5Battle of the Sexes“This implies that men as a group are united in their interests and women are likewise united in their interests and that the two groups are somehow at war with each other” (p. 313, Buss)Not true, society would not work
6Strategic Interference Theory Defined as, “Occurring when a person employs a particular strategy to achieve a goal and another person blocks or prevents the successful enactment of that strategy of fulfillment of the desire” (p. 312, Buss)Timing of sex, fights during a marriage,Two main postulatesStrategic interference occurs whenever one member of one sex violates the desires of the opposite sex. Evolutionary speaking this would have interfered with the preferred sexual strategy.Negative emotions (anger, rage) seem to serve as solutions to the problem of strategic interference. Alerting people to the problem and allowing them to create solutions.
7Strategic Interference Theory Two Important QualifiersConflict per se serves no adaptive purposeMetaphor of “Battle Between the Sexes” is misleading.“The Breakup”Last weeks assignment
9Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex Study by Byers & Lewis, % reported on or more disagreements about their desired level of sexual intimacy.Australian magpie-larks duet.WomenMen
10Sexual Withholding Leading a man on Serves a purpose for women Helps choose higher quality mateAllows woman to be selectiveIncreases the value of sexIncreases value of woman as prospective mateEncourages man to think of her as a long-term prospectiveWhat are the implications of this?Does our current language for those who do not sexually withhold have any possible relationship to our evolutionary predispositions?
11Inferences about Sexual Intent Men are more likely to make sexual inferences from interaction than women“She wants me…”Study by Abbey 1982; Saal, Johnson, & Weber, 1989Showed both male and female same situation and had them interpret the interaction and found different interpretations.
12Deception about Commitment I love you……?Men use this as a tool to fool women into thinking that they are more emotionally committed than they really are.Do you think women use this strategy?
13Deception about Commitment Women are more burdened by this trick than men.What are potential problems that women face from this tactic?Teen pregnancyCulturally boundWhat can women do to avoid this potentially life changing problem?
14Deception about Commitment Possible Evolved Strategies CourtshipExtended emotional/friend relationship, before involving any physical relationshipLonger she waits, the more knowledge she will gain about her potential mateDiscuss with friends
15Cognitive Biases in Sexual Mind Reading A. Error Management TheoryB. Cognitive BiasesSexual over perception biasCommitment skepticism
16Jealous Conflict“Sexual jealousy is one psychological mechanism that has evolved in men to combat the manifold potential costs of being cuckolded” (p. 325, Buss)How is this useful?
17Sex Differences In Jealousy Men are more bothered by possibility of physical infidelity, whereas women are more bothered by both physical and emotional.
18Sex Differences in the Use of Mate-Retention Tactics MenViolence, resource displayMoulin RougeWomenEnhance appearance, flirtingEmotional involvement plays a key roleFlavor of Love
20Contexts Influencing the Intensity of Mate-Retention Tactics Perceived likelihood of infidelityReproductive vale of the wife: effects of Age and Physical AttractionIncome and Status Striving of the HusbandFlavor of Love
21Violence toward Partners Men use violence to keep partner.Women lacking resources are more likely to be abusedWives that leave husbands are more likely to be killedWomen are safer when family is closer and if she chooses a mate who is more likely to have reliable resources
22Domestic ViolenceDomestic Violence is $67.5 billion dollars or 15% of the crime costIn Douglas County911: Averages 1,000 DV Calls A Month47 DV Homicides in Omaha since 19976 of those were children
23Domestic ViolenceMore than just physical. There is also emotional and psychological.What is the evolutionary advantage?Do you think this is truly a good means to keep a partner?
24Domestic Violence Hi-tech helps fight domestic violence Two domestic violence incidents each week prove fatal Police forces around Britain could soon be issued with a gadget that helps them tackle cases of domestic violence.The Domestic Violence Positive Action Kit includes a small plinth-based unit similar to an answering machine and a radio trigger that can worn by victims of abuse.Victims can discreetly trigger an alert to police and emergency services if they are attacked.Domestic violence is a growing problem in the UK with 830 incidents reported every day. Two attacks every week prove fatal.The DVPAK has a range of sensors including a fall detector, movement detector and even a button that can be used if a bogus caller comes to the door.
