Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor: Jorge Pierrott

2 Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER SEVENTH EDITION Crimes Against Persons 10

3 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, students should be able to answer the following questions: What is criminal homicide, and what are the key issues involved in explaining patterns of homicide? How is the crime of rape defined, and what are the key issues involved in explaining the crime of rape? What does the term child sexual abuse encompass? What are the various types of child sexual abusers? How is the crime of robbery defined, and what are the different kinds of robbery? How is the crime of assault defined, and what are the various kinds of assault? What three additional forms of interpersonal violence does this chapter discuss?

4 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction Sources of official U.S. crime statistics  National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)  Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)  National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) continued on next slide

5 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction These sources use their own specialized definitions that may vary considerably between programs and that are not strictly based on federal or state statutes

6 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Murder Homicide  Willful killing of one human being by another Murder  Criminal homicide continued on next slide

7 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Murder Types of murder  First degree – planned, malice aforethought  Second degree – crime of passion  Third degree – negligent homicide  Felony murder – killing during another crime

8 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Subculture of Violence Thesis Wolfgang and Ferracuti’s subculture of violence thesis  primary perspective used to understand homicide victims/offenders The racial composition of an area alone does not have a significant effect on homicide rates

9 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim-Offender Relationship Parker and Smith’s typology  Primary homicides most frequent, prior victim/offender relationship, expressive crimes  Nonprimary homicides no prior victim/ offender relationship, instrumental crimes continued on next slide

10 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim-Offender Relationship Williams and Flemming’s two criteria  Nature of circumstances surrounding the homicide  Victim-offender relationship Exposure-reduction theory of intimate- partner homicide

11 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Sibling Offenses Not all homicide offenders intend to kill their victims  Instrumental homicide may begin as a robbery motivated by instrumental ends  Expressive homicide may be preceded by an argument Sibling offense  the incident that initiates the homicide

12 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim Precipitation Focus on victim characteristics that may have precipitated their victimization Purpose is not to blame the victim but to examine individual and situational factors that may have contributed to and initiated the crime continued on next slide

13 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim Precipitation Especially important in homicide because homicides frequently begin as argument/fight between people who know each other

14 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Weapon Use Instrumentality  The type of weapon used in an encounter can affect whether the encounter becomes lethal Availability  Issues surrounding how access to guns may increase their presence in all types of interactions, including criminal ones

15 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Alcohol and Drug Use Goldstein – form of association of alcohol/drugs with violent crimes  Psychopharmacological use  Economic compulsion  Systemic violence Parker – selective disinhibition

16 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Serial Murder Criminal homicide involving the killing of several victims in three or more events Most serial killers are not legally insane or medically psychotic, although many are diagnosed as sociopaths continued on next slide

17 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Serial Murder Four-part typology  Visionary serial killers  Comfort serial killers  Hedonistic serial killers  Power seekers continued on next slide

18 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Serial Murder Fox & Levin three-part typology  Thrill-motivated killers  Mission-oriented killers  Expedience-directed killers

19 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Female Serial Killers Typically target people known to them Disciple killer  Murders as the result of the influence of a charismatic personality continued on next slide

20 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Female Serial Killers Kelleher and Kelleher’s typology of female serialists  Black widow  Angel of death Typical career of female serial killer is longer than that of male counterparts

21 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Apprehending Serial Killers FBI’s Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP) Profiling  Organized nonsocial killers  Disorganized asocial killers Geomapping

22 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Mass Murder Killing more than three people at the same time Levin and Fox’s typology differentiates crime by motive: revenge, love, profit, terror continued on next slide

23 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Mass Murder Factors/elements that may lead to mass murder:  Predisposers  Precipitants  Facilitators

24 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Rape FBI adopted new gender-neutral definition of rape in 2012 UCR program now defines forcible rape as “The carnal knowledge of a person forcibly and against their will” Police reports rarely reveal the true incidence of rape

