Presentation on theme: "LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Environmental Assessment of Green Chemicals LCA of bio-based chemicals produced using biocatalysis Linda Tufvesson Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Environmental Assessment of Green Chemicals LCA of bio-based chemicals produced using biocatalysis Linda Tufvesson Environmental and Energy System Studies Lund University
What is ”green”? Q 1 : Are chemicals based on renewable resources better than their fossil counterparts? Q 2 : Are biocatalytic processes better than conventional chemical processes? Q 3 : What defines a “green” chemicals?
The LCA method Raw material extraction Raw material preparation Manufacturing Transportation Use Disposal Recycling/Reuse Material Energy Emissions to air Emissions to water Waste Other emissions The life-cycle of the product OutflowInflow
Methodological aspects and key parameters What defines a green chemical? Methodological aspects and key parameters !
Methodological aspects Functional unit State-of-the-art or future technology Choice of environmental parameters Allocation method Optimisation Mature conventional technology Emerging alternative technology Mature alternative technology Time
Methodological aspects - Allocation Coal Heat Electricity Transport Heat and power plant More than one product is produced in the same production process. The environmental impact from the processes (half-green boxes) then must be shared (allocated) to the two products (electricity and heat).
Methodological aspects - Allocation Physical or economic allocation System expansion + More accurate result, recommended by ISO - More LCI data needed CropProductsPhysical allocation %Economical allocation % RapeseedOil Rape meal 40 60 67 33 Rape seed cultivation Soybean cultivation Resulting system Meal Soybean meal Rape seed oil Oil
Raw material production – key parameters Type of biomass and removal of crop residues N 2 O emissions from fertiliser production Biogenic N 2 O emissions from soil CO 2 emissions from the se of fossil fuels CO 2 emissions due to land use change
Allocation method Type of biomass Removal of crop residues N 2 O emissions Land use change Raw material production - key parameters Reference: Börjesson and Tufvesson (2010) J. Clean. Prod., doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.01.001 !
Process – key parameters Yield Process energy demand and primary energy source Use of solvent Toxicity Environmental impact of enzymes
Process - key parameters Fatty acid esters for cosmetic applications Enzymatic vs. conventional production process –Superior quality –34-62% less energy –80% less waste –Less hazardous solvents and toxic materials –Less reaction steps References: Hills (2003) Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 105:601-607. Petersson et al. (2005) Green Chem., 7:837-843. Thum and Oxenbøll (2006) IFCCC Congress, Osaka, Japan.
Reference: Tufvesson and Börjesson (2008) Int. J. of LCA, 13(4):328-338. Yield Process - key parameters !
Primary energy source Reference: Börjesson and Tufvesson (2010) J. Clean. Prod., doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.01.001 Process - key parameters !
Conclusions Renewable often better than fossil-based chemicals regarding contribution to climate change, higher for AP and EP Biocatalysis often better than conventional chemical processes Bulk chemicals – raw material production Fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals – process A few key parameters have high impact on the overall environmental performance of chemicals
Success factors Cooperation along the whole supply chain Manufacturing UseDisposalTransport Materials Cooperation with several disciplines - Environmental engineers - Process engineers - Toxicologists
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