Presentation on theme: "REVIEWING GENDER EQUALITY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS AND WOMEN IN THE AFRICAN REGIONAL ARENA BY PROFESSOR BENE EDWIN MADUNAGU,CHAIRPERSON OF THE EXECUTIVE."— Presentation transcript:
REVIEWING GENDER EQUALITY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST GIRLS AND WOMEN IN THE AFRICAN REGIONAL ARENA BY PROFESSOR BENE EDWIN MADUNAGU,CHAIRPERSON OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD OF GIRLS’ POWER INITIATIVE (GPI), NIGERIA
INTRODUCTION/ BACKGROUND GENDER EQUALITY IS NOT BIOLOGICAL BUT SOCIOLOGICAL. IT IS EMBEDDED IN THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESSOF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD FROM BIRTH VAGW ARISE FROM THE PEPERTRATION OF GENDER INEQUALITY EVERY GROWING CHILD IMBIBES THE PHENOMENON AS A NATURAL OCCURRENCE. THE CHAIN CAN ONLY AND MUST BE BROKEN BY THE VICTIMS OF BOTH GENDER INEQUALITY AND VAGW.
FROM WHAT AGE DO FEMALES EXPERIENCE VIOLENCE ? VAGW IS EXPERIENCED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE-CYCLE OF FEMALES. PRE-BIRTH: PRE-NATAL-SEX SELECTION/FORCED ABORTION, BATTERING DURING PREGNANCY AND THE ATENDANT EMOTIONAL / PHYSICAL EFFECTS ON THE WOMAN AND THE FOETUS. INFANCY: DIFFERENT TREATMENT FROM THE MALE WITH RESPECT TO ACCESS TO FOOD AND MEDICAL CARE AS WELL EXPERIENCE OF FGM. GIRLHOOD: CHILD MARRIAGE, FGM, INCEST,CHILD ABUSE, HAWKING, TRAFFICKING, RAPE, DOMESTIC LABOUR ADOLESCENCE: FGM, DATE VIOLENCE, GANG-RAPE, COURSHIP VIOLENCE, COECED SEXUAL ACTIVITY, SEXUAL HARASSMENT, RAPE, TRAFFICKING REPRODUCTIVE AGE: BATTERY, SEXUAL HARASSMENT, MARITAL RAPE, ABANDONMENT, WIDOWHOOD RITES, RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE. ELDERLY/POST MENOPAUSAL: ISOLATION, ABUSE OF WIDOWS, “WITCHCRAFT SYNDROME” WHERE SUCH ACCUSED WOMEN GET STONED OR SENT INTO EXILE.
WHY ARE FEMALES MORE VULNERABLE TO VIOLENCE? VAGW IS ROOTED IN THE UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER AND RESOURCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN IN AFRICAN CONTEXT. IT IS ALSO ROOTED IN THE UNEQUAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN WHICH PERPETUATE THE DEVALUATION OF FEMALES PLACING THEM FROM BIRTH IN SUBORDINATION TO MEN MALE-CHILD PREFERENCE IN MANY AFRICAN CULTURES INTENSIFIES DISCRIMINATION AGAINST GIRLS AND WOMEN, MAKING FEMALES MORE VULNERABLE TO VIOLENCE.
SOME CAUSES OF VAW CAUSES OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE Although VAW is almost universal, the causes and patterns vary from one socio-cultural context to another. In each society there are mechanisms that legitimize, obscure, deny and thereby perpetuate violence. Below are some causes of VAW namely;
THESE SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED PATRIARCHAL VALUES, STANDARDS AND PRACTICES ARE THEN MADE TO APPEAR NATURAL AND SACRED SO THAT EVERY CHILD BORN INTO THE CULTURE LEARNS SUCH STANDARDS FROM AN EARLY AGE THROUGH SOCIALIZATIONIN THE FAMILY, IN SCHOOLS, FROM ADULTS IN SOCIETY, FROM PEERS, FROM RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS, MEDIA MESSAGES DERIVED FROM THIS SYSTEM THEN RE-ENFORCE THESE PREJUDICES. GIRLS GROW UP INTO WOMEN ACCEPTING AND INTERNALIZING THESE MALE DOMINANT CULTURE AND ACCOMMODATING VAGW AS AN ACCEPTABLE “NATURAL” PROCESS. WOMEN, IN TURN UNWITTINGLY AND IGNORANTLY PERPETUATE THESE MALE DOMINANT SOCIAL STANDARDS BY SOCIALIZING THEIR DAUGHTERS AND SONS TO ACCEPT MALE PERCEPTIONS OF MASCULITY AND FEMINITY AND THE GIRLS TO ACQUIESCE TO MALE STANDARDS AND DEMANDS THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES.