25 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Feminist Perspectives No one feminist perspective but the various perspectives have some common elements:  View gender as a social (not biological) construct  Patriarchal structures within society that contribute to the privileged status of men are inseparable from rape continued on next slide

26 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Feminist Perspectives No one feminist perspective but the various perspectives have some common elements:  View rape as an act of power or domination  Concept of rape culture Feminist perspectives have been criticized for their often one- dimensional view of masculinity

27 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Psychopathological Perspective This perspective is based on two assumptions:  Rape is the result of idiosyncratic mental disease  Rape often includes uncontrollable sexual impulses Groth suggests that rape is connected to issues like power and anger

28 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Integrated Theory of Rape Model posits that support for legitimate violence, higher levels of gender inequality, and social disorganization combine to produce higher rape rates at the state level Researchers have found support for direct effect of gender inequality on rape rates

29 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Evolutionary/Biological Perspectives Focuses on motives and ends conducive to rape Different traits relating to mating that developed in males and females may have evolved through sexual selection continued on next slide

30 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Evolutionary/Biological Perspectives Perspective argues that the feminist position of rape ignores the existence of a biologically based sexual motivation Criticized for justifying rape as “natural”

31 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Typologies of Rapists Hazelwood and Burgess’ typology based on motivation  Power-assertive  Power-reassurance  Anger-retaliatory  Anger-excitation continued on next slide

32 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Typologies of Rapists Stevens’ typology based on motivations  Role of lust a primary motive for a large proportion of rapists Scully’s typology based on rationalizations used by offenders  Admitters  Deniers

33 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Acquaintance Rape The majority of rapes occur when the victim and offender have some prior relationship Date rape  acquaintance rape among adults often occurs within the context of a dating relationship

34 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Spousal Rape Spousal rape now illegal in all states Russell’s typology of men who rape their wives  Husbands who prefer raping their wives to having consensual sex with them  Husbands who enjoy both rape and consensual sex with their wives or are indifferent to type continued on next slide

35 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Spousal Rape Russell’s typology of men who rape their wives  Husbands who prefer consensual sex with their wives but are willing to rape them if their sexual advances are refused  Husbands who might like to rape their wives but do not act out these desires

36 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Rape in Prison 2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act Victims frequently reluctant to report incidents to correctional authorities Sexual assaults in prison likely to have long-term psychological effects on victims

37 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Child Sexual Abuse Includes a variety of criminal and civil offenses in which an adult:  Engages in sexual activity with a minor  Exploits a minor for purposes of sexual gratification, or  Exploits a minor sexually for purposes of profit continued on next slide

38 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Child Sexual Abuse Greatly despised but little understood Self-reports reveal much more abuse than official reported

39 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Types of Child Sex Abusers Almost all pedophiles are male but there are few other similarities Groth’s two-part typology  Regressed offenders  Fixated offenders Commercial sexual exploitation of children  adult victimizes a child sexually for profit

40 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Robbery Robbery combines elements of violence and property crime Personal robbery  Robberies and muggings occurring in residences Institutional robbery  Robberies in commercial settings continued on next slide

41 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Robbery The lethal potential of robbery  Robbery carries threat of lethal injury to the victim  Most frequently used weapon is a firearm continued on next slide

42 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Robbery Criminal careers of robbers  Most robbers are generalists with lengthy but varied careers  Few inmates specialize exclusively in robbery

43 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Robbery and Public Transportation Crime prevention strategies can be very effective in public transport settings Robbery on mass transit is fairly rare Taxi drivers at greatest risk

44 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Motivation of Robbers Most robberies involve little planning Motivations include:  Financial gain  Desire to fight  Desire to set right a perceived injustice  Desire to enhance street credibility  “Just for kicks”

45 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Drug Robberies Majority of offenders specializing in street robberies targeted minor drug dealers  Acquire both money and drugs  Drug dealers were unlikely to report the victimization to the police continued on next slide

46 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Drug Robberies Strategies used to minimize risk involved in targeting drug dealers  Intimidation  Anonymity maintenance  Hypervigilance

