Presentation on theme: "Violence and domestic abuse zDefine sexual harassment yThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission defines sexual harassment as xUnwelcome sexual advances,"— Presentation transcript:
Violence and domestic abuse zDefine sexual harassment yThe Equal Employment Opportunity Commission defines sexual harassment as xUnwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when 1)submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s employment, 2)submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individual, or 3) such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment.
2 types of sexual harassment zQuid pro quo yOne person offers work benefits or threatens work repercussions in exchange for sexual favors. zHostile environment ya person is faced with a hostile, intimidating work environment
Do men and women define sexual harassment the same? zWomen are more likely than men to perceive a behavior as harassment and to view sexual harassment as a problem in the workplace. zMen and women clearly agree that a sexual proposition is sexual harassment. zA man views a woman touching him on the shoulder in sexual terms, but the same man does not view his touching a woman on the should in sexual terms.
How often does sexual harassment occur? z42% to 53% of a representative sample reported sexual harassment. zOf a college sample, 20% to 40% of undergraduate women report harassment. z79% of female physicians reported being sexually harassed while in medical school. zThe frequency varies widely in the work force. yWomen in traditionally male jobs and the military are more likely to experience harassment.
Effects of harassment zThe victim may be forced to quit their job or drop out of school. zThey often experience anger, embarrassment, and depression. zThey may feel ashamed, responsible, and less self-confident.
Rape zSexual penetration without the individual’s consent, obtained by force or by threat of physical harm, or when the victim is incapable of giving consent. zSexual assault : sexual touching and other forms of unwanted sexual contact, which may be accompanied by psychological pressure and coercion or by physical threats.
Acquaintance rape zUnlawful sexual intercourse accomplished by force or fear with a person known to the victim who is not related by blood or marriage. zCharacteristics of acquaintance rape yUse of alcohol, certain conditions at fraternity parties (degrading talk about women, nudity, and aggression), miscommunication
Miscommunications leading to acquaintance rape zMen tend to interpret behavior in a more sexual manner than women do. zPractical implications ywomen should be aware that their friendliness could be misconstrued ymen must learn that friendly verbal and nonverbal messages from a woman may simply mean “I like you” and not “I want sex”
Attitudes toward acquaintance rape zPeople are much more likely to blame the rapist in a case of stranger rape, rather than acquaintance rape. zPeople are more likely to blame a woman if she is intoxicated. zPeople are reluctant to use the word “rape” when two people know each other.
Prevalency of rape z15% to 30% of women will be victims of rape at some point in their lives. zThe rates for male victims are much lower, ranging from less than 1% to 7%. zOnly 15% to 30% of reported rapes end up with the rapist being convicted. zThose who are convicted, only half spend more than a year in jail.
Reactions to rape zAlmost all women who have been raped report feeling terrified, confused, overwhelmed, and anxious. zShort-term adjustment yExpressive style xfear, anger, and anxiety by crying and being restless and tense. yControlled style xhide their feelings with a calm, composed, and subdued external appearance
Other responses zHelplessness and devaluation, zguilt and blame, zvulnerable
Long-term adjustment zPhysical ypelvic pain yexcessive menstrual bleeding ygastrointestinal problems yneurological problems yexcessive weight loss and eating disorders.
Cont. long-term adjustment zPsychological yPTSD xintense fear, xheightened anxiety xemotional numbing xreexperiencing the rape through nightmares or flashbacks
Myths about rape zOnly deviant men would consider raping a woman zRapists are strangers zWomen asked to be raped; they could’ve avoided it. zWomen routinely lie about rape. zOnly “bad” women are raped. zPornography makes men less likely to rape.
Childhood sexual abuse zSexual exploitation or sexual activities with a child under circumstances which indicate that the child’s health or welfare is harmed or threatened” z20% to 25% of all females have experienced child sexual abuse by the time they are 18 yo. z1 out of 7 boys are sexually abused. zIncest ySexual relations between blood relatives.