SOME ACHIEVEMENTS: INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS AGAINST VAW The United Nations in the Beijing Declaration and the Platform For Action, BFA, 1995 defines violence against women as “an act of gender based violence that results in or its likely to result in physical, sexual and psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”.
Both males and females experience violence. Those forms that occur only to females because they are females are referred to as gender-based violence or simply violence against women.Whether it is physical, domestic, sexual, psychological or emotional violence, researches have confirmed that the magnitude is greater for girls and women as compared to boys and men.
PROHIBITION OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE The prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sex is enshrined in the core International Human Rights Instruments. The World Conference on Human Rights (1993), which resulted in the Adoption of Vienna Declaration and Action Programme of marks the recognition of the Rights of Girls and Women, as Human Rights by stressing that:
“The Human Rights Women and the Girl-Child are INALIENABLE, INTEGRAL, and UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS” It further stated that: “GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE AND ALL FORMS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT, and EXPLOITATION, including those resulting from Cultural Prejudice and international trafficking, are incompatible with the Dignity and Worth of the Human Person and must be eliminated”.
The Rights and Protections contained in the Human Rights, Treaties, Conventions, etc, legally binding on States which have accepted them, include provisions which are relevant to the eliminating Violence Against Children, including Sexual Violence. The two international Covenants namely: a) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 2.(2) and B)International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(Article 26 (c) contain provisions that extend specific Protection to children, and are punishable by law.
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN (VAW) Sexual Violence Against Women and the Girl-children, whether occurring in the Family, in the general community or perpetrated and condoned by the state, is encompassed in the definition of Violence Against Women (VAW), provided for in Article 2 of the 1994 United Nations(UN) Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women (DEVAW).
DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The UN Declaration defines VAW as “ any act of Gender –Based Violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, Sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life” Article 2 states that “VAW shall be understood to encompass, but not limited to, the foll:
Physical, Sexual and Psychological Violence occurring in the family. These include: Battering, Sexual abuse of the female children in the household, marital rape, bride-price related violence, female genital mutilation, and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal and violence related to exploitation.
Physical, Sexual and Psychological violence occurring within the general community, including Rape, Sexual Harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions, at Police stations, etc, trafficking, in girls and women and forced prostitution. Physical, Sexual and Psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the state, wherever it occurs.
The review of the implementation of the Platform for Action (PFA) of the FWCW took place in 2000 and the 23 rd special session of the General Assembly at Beijing +5 called for the CRIMINALIZATION of Violence Against Women. It noted that all governments shall treat all forms of Violence against women and girls of all ages as a criminal offence punishable by law, including violence based on all forms of discrimination.
Other relevant international instruments on violence against women and girls include 3 treaties namely: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW); 1981 The Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) and The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
CEDAW – Protection from Sexual Violence as a Result of Gender-Based Discrimination The Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) is the most extensive international instrument that deals with the Rights of Women and Girls. It addresses violence against women in relation to trafficking and prostitution in Article 6. In addition, there are many anti – discrimination clauses for the protection of women from violence.
Article 2 of the Convention addresses Sexual Violence and notes the commitment of states parties to pursue a policy of eliminating discrimination against women, and to adopt legislative and other measures prohibiting all discrimination against women.
Article 5 (a) calls on state parties to take all appropriate measures to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view of achieving the elimination of prejudices, customary and all other practices that are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles of men and women.
The General Recommendation 19 to include Gender- Based violence by the CEDAW Committee in 1992 was adopted. Thus Article 1 of the Convention now includes “Gender-based violence – that is violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. This was stated to include Acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering; threats of such acts; coercion and other deprivations of liberty”.
General Recommendation 19 also refers to the prevalence of family violence in all society, including battering, rape, other forms of sexual assault, mental and other forms of violence, which are perpetuated by traditional attitudes.
CAT – Protection from Sexual Violence as Torture Torture is prohibited under a wide range of international instruments e.g. Article 7 of the international Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT).The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) also provides for the right to freedom from torture, sexual exploitation and abuse in Article 37.
CRC – The prohibition of Sexual Violence Against Children Various articles of the CRC assert the rights of children to physical and personal integrity, and establish high standards for protection.Article 19 of CRC “All appropriate legislative administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s), or any other person who has the care of the child”.
