Presentation on theme: "SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX"— Presentation transcript:
1 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Between adultsAdult to childCanadian terminology: sexual assaultSexual assault covers rape and other unwanted, imposed physical sex (e.g. kissing, groping, etc.) Will use “rape” to signify non-consensual penetrationDate rape, acquaintance rape, stranger rapeSexual harassment
2 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Mostly by non-strangers95-98% of these acts perpetrated by menNOT 95-98% of men perpetrate these actsSociocultural context: glorification of violence:warssports‘manliness’ (‘machismo’)TV, moviescomputer gamesworld view of women as objects, hostility toward women, double standardbelief in rape mythspatriarchal society
3 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Culturally accepted goals: get “it” by any means:lying, cajoling, emotional blackmail, alcohol and drugs, force.Women: impossible bind:if assertive, vilifiedif agreeable, “sluts”, “nymphos”if submissive, assume consentNon-consensual sex highest in non-egalitarian societies
4 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF SEXUALLY COERCIVE MENRecent Canadian studies have found these characteristics:sensation seekingearly history of behavioural problemshigh levels of hostilitypoor sexual adjustmentserious problems with alcohol (often families)some were sexually or physically abused as children, as adults identify with the aggressor roleinability to express emotionsuse of pornography during childhood and adolescence (violence and sex)Although these traits are found in higher proportion in coercive men, it does not constitute a “profile”.
5 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Non-verbalVerbalPhysicalAlone, in gradient or togetherVarying scripts depending on SES, ageExtreme physical: rapeLeast ambiguous: stranger rapeMost ambiguous: sexual harassmentHistorical background: woman as property
6 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual harassment:non-verbal: suggestive sounds, obscene gestures, extreme leering. Most common, least recognized.verbal: suggestions or requests for sex, comments on body, attire, use of crude language to refer to person’s body parts, functions, showing porno.
7 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual harassment (cont’d):physical: unnecessary touching, grasping, cornering, hugging, kissing without consent or encouragement. Least common, most recognized.Rate of false accusations: 2% (same as anyother crime)Effects: depression, illness, insomnia,absenteeism.
8 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX May follow a pattern reminiscent, in a distorted way, of normal, dyadic interaction:First contact in a dyadic interaction is usually non-verbal: eyes, body movements.In coercive: insistent looking, leering, obscene gestures, suggestive sounds, shadowing.
9 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Verbal: in dyadic situation: exchange small talk, agree to dance, go out, etc.In coercive: requests are too persistent, may be vulgar remarks with sexual overtones.Physical: dyadic: mutual touching, hand holding, etc.Coercive: touching, grabbing, cornering, hugging, but one-sided.
10 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Initially difficult to label unequivocally. Can be confused with socially accepted scripts.Basic operating principle of perp: she’s playing hard to get but she wants it as much as I do, she’ll come around if I don’t let up. (Scarlett O’Hara Script)Confusion: culture teaches women to play hard to get: hard to know when it’s not an act if the other person is insensitive or has poor social skills.
11 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Date rape:Alcohol – consensual or not.Drugs – consensual or not.Rohypnol. GHBEpidemic on many North American campuses. BC study: 27% sexual assaults involved these drugsIn a survey, 76% of college males said they would rape if they could get away with it.Sex as male gratification only.
12 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual assault:No characteristic profile of rapist.No characteristic profile of victim.Can be stranger, acquaintance, close friend, boyfriend or husband.Some men sexually assaulted by other men.Power trip, punishment.
13 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual assault (cont’d):War rapes as conquest and subjugation of the enemy, ethnic cleansing, Bosnia, Sudan.Common in certain populations of men: sports, military.Gang rape as “bonding” experience.
14 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Child Sexual Abuse:Very widespreadHard to get accurate figuresSometimes entire communitiesMt. CashelMost common: family friend, relativeOccupations with kids:daycareschoolscoutssports
15 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Child Sexual Abuse (cont’d):Conspiracy of silenceIncestPedophilia – adult who likes to have sex with childrenPederastySome believe children are capable of consensual sex, and of enjoying it.Prostitution and pornography.Sex tourism, e.g. Thailand, Philippines.Web child pornography.
16 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Legally, a child cannot consent to sexual activity. (To age 14). ANY sexual activity between adult and child is considered abusive. Sexual activities:exhibitionismkissingfondlingsexual touchingoral sexvaginal intercourseanal intercourse
17 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Between 14 and 17 consent is possible if:there is no relationship of trust, authority or dependencythere is no payment or offer of paymentthere is no anal intercourseAbout 90% of child sexual abuse is not reported.
18 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX InternetChild prostitutionDedicated magazines and organizations: goal: legalization of sex with children.Increased use in advertisingProfile: insecure, unassertiveShort jail terms: reoffendCounselling: low effectiveness, most don’t receiveCastration: surgical or chemical, issue of compliance, not always effective
19 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Abusers bribe kids: toys, money, etc.Consequences for victims:anxietyPTSSdepressionlow self-esteempsychosomatic illnessaggressionabnormal interest in sexschool problemssleep problems, nightmaresmore vulnerable to subsequent abuseLowest risk: assertive child
20 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Kiddie porn and child prostitution: big businessSome parents involved in bothBeauty contests and modeling ages 2 onwardReification and sexualization of children
21 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX In this area more female abusers, profit motive in some (female pimps).Women also act as passive helpers of male abusers, e.g. turning a blind eye to husband/boyfriend having sex with young daughter.Some women more active involvement: luring, restraining, etc.
22 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Women’s role as sexual abusers rare, several antecedents:mental illnessvictim of sexual abuse as a childimmaturitysituational blockage from normal adult sexdrug abusebabysitters: to quiet boy, to have “fun” watching e.g. baby boy erectionhistorical data from France: young women having fun with little boys (6-12 yrs.)
23 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Three types of female abusers described (Matthews):male coercedteacher/loverpredisposedOne difference with male abusers: apparent lack of sexual arousal, more like self-hatred, hatred of own body and of femininity.
24 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Mostly female-female, many mother-daughter. Looser boundaries for physical contact, less clear what is inappropriate.Majority of victims don’t report, even to therapists, research difficult.Victims have difficulty withgender identitysexual orientationindividuation (developing sense of self as separate individual from mother)
25 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Repressed and recovered memories ofabuseFalse memory syndrome (E. Loftus)Lobby group (some known pedophiles)Survivors damaged by controversyUnethical therapists (MPD)2% false reporting (as any crime) damage credibility of 98%
26 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX How are memories repressed?Dissociation, it defends from pain and helps to comply with secrecy (usually threats), facilitates continued interaction with abuser in ‘normal’ circumstances.Abuser can be dissociated into two different people: 1) very good and 2) very evil.