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SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Between adults  Adult to child  Canadian terminology: sexual assault Sexual assault covers rape and other unwanted,

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Presentation on theme: "SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Between adults  Adult to child  Canadian terminology: sexual assault Sexual assault covers rape and other unwanted,"— Presentation transcript:

1 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Between adults  Adult to child  Canadian terminology: sexual assault Sexual assault covers rape and other unwanted, imposed physical sex (e.g. kissing, groping, etc.) Will use “rape” to signify non- consensual penetration Sexual assault covers rape and other unwanted, imposed physical sex (e.g. kissing, groping, etc.) Will use “rape” to signify non- consensual penetration  Date rape, acquaintance rape, stranger rape  Sexual harassment

2 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Mostly by non-strangers  95-98% of these acts perpetrated by men  NOT 95-98% of men perpetrate these acts  Sociocultural context: glorification of violence: wars wars sports sports ‘manliness’ (‘machismo’) ‘manliness’ (‘machismo’) TV, movies TV, movies computer games computer games world view of women as objects, hostility toward women, double standard world view of women as objects, hostility toward women, double standard belief in rape myths belief in rape myths patriarchal society patriarchal society

3 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Culturally accepted goals: get “it” by any means: lying, cajoling, emotional blackmail, alcohol and drugs, force. lying, cajoling, emotional blackmail, alcohol and drugs, force.  Women: impossible bind: if assertive, vilified if assertive, vilified if agreeable, “sluts”, “nymphos” if agreeable, “sluts”, “nymphos” if submissive, assume consent if submissive, assume consent  Non-consensual sex highest in non- egalitarian societies

4 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF SEXUALLY COERCIVE MEN  Recent Canadian studies have found these characteristics: sensation seeking sensation seeking early history of behavioural problems early history of behavioural problems high levels of hostility high levels of hostility poor sexual adjustment poor sexual adjustment serious problems with alcohol (often families) serious problems with alcohol (often families) some were sexually or physically abused as children, as adults identify with the aggressor role some were sexually or physically abused as children, as adults identify with the aggressor role inability to express emotions inability to express emotions use of pornography during childhood and adolescence (violence and sex) use of pornography during childhood and adolescence (violence and sex)  Although these traits are found in higher proportion in coercive men, it does not constitute a “profile”.

5 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Non-verbal  Verbal  Physical  Alone, in gradient or together  Varying scripts depending on SES, age  Extreme physical: rape  Least ambiguous: stranger rape  Most ambiguous: sexual harassment  Historical background: woman as property

6 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual harassment: 1. non-verbal: suggestive sounds, obscene gestures, extreme leering. Most common, least recognized. 2. verbal: suggestions or requests for sex, comments on body, attire, use of crude language to refer to person’s body parts, functions, showing porno.

7 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual harassment (cont’d): 3. physical: unnecessary touching, grasping, cornering, hugging, kissing without consent or encouragement. Least common, most recognized. Rate of false accusations: 2% (same as any other crime) Effects: depression, illness, insomnia, absenteeism.

8 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  May follow a pattern reminiscent, in a distorted way, of normal, dyadic interaction:  First contact in a dyadic interaction is usually non-verbal: eyes, body movements.  In coercive: insistent looking, leering, obscene gestures, suggestive sounds, shadowing.

9 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Verbal: in dyadic situation: exchange small talk, agree to dance, go out, etc.  In coercive: requests are too persistent, may be vulgar remarks with sexual overtones.  Physical: dyadic: mutual touching, hand holding, etc.  Coercive: touching, grabbing, cornering, hugging, but one-sided.

10 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Initially difficult to label unequivocally. Can be confused with socially accepted scripts.  Basic operating principle of perp: she’s playing hard to get but she wants it as much as I do, she’ll come around if I don’t let up. (Scarlett O’Hara Script)  Confusion: culture teaches women to play hard to get: hard to know when it’s not an act if the other person is insensitive or has poor social skills.

11 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Date rape:  Alcohol – consensual or not.  Drugs – consensual or not.  Rohypnol. GHB  Epidemic on many North American campuses. BC study: 27% sexual assaults involved these drugs  In a survey, 76% of college males said they would rape if they could get away with it.  Sex as male gratification only.

12 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual assault:  No characteristic profile of rapist.  No characteristic profile of victim.  Can be stranger, acquaintance, close friend, boyfriend or husband.  Some men sexually assaulted by other men.  Power trip, punishment.

