Brassica napus Commonly called as “GOBHI SARSON” Dark color seed Chromosome no (n=19) Developed as, B. napus= B. olearacea+ B. rapa B. olearacea (n=9) B. rapa (n=10)
Brassica rapa Also called B. campestris Yellow sarson, brown sarson & toria Large size seeds Chromosome no (n=10)
Brassica juncea Indian mustard Brown or yellow color seeds Chromosome no (n=18) Developed as, B. juncea= B. nigra + B. rapa B. nigra (n=8) B. rapa (n=10)
Brassica carinata EEthiopian mustard LLarge size yellow/dark color seeds CChromosome no (n=17) DDeveloped as, BB. carinata= B. nigra + B. olearacea BB. nigra (n=8) BB. olearacea (n=9)
Description Annual rabi crop cm tall and branched Taproot system with many lateral roots concentrated in the shallow subsurface soil. Yellow flowers usually Brassica campestris is both self and cross pollinated others are self pollinated. The fruit is apod, 5-10 cm long, with two carpals. Each pod contains small, round seeds of different colors, weighing 4-6 g per thousand seeds.
Origin and History Not definitely known. However its cultivation has been traced to 2000 B.C. in India, China and Japan. Wild forms of Brassica campestris are found from western Europe to China, which suggests its origin in the Afghan- Pakistan region, another centre in the Mediterranean region, and a secondary centre in the Turk-Iranian region. Brassica seed was firstly used for Oil Extraction in India. Interest in Rapeseed cultivation increased in Europe and North America. China and India are still largest producers of Rapeseed.
Uses Young leaves are used as vegetables Used as fodder The oil is used in cooking and making pickles Oil is also used in industry as a lubricant Since the oil of conventional varieties contains high levels of erucic acid which is injurious to human health, cultivars have been evolved which are low in both erucic acid and glucosinulates, which are injurious to livestock. Such varieties are designated as “00” types
Locality More than 50% of crop is grown in Punjab in the districts of Multan, Khushab, Kasur, Layyah, Rahim Yar Khan, Bhakkar, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Lahore, and Rawalpindi. In Sindh, the major production districts are Sukkur, Nawabshah, and Sangar. Cultivation of toria is confined to the south Cultivation of raya to the north of Sindh, Taramira is cultivated throughout the province. About 30% of the Taramira in Sindh is cultivated as an unirrigated dobari crop.
KPK Among the southern districts in KPK, D.I.Khan is the main growing area where B. juncea types are mainly grown. However in north (Hazara, Malakand) and central zones (Peshawar, Mardan), B.compestris types are grown. B. napus have recently been introduced.
Climate and Soil Rape and mustard are well adapted to the temperate regions of the country. Do well in average daily temperatures of 30°C 25-30% of the area is grown under rain fed conditions. Taramira is fairly well adapted to rain fed conditions. Rape and mustard prefer well drained soils and cannot tolerate waterlogged conditions. Mustard can tolerate a variety of soils, but rape generally prefers lighter soils.
Cultivars Punjab PPoorbi raya RRaya Anmol ZZafar 2000 PPeela raya RRD-81 KKPK AAltex RRaya Anmol TTower ZZafar 2000 Sindh Toria selection Early raya S-9 Jhambha selection
Cultural Practices Time of Planting Rapeseed and mustard are grown in the rabi season. However, toria and Poorbi raya are grown in the zaid kharif season The rabi crop is planted in October-November Harvested in April-May. Zaid kharif crop is planted in late August or early September Harvested in December.
Time of Planting Time of planting is crucial In early rabi planting, early pods are affected by frost Late pod and seed development is affected by the approaching hot season. Late planted zaid kharif crops are damaged by frost.
Cultural Practices Seedbed preparation Since rape and mustard seeds are small They require a fine well prepared, level, and firm seedbed Adequate soil moisture for good seed germination and an acceptable stand of plants. Method of sowing Generally the seed is sown by broadcasting.
Cultural Practices Seed rate 22-8kg/ha HHealthy and pure seed FFree from diseases and weed SSeed dressing with Vitavax or Benlate-M45 2 g/kg seed before planting will ensure good emergence.
Cultural Practices Fertilizer application SSindh = 112:56 NP kg/ha PPunjab = 40:40 NP kg/ha KKPK = 75:50 NP kg/ha IInterculture and weeding AAbout days after emergence the seedlings should be thinned to 5-10 cm apart. FFirst hoeing is done when the plants are 6-8 cm tall.
Cultural Practices Intercropping and rotation Intercropping with wheat and chickpea In Hazara, these crops are planted as relay crops in maize. Existing Rotations: Rape/mustard-groundnut-wheat Rice-rape/mustard-rice Wheat-guar-rape/mustard(zaid kharif) – cotton Proposed Rotations: Rape/mustard-maize-wheat-soybean Cotton-sunflower- mungbean - rape/mustard Rape/mustard-sunflower-gram
Cultural Practices Irrigation More than 90% barani cultivated 3-4 irrigations for sarson 2-3 for toria 1-2 for Taramira First irrigation is applied one month after sowing subsequent irrigations at about days intervals. Critical stages are flowering and pod filling
Cultural Practices Harvesting, threshing and storing Ready when their stems and pods become yellow Seeds become dark and rattle in their pods when shaken Brassica campestris types mature in 180 days B. napus days. Usually harvested when about 75% of pods turn yellowish Harvesting too early drastically reduces oil content and seed viability Dried crop is threshed with bullocks or by running a tractor over it. The seed is then winnowed, sun dried and stored.
Yield Punjab kg/ha Sindh kg/ha KPK kg/ha
Insect pests and diseases Painted bug and Aphids attack Powdery mildew Downy mildew, and White rust
Province wise Area of Rapeseed/Mustard and Canola Crops in Pakistan YearPunjabSindhNWFPBalochistanPakistan (Area'000'hectares) (2.4) 127.6(3.6) 49.9(1.1) 18.9(3.6) 30.9(10.7) (2.8) 135.6(2.7) 70.4(1.0) 19.6(3.4) 40.2(9.90) (3.6) 127.4(2.3) 49.1(1.1) 16.4(3.3) 35.0(10.3) (5.5) 142.8(2.2) 47.6(1.0) 17.7(3.0) 36.8)(11.7) 244.9