25Conflict over Access to Resources Men control resources that allow them to control women?Do men only control resources?
271. Two paths to sexual aggression Individual Differences in Sexual Aggression: The Mate Deprivation Hypothesis1. Two paths to sexual aggressionA. impersonal sex pathB. Hostile masculinity path2. Mate Deprivation Hypothesis
28Sexual Aggressiveness “Acts of sexual aggression are exemplifies by the man’s demanding or forcing sexual intimacy, failing to get mutual agreement for sex, and touching a woman’s body without her permission” (p. 319, Buss)Men don’t seemed to be bothered by women’s sexual aggressiveness.Jordan?Men underestimate how disturbing sexual aggression is to women.
29Sexual HarassmentMain Entry: sexual harassment Function: noun : uninvited and unwelcome verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature especially by a person in authority toward a subordinate (as an employee or student)
30Facts About Sexual Harassment Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Included but not limited to the followingThe victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sexThe harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, an agent of the employer, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or a non-employee.The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct.Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim.The harasser’s conduct must be unwelcome.
31Sexual Harassment Motivations Short-term sexual encounter Desire to exercise powerSeek a long lasting romantic relationshipsDo you agree or disagree with these statements?
32Sexual Harassment Status affects how offended women are by this act. Why is this?Men have lower thresholds than women.Is this due to socialization or evolution.
33Do Men Have Evolved Rape Adaptations? Do men have evolved specialized adaptations to rape under certain circumstances or is rape a by-product of other evolved mechanisms?The General’s Daughter
34Rape-as-adaptation theory Selection has favored males who raped under certain pretensesSix specialized adaptations that might have evolved in the male mindassessment of the vulnerability of potential rape victimsa context-sensitive “switch” that motivates rape in men who lack sexual access to consenting partnersA preference for maximally fertile rape victims, as contrasted with a preference in marriage contexts for more reproductively valuable but perhaps less immediately fertile partnersAn increase in sperm counts of rape ejaculates compared with those occurring in consensual sexSexual arousal in men specifically to the use of force or to signs of female resistance to consensual sexContext-specific marital rape in circumstances in which sperm competition might exist
35By-product theory of rape Rape is a by-product of other evolved mechanisms, such as the desire for variety, sex with little investment, physical aggression to achieve goals, lack of other partners.Your opinion?
36Do Women Have Evolved Anti-rape Adaptations? Separate issue than male adaptationPossible adaptations that women have evolvedMaking friendships with malesChoose mate based on physical sizeFemale-female coalitionDevelopment of fear to avoid dangerous situationsAvoid risky situations especially during ovulation, to avoid conceptionPsychological pain after rape, to avoid another rapeDo you think you have to have all of these, any?Do you use any of these strategies?
37Women & RapeWhat are the consequences of being raped?
38Facts about Rape Myths Facts Rape is a one-time incident, lapse in judgmentRapists are strangersRape is provoked by the victimRapes happen to women alone at night. If at home a women will be safe.Women cannot be raped against their will…rape can be avoided by resistance.Most rapes involve black men and white women.Women respect men for overpowering them; they may even enjoy that rape.Rapists are mentally ill or developmentally challenged and therefore not responsibleFactsRape is intentional act, and may occur many times, usually a pattern.76% intimate partners, 16.8% acquaintances, 14.1% strangers, 8.6% other relativesNo one provokes rapeAnyone can be raped, any age, either sex and by someone of the same or opposite sex1:4 girls, 1:10 boysBlack women are the most raped group
39RapeStudy by Thornhill & Thornhill, 1992 found that men are aroused by rapeWhat do you think this means?Why do you think rape happens so often?What about marital rape?
40Social Perception of Rape Article by Frese, Moya, Megias
41BibliographyPicture of Gabrielle UnionBuss, D. (2004). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. Pearson, Boston.Jealousy QuizInformation on Domestic Violence from Sue Michalski. Training and Education Director. Domestic Violence Coordination Council.Convergent vocal strategies of males and females are consistent with a cooperative function of duetting in Australian magpie-larks. By: Hall, Michelle L.. Behaviour, Apr2006, Vol. 143 Issue 4, p , 25p, 6 graphs; DOI: / ; (AN )