REGIONAL INSTRUMENTS: THE AFRICAN CONTINENT In the 1990s, the African continent witnessed important changes regarding the situation of women and the issues of VAW. In 1998 the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of women in Africa was created for the protection and promotion of Women’s Human Rights including the right to be free from violence.The role of the SR consist Researching, Gathering and Documenting Information on Women’s Human Rights in the region
The African Charter on Human Rights and People’s Rights,1998 includes provisions for the promotion and protection of Women’s Human Rights e.g.: Article 2 – Principle of non-discrimination “on the grounds of race, ethnic group, colour, sex, language, religions, political or other opinion, national and social origin, fortune, birth or status”.
The African Charter on Human Rights and People’s Rights of 1981 includes a number of important provisions for the promotion and protection of Women’s Human Rights e.g.: Article 2 – Principle of non-discrimination “on the grounds of race, ethnic group, colour, sex, language, religions, political or other opinion, national and social origin, fortune, birth or status”.
THE MAPUTO PROTOCOL, 2003 The protocol defines Gender Violence which enshrines protection against all acts of VAW and girls. It states, VAW means all acts perpetrated against women which causes or could cause them physical, sexual, psychological and economic harm, including the threat to take such acts; or to undertake the imposition of arbitrary restrictions on or deprivation of fundamental freedoms in private or public life in peace time and during situations of armed conflicts or war”.
The African Charter on the rights and the welfare of the child is particularly relevant in the protection and promotion of children’s Rights in the region. Article 16 sets obligations and Rights relevant in the prohibition of and protection from sexual violence such as the protection against child abuse and torture. Article 17 provides for the protection against harmful social and cultural practices. Article 27 provides for the protection of all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.
NIGERIAN NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS Nigeria has ratified the foll: International Charters that reinforce the rights of women and girls: UDHR, 1948, ICCPR- intl cov on civil &pol rts, 1981; ICESCR- Intl Cov on econ soc and cultural rts, ACHPR- Afric Charter on Human and Ppls rts, 2005; CRWC- AU’s Chart on the Rts and welfare of chld, CEDAW,
NIGERIAN NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS Nigeria has domesticated the ECOWAS gender policy, African Union Solemn declaration on Gender Equality, CEDAW, BEIJING PFA and the +5 and +10 consensus documents; the UN general assembly declaration 1325 addressing protection of women and girls from VAW (gender based Violence) and the MDG goals. Indeed Nigeria has signed without reservation, almost all the international treaties and consensus documents that exist
Nigeria operates 3 legal systems namely penal code in the Northern States, Criminal Code in the Southern States and English Law at the National level. The Penal and Criminal codes have provisions that punish rape with up to life imprisonment. Nigeria also passed a law against trafficking in Persons. These are the only legal provisions that deal with some aspects of VAW.
VAW is often understood as a physical abuse which can be tolerated from a male to a female – daughter or wife. It is not often understood or perceived that psychological and mental violence or violence that occurs as a result of lack of infrastructure, lack of facilities to address specific discriminatory practices against women as equal human beings as guaranteed by our constitution, etc. are acts of violations of the rights of women.
SOME PROGRESS ! ! ! THE ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA (ECA), AFRICAN CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT HAS DEVELOPED, FROM 2002TO 2004, THE AFRICAN GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (AGDI) WHICH PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK FOR QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA ON GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMENS’S EMPOWERMENT. THIS IS AN IMPORTANT PROGRESS IN THE SENSE THAT IT WILL PROVIDE THE MUCH NEEDED SEX DISAGREGATED DATA TO AS EVIDENCE FOR UNBIASED POLICIES TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY IN ALL ARENA. IT WILL ALSO HELP TP RAISE GENDER SENSITIVITY AND CONSCIOUSNESS AMONG POLICY MAKERS TO PROMOTE THE NECESSARY IMPLEMENTATION OF AGREED PROVITIONS TO ENSURE GENDER EQUALITY ETC.
