Affects academic or employment decisions or evaluations –Interferes with an individual’s academic or work performance –Creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive academic, work, or student living environment

17 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 17 What You Can Do About Violence Training for conflict resolution Educating people to encourage tolerance and understanding Reducing gun-related injuries: –May require changes in availability, possession, and lethality –Adoption of consumer safety standards for guns

18 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved 18 Providing Emergency Care First aid Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Emergency medical services (EMS) system –Check the situation –Check the victim –Call for help: Call in most areas –Care for the victim

19 ©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Personal Safety Chapter 16


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