13 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Sexual assault (cont’d):  War rapes as conquest and subjugation of the enemy, ethnic cleansing, Bosnia, Sudan.  Common in certain populations of men: sports, military.  Gang rape as “bonding” experience.

14 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Child Sexual Abuse:  Very widespread  Hard to get accurate figures  Sometimes entire communities  Mt. Cashel  Most common: family friend, relative  Occupations with kids: daycare daycare school school scouts scouts sports sports

15 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Child Sexual Abuse (cont’d):  Conspiracy of silence Incest Incest Pedophilia – adult who likes to have sex with children Pedophilia – adult who likes to have sex with children Pederasty Pederasty  Some believe children are capable of consensual sex, and of enjoying it.  Prostitution and pornography.  Sex tourism, e.g. Thailand, Philippines.  Web child pornography.

16 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Legally, a child cannot consent to sexual activity. (To age 14). ANY sexual activity between adult and child is considered abusive. Sexual activities: exhibitionism exhibitionism kissing kissing fondling fondling sexual touching sexual touching oral sex oral sex vaginal intercourse vaginal intercourse anal intercourse anal intercourse

17 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Between 14 and 17 consent is possible if: there is no relationship of trust, authority or dependency there is no relationship of trust, authority or dependency there is no payment or offer of payment there is no payment or offer of payment there is no anal intercourse there is no anal intercourse About 90% of child sexual abuse is not reported.

18 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Internet  Child prostitution  Dedicated magazines and organizations: goal: legalization of sex with children.  Increased use in advertising  Profile: insecure, unassertive  Short jail terms: reoffend  Counselling: low effectiveness, most don’t receive  Castration: surgical or chemical, issue of compliance, not always effective

19 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Abusers bribe kids: toys, money, etc.  Consequences for victims: anxiety anxiety PTSS PTSS depression depression low self-esteem low self-esteem psychosomatic illness psychosomatic illness aggression aggression abnormal interest in sex abnormal interest in sex school problems school problems sleep problems, nightmares sleep problems, nightmares more vulnerable to subsequent abuse more vulnerable to subsequent abuse  Lowest risk: assertive child

20 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Kiddie porn and child prostitution: big business  Some parents involved in both  Beauty contests and modeling ages 2 onward  Reification and sexualization of children

21 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  In this area more female abusers, profit motive in some (female pimps).  Women also act as passive helpers of male abusers, e.g. turning a blind eye to husband/boyfriend having sex with young daughter.  Some women more active involvement: luring, restraining, etc.

22 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Women’s role as sexual abusers rare, several antecedents: mental illness mental illness victim of sexual abuse as a child victim of sexual abuse as a child immaturity immaturity situational blockage from normal adult sex situational blockage from normal adult sex drug abuse drug abuse babysitters: to quiet boy, to have “fun” watching e.g. baby boy erection babysitters: to quiet boy, to have “fun” watching e.g. baby boy erection historical data from France: young women having fun with little boys (6-12 yrs.) historical data from France: young women having fun with little boys (6-12 yrs.)

23 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Three types of female abusers described (Matthews): male coerced male coerced teacher/lover teacher/lover predisposed predisposed  One difference with male abusers: apparent lack of sexual arousal, more like self-hatred, hatred of own body and of femininity.

24 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  Mostly female-female, many mother- daughter. Looser boundaries for physical contact, less clear what is inappropriate.  Majority of victims don’t report, even to therapists, research difficult.  Victims have difficulty with gender identity gender identity sexual orientation sexual orientation individuation (developing sense of self as separate individual from mother) individuation (developing sense of self as separate individual from mother)

25 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX Repressed and recovered memories of abuse  False memory syndrome (E. Loftus)  Lobby group (some known pedophiles)  Survivors damaged by controversy  Unethical therapists (MPD)  2% false reporting (as any crime) damage credibility of 98%

26 SEXUAL COERCION OR NON-CONSENSUAL SEX  How are memories repressed?  Dissociation, it defends from pain and helps to comply with secrecy (usually threats), facilitates continued interaction with abuser in ‘normal’ circumstances.  Abuser can be dissociated into two different people: 1) very good and 2) very evil.

27 15% males 85% females Victims of Sexual Assault

28 All Abusers 2.5% Women 95%-98% Men Whole Population 20% abusers 80% non-abusers

29 All Men 15% 85% All Women 1% 99%

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