IN 2006, FIRST AFRICAN FEMALE PRESIDENT, HER EXCELLENCY ELLEN JOHNSON SIRLEAF WAS INAUGURATED AS THE PRESIDENT OF LIBERIA ( 1 OUT OF 53) IN SOME AFRICAN COUNTRIES, WOMEN MAKE UP A SIGNIFICANT PART OF OF THEIR GOVERNMENT: RWANDA WITH 48.8% OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENT LEADS ALL NATIONS IN THIS REGARD. MOZAMBIQUE 34.4%; SOUTH AFRICA, 32.8%; AND TANZANIA, 17% OF SEATS. NATIONAL MECHANISMS HAVE BEEN SET UP TO MAINSTREAM WOMEN’S ISSUES INTO POLICIES, PLANS, AND PROGRAMS OF GOVERNMENT. HOWEVER THESE GAINS ARE RATHER LIMITED. IN ADDITION, IN SOME COUNTRIES IN AFRICA, IT IS HAPPENING AS MARY WANDIA OBSERVED, THAT “WHILE STATES HAVE FAILED TO FULFILL THEIR COMMITMENTS, THEY ARE UNDERMINING REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS BY INTRODUCING ANTI-HUMAN RIGHTS BILLS. SEVERAL GOVERNMENTS HAVE ADOPTED OR ARE IN THE PROCESS OF ADOPTING DISCRIMINATORY LEGISLATION REVERSING FUNDAMENTAL WOMEN’S RIGHTS INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO BILLS ON CRIMINALIZATION OF HIV, INDECENT DRESSING LAWS, AND ANTI- HOMOSEXUALITY BILLS. THESE BILLS VIOLATE VARIOUS RIGHTS------” (PAMBAZUKA NEWS, NOV. 19, 2009)
SOME CHALLENGES SOME CONTRIBUTORS ON THIS SUBJECT GIVE EXCUSES, SELF-DEFEATING REASONS AND DANGEROUS EXPLANATIONS THAT RATHER JUSTIFIES GENDER EQUALITY WITHOUT MEANING TO DO SO. E.G LAYING EMPHASIS ON WOMEN’S ROLE IN THE FAMILY BEING CENTRAL TO FAMILY UNIT AS IF THIS IS A NATURAL BIOLOGICAL ROLE; EMPHASIS ON WOMEN’S CONTRIBUTION IN THE FAMILY AS A GIVEN; WOMEN AS FAMILY CARE-GIVERS WOMEN GIVING ECONOMIC SUPPORT EVEN WHEN WE ARE AWARE THAT IN MANY FAMILIES WOMEN DO NOT JUST GIVE SUPPORT BUT ARE THE MAIN ECONOMIC PILLAR; WOMEN KEEP THEIR FAMILIES TOGETHER; WOMEN CREATE THE FAMILY; WOMEN PLAY A KEY ROLE IN SECURING FOOD; ETC THESE EMPHASES IN ADVOCACY FOR GENDER EQUALITY FURTHER STRENGHTEN CULTURE OF WOMEN SUBBORDINATION AND EMPOWERING POLICY MAKERS TO ACT IN PROTECTION OF THE STATUS-QUO.
SOME CHALLENGES (CONTD) THE USE OF THE TERM “GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE HAS LONG BEEN APPROPRIATED AND MISUSED TO DIVERT RESOURSES TOWARDS MALE ISSUES. MOST POLICY MAKERS ARE MEN AND THEY INTERPRETE GENDER TO MEAN MEN AND WOMEN. HENCE, WE SHOULD BE TALKING ABOUT VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN INSTEAD OF GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE. HAVE WE ASKED OURSELVES WHY WE NEED A MINISTRY FOR WOMEN OR WHATEVER NOMENCLATURE IS GIVEN TO SUCH IN DIFFERENT AFRICAN COUNTRIES? THIS IS FURTHER MARGINALIZATION OF WOMEN AND DEPRIVATION OF “WOMEN’S RIGHTS AS HUMAN RIGHTS” ( VIENNA 1993)? SHOULD WE NOT BE LAYING EMPHASIS ON LEGAL PROVISION THAT EMPHASISES THE RIGHTS OF EVERY HUMAN BEING RATHER THAN NEGATE THE CONCEPT OF GENDER EQUALITY? WHY EMHASIS ON SEPARATE PROVISIONS SPECIFIC TO WOMEN IN LESGISLATION MATTERS RATHER THAN A SIMPLE UNAMBIGUOUS LANGUAGE DETAILING THE RIGHTS OF EVERY HUMAN BEING WITH A PROVISO FOR SPECIFIC NEEDS FOR SPECIFIC GROUPS? ADVOCACY SHOULD SEEK FOR ABOLITION THOSE CUSTOMARY FEUDALISTIC LAWS THAT ARE CLEARLY SEXIST AND DISCRIMINATRY AGAINST WOMEN IN THESE DAYS OF “DEMOCRATIC DISPENSATIONS ON THE CONTINENT.
