Presentation on theme: "Sanjeeda Dr. Sushma Suri Research scholar Assistant Professor"— Presentation transcript:
1Sanjeeda Dr. Sushma Suri Research scholar Assistant Professor Emotional stability, Self Concept and Insecurities among adolescents rape victimsBySanjeeda Dr. Sushma SuriResearch scholar Assistant ProfessorDepartment of psychology Department of psychologyJamia Millia Islamia Jamia Millia Islamia
2RapeRape is generally considered one of the most serious sex crimes and can be very difficult to prosecute. It occurs across socio-economic and demographic spectrums, and is frequently unreported by victims (Tjaden & Theonnes, 2006). Determining the scope and nature of rape and other types of sexual assault depends on how these crimes are defined and measured.According to section 375 of IPC a man is said to commit "rape" who has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the six following descriptions:Against her will
3Without her consent.With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested in fear of death or of hurt.With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband, and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.With her consent, when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupid flying or unwholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age.
4Prevalence of rape among adolescents Sexual violence is a global problem that does not spare any socioeconomic group or culture, especially among adolescents and young adults (Irwin & Rickert, 2005).Prevalence rates of rape among female adolescents, are gradually increasing. More specifically, roughly 24% of women experience rape or attempted rape in their lifetime (Kohsin, Wang, & Rowley, 2007). Among the reported cases, 50 percent offenders are adolescents (Savin-Williams, 1994).According to Delhi Police Annual Report (2007) young women and girl are more vulnerable to crime like rape. Malhotra and Sood (2000) found that majority (76.9% ) of victims were found to be adolescents.
5Psychological consequences of rape among adolescents Adolescents are progressing through a developmental stage that may place them at even greater risk than adults for physical and psychological harm. Unconsciously, the experience and the trauma associated with rape bleeds into other areas of the individual's life and can often manifest in many ways, ranging from mental health disorders, including substance abuse relationship issues throughout adolescence and, if untreated, into adulthood.Rape is the most agonizing experience as it is the most serious offence against the dignity and modesty of a victim. It injures the very being of a victim and their self-esteem. The victims invariably feel their image being lowered as a consequence of rape. Most victims had low self concept as compared to non-victims (Bajpai, 2006) .
6Psychological reaction to Sexual assault are prolonged and varied, characterized by physical, Psychological and behavioral symptoms. Ward (1988) found the common symptom of Psychological maladjustment like insecurity and emotional instability among adolescents rape victims.The effects of rape are far reaching. The diversity in outcomes may be attributed to characteristics of the violent acts, environmental conditions, survivor attributes, and availability of social support and resources. The nature of the attack itself might also affect the reaction. An attack by a stranger armed with a deadly weapon might cause different adjustment problems, for instance than an attack by a casual acquaintance with whom the victim has had some social contact. Therefore present piece of paper is concentrated on examining the emotional stability, self concept and insecurities among two groups of adolescents rape victims i. e. victims having known perpetrator and victims having unknown perpetrator.
7Objectives:To examine and compare emotional stability, self concept and insecurities among adolescents rape victims having known perpetrator and victims having unknown perpetrator.MethodParticipants:The study was conducted on 50 rape victims within the age group of years, selected from different shelter homes NGO’s, Police Stations and residential areas of Delhi. Further on they were divided on the bases of their relation to the perpetrator i.e. victims who knew their perpetrator (N=25) and victims having unknown perpetrator (N=25). Majority of the rape victim were illiterate or poorly educated. Most of them were from lower socio economic background.
8Tools:Mohsin self concept inventory (1979) was used to measure the self concept of the subjects. The inventory consists of 40 items.ReliabilityTwo halves reliability of the inventory was found to be 0.57 for one half and 0.73 for the full invent ry.Validity:Correlation coefficient of the inventory with Maslow’s insecurity inventory and Mohsin’s parent child inventory was found to be and respectively.
9Emotional stability test (1985) by A. Sen Gupta and A. K Emotional stability test (1985) by A. Sen Gupta and A.K . Singh was used measure emotional stability. The test comprises of 15 items.Reliability:Test re-test reliability of the test was found to be and Split half reliability was 0.72.Validity:Correlation coefficient of the test with differential personality scale by Singh and Sinha (1979) and neuroticism scale of Mandsley personality inventory adopted by Jalota was found to be .61 and 0.53 respectively.
10Mohsin’s security- insecurity test (1981) was applied to measure security-insecurity among subjects. The scale consists of 60 items.Reliability:Odd even and test retest reliability of the inventory was found to be 0.88 and 0.71respectively.Validity:Correlation coefficient of the test with Mohsin’s parent child inventory was found to be 0.40.
11Procedure :A prior permission was taken from the different organizations and informed personal consent of the victims were sought. Subjects were assured to maintain the confidentiality. For the purpose of proposed research data was collected from different shelter homes, NGO’s, Police Stations and different localities of Delhi. The basic information was taken from the welfare officers of the shelter homes. After the rapport formation different inventories and scales were administered to all the victims .
12Results Table 1: Comparison of emotional stability, self concept and insecurity among rape victims having known perpetrator and victims having unknown perpetrator where (N=25)VariableGroupMeanSDtSig.Emotional stability126.525.362.5832.1771.717.093Self Concept23.1211.728.6764.6775.783.000Insecurity185.16201.0017.74527.0632.447018
13From the above table it was evident that mean difference between two groups on emotional stability was found to be non significant while for self concept and insecurity scores it was found to be significant.Results of the study indicated that victim in both groups shows almost similar type of emotional instability while victims with known perpetrator have found to be low self concept and more insecurities in comparison to other groups. Discussion:Numbers of studies indicated that the better the victim knows the assailant, the greater is the devastation to her personal life. This is because an attack by a friend or acquaintance can cause someone to suspect even those she had previously trusted. Rape between people who know each other is especially likely to cause suspicions about personal relationships.
14Researches indicated that adolescents victims who have been sexually assaulted by a relative suffers from even more intense guilt and shame, low self-esteem, depression and self-destructive behavior (such as substance abuse, sexual promiscuity and prostitution) than adolescents who have been sexually assaulted by a stranger (Matsakis, 1991).Sexual assault by an acquaintance (date rape) among young women and adolescents is an increasing phenomenon (Pope & Shouldice, 2001). Women raped by their intimate partners are more likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety than those who are victims of physical violence and those who were sexually assaulted by someone other than one's partner (Plichta & Falik, 2001).
15Similarly Parker and colleagues (1993) discovered that adolescent girl experienced dating violence at a significantly higher rate than adult women. Traumatic experiences, such as dating violence, exacerbate the difficulties of developmental milestones and can lead to impairments in behaviors, thoughts and feelings (Ackard & Neumark-Sztainer, 2002). Abusive relationships could have a greater impact on a girl’s self-esteem and self concept (Miller, 1991).
16Limitations and Suggestions However, every study suffers some limitation, because it is not possible for any researcher to take into account all the factors due to time and resources constraints. Looking from this perspective the present study also suffer from some limitations. Some limitations enumerated as below:Present study was conducted only in one metropolis (Delhi), only which may not be the representative of the entire population. Sample should have also been taken from other metro cities of India. In further studies, it should be taken into consideration.Given the exploratory nature of this study and the small sample size, the findings reported need to be interpreted with extreme care until future work in this area offer confirming proof of the same