Consequences of child sexual abuse zPsychological yfear, anger, depression, and guilt. yNightmares, mistrust, substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behavior
Recovered memory/ false memory zRecovered memory ywhen a child has been sexually abused and repressed their memory of that experience and then later recovered the memory zFalse memory yConstrued stories about events that never really happened.
Marital rape z10% to 15% of wives are raped by their husbands. zOnly 10 states have stringent laws against marital rape.
Rape prevention zSee Table 13.1 zWomen reduce their chances of being raped when they try to block their assailants physically, push them, or incapacitate them. zIgnore men who talk negatively about women, date in groups, be direct about your sexual intentions.
Societal changes zSensitive hospital and medical providers to women who have been raped. zRape victims should be encouraged to report. zMore education zMen’s groups must be more involved in rape prevention. zViolence in media should not be as glorified.
Collamer Chapter 9, Men on Rape zThrough talking with women, Beneke learned: yThe threat of rape alters the meaning and feel of the night. yIt alters the meaning and feel of nature. yWomen need more money because of rape and the threat makes it harder for women to earn money. yIt makes women more dependent on men. ySolitude is less possible. yInhibits a woman’s expressiveness. yInhibits the freedom of the eye.
Blaming the victim zMany things may be happening when a man blames a woman for rape. yMen may be considering rape as natural. yThey may be considering women as commodities. yThey assume that it is okay to take advantage of other people. ySexual feelings makes on helpless. yMen project their own sexual desires onto women.
Domestic violence (cont. Maitlin, 13) zThe abuse of women yIs found in every social group on our continent yIt is the intentional acts that injure a woman; these acts may be physical, psychological, or sexual. yPhysical abuse can include hitting, kicking, burning, pushing, choking, and threatening with a weapon. yEmotional abuse can include humiliation, name calling, degradation, intimidation, refusing to speak, and finances.
Prevalence of abuse towards women z20% to 35% (2m to 4m) of women in the US. zDeKeseredy & Schwartz (1998) reported that among Canadian students, 31% of the women had been pushed grabbed, or shoved by someone they were dating, 11% had been slapped, 5% had been choked, and 65% had been degraded in front of their friends/family and had experienced insults or swearing. zData gathered in Asia, Latin America and Africa reveal even higher rates of abuse.
Dynamics of Abuse zThe abuse cycle has 3 phases yTension building xphysical abuse in relatively minor but verbal outbursts and threats increase the tension. yAcute Battering yLoving Phase
Women’s reaction to abuse zFear and terror zhyperalert zanxiety zdepression/suicide zphysical health: bruises, cuts, burns and broken bones, headaches, abdominal pain, pelvic pain, gynecological problems
Characteristics of the abusive relationship zLow income families but no social class is immune. zSubstance abuse. zPersonal characteristics of Male Abusers yThey feel entitled to hurt their partner yCharming con artists/Antisocial Personality Disorder yUnemployed yAggressive yDrinking problem
Attitudes toward the abuse of women. zAn increasing number of North Americans believe that domestic violence is a serious crime. zWomen have more negative attitudes toward abuse than men do.
Myths about the abuse of women zAbuse is rare. zMen experience as much abuse as women zAbuse is limited to lower social class zAbuse is more common among ethnic minority groups. zAbused women are masochists zAbused women ask to be beaten. zAbused women could easily leave, if they really wanted.
Action against abuse zAsian women typically accept the situation. zSeek therapy zLeave zGo to a battered women’s shelter
Collamer, Chapter 10, Til Death do us part zAccounts of the outcome when women tried to fight back. zVictims of perpetual violence should be forgiven if they turn violent themselves. zDefense lawyers call it legitimate self-protection when a victim of abuse fights back -- even if she shoots her husband in his sleep. Prosecutors call it an act of vengeance, and in the past, juries have usually agreed and sent the killer to jail. zThe average sentence of a woman who kills her mate is 15 to 20 years; for a man 2 to 6.
Cont. zIn the question, “What choice did she have?” it assumes that she has good options. zIn 1990, Baltimore zoo spent twice as much money to care for animals as the state of Maryland spent on shelters for victims of domestic violence.
Societal Response zAn attempt at solving the problem of abuse must acknowledge that it is a societal problem.