SOME REMINDERS WE ARE LESS THAN 5 YEARS FROM THE MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS TARGET OF 2015; 17 YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE ICPDDESCRIBED AS WATERSHED ACHIEVEMENT ON SRHR. WHAT IS THE REALITY ON GROUND? 16 YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE THE ADOPTION OF THE BEIJING PLATFORM FOR ACTION IN 1995. HOW MUCH HAS CHANGED ON THE STATE OF GENDER EQUALITY AND VAGW? 11 YEARS AFTER THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1325 WAS AGREED UPON. AT THE AFRICAN REGIONAL LEVEL,THIS YEAR IS THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE AU SOLEMN DECLARATION ON GENDER EQUALITY IN AFRICA ADOPTED IN 2004. 5 YEARS SINCE THE PROTOCOL TO THE AFRICAN CHARTER ON HUMAN RIGHTS OF WOMEN IN AFRICA WAS ADOPTED. IN 2010, THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY THEME, WAS ‘EQUAL RIGHTS, EQUAL OPPRTUNITIES, PROGRESS FOR ALL. WHAT DO THE STATISTICS SAY? THE AFRICAN WOMEN’S DECADE OF STRUGGLE, 2010 to 2020, WAS INITIATED BY THE WOMEN AND GENDER DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE OF THE AUAND ADOTED UNANIMOUSLY BY THE AFRICAN UNION, THE 53- MEMBER STATES OF THE CONTINENTAL ORGANIZATION AS PART OF THE LAUNCHING OF THE ABOVE, ON OCTOBER 15, 2010, THE WOMEN, GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT DIRECTORATE OFFERED TRAINING TO 25 DELEGATESFROM MINISTRIES OF GENDER, FINANCE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS MEMBER STATES FOR TWO WEEKS IN FEB.2010 AS A MEANS OF FULL INTEGRATION OF GENDER ISSUES INTO THE OVERALL ECONOMIC POLICIES ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.
SOME THOUGHTS ON /SUGGESTIONS NEED FOR COMPREHENSIVE SEXUALITY EDUCATION. THE NEW PUBLICATION BY POPULATION COUNCIL, NEW YORK TITLED “ ITS ALL ONE CURRICULUM (IAOC)”, A GLOBAL GUIDE ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, PROVIDES SUCH CONTENTS ON VALUES, HUMAN SEXUALITY, RIGHTS, GENDER, RELATIONSHIPS ETC THAT WOULD FOSTER CRITICAL THINKING ABOUT GENDER ROLES AND HUMAN RIGHTS TO ENABLE YOUNG PEOPLE GROW UP TO ENJOY HEALTHY, RESPONSIBLE AND SATISFYING LIVES. NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS IN COMMUNITIES TO CREATE ATTITUDINAL CHANGE AND A NEW CULTURE THAT ABHORS ALL FORMS OF VIOLENCEAND GENDER DISCRIMINATION. THIS WOULD CREATE A CULTURE THAT VALUES BOTH THE GIRL AND THE BOY CHILD, PROMOTE RESPECT FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN, PROMOTE AND ENSURE EQUALITY THAT EMPHASISES MALE RESPONSIBILITY AT HOME AND IN SOCIETY AT LARGE AND PREVENTION OF VAGW. COMMUNITY AND RELIGIOUS LEADERS SHOULD BE TARGETED AS LEADERS IN THIS NEW CULTURE TO EDUCATE THEIR ALL THEIR CONGREGATION AND MEMBERS OF THEIR DOMAIN. TO VALUE THE RIGHTS OF EVERYONE IRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR SPECIAL CATEGORIES. MORE COUNSELLING AND REHABILITATION CENTRES WOULD BE NEEDED IN THE INTERIM FOR VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE INCLUDING ACCESS TO COUNSELING, LEGAL AID AND PSYCHOSOCIAL AID. SPECIAL ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO PERSONS IN MARGINALIZED GROUPS.
SOME THOGHTS/SUGGESTIONS (CONTD) PUBLIC INFORMATION/EDUCATION ON LEGAL PROVISIONS AND INSTRUMENTS TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF GIRLS AND WOMEN AGAINST VAGW PROMOTION OF REPORTAGE OF CRIMES OF VAGW AND CALL FOR JUSTICE IN THE MEDIA PUBLICIZING AND SHAMING MEN WHO BATTER AND RAPE INFORMATION THAT VAW IS MEN’S ISSUE THAT THE GIRLS AND WOMEN THEY CARE ABOUT ARE AT RISK CONFRONT ANY ABUSIVE SITUATION. ACCEPT THAT YOUR INACTION, ATTITUDE MAY ENCOURAGE VAGW, HENCE DO SOMETHING PERSONAL OR TELL SOMEONE OT GROUP THAT WOULD TAKE ACTION. RESPECT AND TREAT WOMEN AND GIRLS AS EQUAL HUMAN BEINGS.TEACH YOUR SONS HOW TO BE MALE IN WAYS THAT DO NOT INVOLVE THE DEGRADING OF GIRLS AND WOMEN.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR PRESENCE, CARING AND ATTENTION. BENE EDWIN MADUNAGU