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Depressants and Inhalants

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Presentation on theme: "Depressants and Inhalants"— Presentation transcript:

1 Depressants and Inhalants
Chapter 13 Depressants and Inhalants

2 Depressants and Inhalants
Barbiturates (major tranquilizers) “sleeping pills” and anesthetics Other sedatives methaqualone and chloral hydrate Benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers) anxiolytics Contemporary sleep aids β-blockers GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate) “date rape” drug

3 Depressants and Inhalants
Nitrous oxide (N2O) analgesic, “laughing gas” Glue, solvents and propellants

4 Depressants and Inhalants
Introduced in 1903 and in use until approximately , the primary sedative-hypnotics (drugs that produce sedation and sleep) belong to the barbiturate family of drugs.

5 Depressants and Inhalants
Barbiturates (major tranquilizers) phenobarbital epileptic seizures long-acting amobarbital (Amytal) “truth serum” intermediate-acting pentobarbital (Nembutal), secobarbital (Seconal) animal anesthesia, euthanasia short-acting

6 Barbiturates (major tranquilizers) A major disadvantage of barbiturates is the potential of a lethal overdose, particularly when the barbiturate is combined with other depressants such as alcohol. In addition, barbiturate withdrawal symptoms are very severe and require careful medical attention. Barbiturates of very limited usefulness as sleeping agents because the “sleep” produced is more akin to unconsciousness than normal sleep. there are also undesirable “hangovers” in the short term addictive and result in alcohol-like withdrawal symptoms in the long term

7 Effects of barbiturates at increasing doses
forebrain hindbrain



10 Which of the following is NOT a term that refers to barbiturates in general?
A. idiot pills B. soft balls C. pink ladies D. golf balls E. goofers

11 Depressants and Inhalants
Barbiturates Avoid use with: Alcohol Chloramphenicol Chlorpromazine Cyclophosphamide Cyclosporin Digitoxin Doxorubicin Antiepileptics Antihistamines Narcotic analgesics Steroids Antidepressants Antihypertensives, Anti-arrhythmics, Doxycycline Methoxyflurane Metronidazole Quinine Theophylline Warfarin Benzodiazepines

12 Depressants and Inhalants
Other sedatives methaqualone (Quaalude) and chloral hydrate methaqualone proved to have a high potential for abuse and has little clinical usefulness (insomnia) and is now a Schedule I drug chloral hydrate (“Mickey Finn”) insomnia, presurgical, dental sedative pentobarbital + chloral hydrate = Equithesin®

13 Depressants and Inhalants
Benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide (Librium) diazepam (Valium) used prior to surgery and dental procedures for their anxiolytic and amnesic qualities

14 The Development of Antianxiety Drugs
Benzodiazepines efforts in the 1950s focused on developing an anxiolytic that was not a general depressant (sedative). Meprobamate (Miltown) was the first in 1955 for this purpose, although its effects resulted more from its sedative properties than from its ability to relieve anxiety. Librium (1960) and Valium (1963) (benzodiazepines) were the first to selectively reduce anxiety Sleep-inducing effects of benzodiazepines especially subject to tolerance

15 Table 13.3

16 The greatest cross-tolerance and cross-dependence develop between __________.
A. heroin and amphetamines B. heroin and LSD C. alcohol and cocaine D. alcohol and barbiturates E. benzodiazines and barbiturates

17 Taken alone, benzodiazepines are very safe drugs
Taken alone, benzodiazepines are very safe drugs. However, they can be dangerous when taken in combination with alcohol. Social problems related to benzodiazepine drugs during the 1970s centered on the widespread misuse of the drug. Prescriptions were written too frequently and for excessive dosages. flunitrazepam (Rohypnol; “roofies”) emerged as a date rape drug in the last decade odorless, colorless and tasteless synergistic effects with alcohol amnesic properties not approved for any medical use in the U.S.