47 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger The Gendered Nature of Robbery Other than rape, robbery is the most gender-differentiated crime in the US Men and women both motivated by money but differ in how they carry out street robberies

48 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Aggravated Assault The unlawful attack by one person upon another wherein the offender uses a weapon or displays it in a threatening manner, or the victim suffers obvious or severe bodily injury Offender profile mirrors that of homicide offenders Most aggravated assaults are spontaneous

49 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stranger Assault Probability of serious victimization by strangers very low Likelihood varies by demographic characteristics

50 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Assault within Families The majority of assaults involve victims and offenders known to each other, often in familial or intimate relationships continued on next slide

51 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Assault within Families Family privacy  Family violence is difficult to research because the family as a social institution is private  Discussion of violence among family members violates this privacy continued on next slide

52 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Assault within Families Early research found women much more likely than men to be victims of domestic violence NIBRS data suggest that slightly more than half of all violent crimes involved victims and offenders who were related – most were assaults continued on next slide

53 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Assault within Families Women are more likely to be the victims of assaults within the family than in the general population

54 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Intimate-Partner Assault Assaultive behavior between individuals involved in an intimate relationship Separation assault  a particularly violent response by the male partner that occurs after a woman leaves a violent relationship

55 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Workplace Violence Includes murder, rape, robbery, and assault committed against persons at work or on duty Types include:  Violent acts by criminals with no other connection with the workplace  Violence directed at employees by those for whom an organization provides services continued on next slide

56 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Workplace Violence Types include:  Violence against coworkers, supervisors, or managers by a present or former employee  Violence by someone who does not work there but who has a personal relationship with an employee

57 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Hate Crimes Crimes motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group continued on next slide

58 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Hate Crimes 1990 Hate Crime Statistics Act mandated collection of statistics on hate crimes  Bias against people with disabilities added in 1994  Violence against LGBT added in 2009

59 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Role of Hate Groups Hate groups  KKK, Aryan Nations, National Alliance, etc.  Existed for many years  Most hate crimes not committed by hate groups Majority of hate crimes are committed by teens, primarily white males, acting alone or in groups

60 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stalking Conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, and or verbal, written or implied threats, or a combination thereof, that would cause a reasonable person fear continued on next slide

61 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stalking Antistalking laws consider the totality of the circumstances, rather than viewing behaviors in isolation from each other

62 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Types of Stalkers Rejected stalkers Intimacy-seeking stalkers Incompetent suitors Resentful vendetta-motivated stalkers Predatory stalkers

63 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim-Offender Relationships in Stalking Majority of victims are women, majority of stalkers are men Most victims between years of age continued on next slide

64 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Victim-Offender Relationships in Stalking Majority of victims know their stalkers  Women more likely to be stalked by intimate partner  Men more likely to be stalked by stranger or acquaintance

65 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stalking in Intimate-Partner Relationships Stalking in intimate-partner relationships can occur before or after relationship ends, or both Other forms of violence often accompany stalking continued on next slide

66 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Stalking in Intimate-Partner Relationships Men who stalked former wives more likely than non-stalking ex-husbands to engage in emotionally abuse and controlling behavior towards wife

67 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Consequences of Stalking Consequences negatively affecting victims’ lives  Increased concern about personal safety  Need for counseling  Time lost from work  Self-protective measures continued on next slide

68 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Consequences of Stalking Women more likely to report stalking to police than men  Reasons for failure to report fairly general

69 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Cyberstalking The use of electronic communications ( , the Internet) to harass individuals continued on next slide

70 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Cyberstalking Recommendations to help control cyberstalking include:  Review of all state stalking laws to ensure they include provisions for cyberstalking  Amendments to federal laws continued on next slide

71 Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Cyberstalking Recommendations to help control cyberstalking include:  Training on cyberstalking for law enforcement  Web site with information on cyberstalking


Download ppt "Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology Today, 7th Edition Frank Schmalleger Introduction to Criminology CRJ 270 Instructor:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google