18 Depressants and Inhalants
Contemporary sleep aids zolpidem (Ambien) chemically unrelated to benzodiazepines binds to only 1 of 3 benzodiazepine receptor subtypes has short-lived sedative effects addictive, sometimes abused with stimulants eszopiclone (Lunesta) binds to all 3 benzodiazepine receptor subtypes has sedative effects similar to those of benzodiazepines

19 FDA’s list of sedative-hypnotics (sleep aids) that carry a risk of sleep- driving, defined as driving while not fully awake and with no memory of the event (blackout driving). Ambien, Ambien CR(zolpidem tartrate) Butisol sodium Carbrital (pentobarbital and carbromal) Dalmane (flurazepam hydrochloride) Doral (quazepam) Halcion (triazolam) Lunesta (eszopiclone) Placidyl (ethchlorvynol) Prosom (estazolam) Restoril (temazepam) Rozerem (ramelteon) Seconal (secobarbital sodium) Sonata (zaleplon)

20 Warning issued by Sepracor as part of the FDA approval for Lunesta
After taking LUNESTA, you may get up out of bed while not being fully awake and do an activity that you do not know you are doing. The next morning, you may not remember that you did anything during the night. You have a higher chance for doing these activities if you drink alcohol or take other medicines that make you sleepy with LUNESTA. Reported activities include: driving a car ("sleep-driving“) having sex making and eating food sleep-walking talking on the phone Call your doctor right away if you find out that you have done any of the above activities after taking LUNESTA.

21 Activities that have been reported to occur while sleeping after taking Lunesta include
A. having sex B. driving a car C. shopping naked at the mall D. cooking and eating E. making phone calls

22 Depressants and Inhalants
buspirone (BuSpar) chemically related to benzodiazepines does not act at GABA receptors little cross-tolerance with alcohol, other depressants not anti-convulsant or muscle relaxant affinity for 5-HT1A receptors and some DA receptors pharmacological actions complex anxiolytic effects develop slowly (weeks) does not have sedative effects used for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

23 Depressants and Inhalants
β-blockers used to treat hypertension block sympathetic β-adrenergic receptors of heart useful for transient treatment for autonomic effects of anxiety

24 The disadvantage in treating anxiety with buspirone is that __________.
A. it shows cross-tolerance with alcohol B. it shows cross-dependence with alcohol C. it has very troublesome side effects D. there is a long delay before anxiety is relieved E. It is not very useful for GENERALIZED anxiety.

25 Depressants and Inhalants
GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate) “date rape” drug—colorless, odorless, tasteless binds to GABAB receptor subtype (GABA metabolite) approved by FDA in 2002 for treatment of narcolepsy now a Schedule I drug also has anabolic (protein-building) effects CNS and Behavioral effects of GHB: euphoria; dissociation; drowsiness; nausea; headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss in combination with alcohol, produces unconsciousness

26 Depressants and Inhalants
Barbiturates (major tranquilizers) “sleeping pills” and anesthetics Other sedatives methaqualone and chloral hydrate Benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers) anxiolytics Contemporary sleep aids β-blockers GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate) “date rape” drug

27 Depressants and Inhalants
nitrous oxide (N2O) analgesic, “laughing gas” first investigated in 1798 a major recreational drug in the early 1800s “laughing gas parties” in Great Britain sometimes classified as a dissociative substance N2O is still used recreationally (Whippets) non-toxic, but can result in hypoxia leading to death not addictive clinical application is for routine dental anesthesia complex pharmacology euphoric effects may be due to NMDA receptor blockade

28 Depressants and Inhalants
ether used as a substitute for alcohol during temperance and prohibition movements used as an anesthetic—first general anesthetic discontinued as better, safer anesthetics discovered used as automotive starter fluid reports of ether dependence, but without withdrawal tolerance, craving and complete loss of interest in social contacts and other activities

29 Depressants and Inhalants
glues, solvents and propellants easily obtained, cheap, legal, abuse easily disguised often associated with adolescents (11-13 yrs), poor most are very toxic carcinogenic liver damage dangers of hypoxia, aspiration of vomit, heart failure generally do not produce dependence or withdrawal Gateway? (He huffed, then he puffed, then he did blow.)

30 Table 13.4

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