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Chapter Ten: Violent Crime.

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1 Chapter Ten: Violent Crime

2 Objectives Be familiar with the various causes of violent crime
Know the concept of the brutalization process Be able to discuss the history of rape and know the different types of rape Be able to discuss the legal issues in rape prosecution Recognize that there are different types of murder Be able to discuss the differences among serial killing, mass murder, and spree killing Be familiar with the nature of assault in the home Understand the careers of armed robbers Be able to discuss newly emerging forms of violence such as stalking, hate crimes, and workplace violence Understand the different types of terrorism and what is being done to combat terrorist activities

3 Causes of Violence Psychological/Biological Abnormality
Evolutionary factors/Human Instinct Substance abuse Socialization and Upbringing Exposure to Violence Cultural Values/subculture of Violence Peer Group Influence National Values

4 Forcible Rape “The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.” One of the most loathed, misunderstood, and frightening of crimes There many forms of sexual assault, including male on male, female on female, and female on male, but these are not considered within the traditional definition of rape In early civilization rape was common, throughout recorded history, rape has been associated with armies and warfare.

5 Types of Rape Gang rape: as many as 25 percent or more involve multiple offenders, offenders are more violent Serial Rape: attacks multiple victims; some are “blitz rapes” and others “capture” rapes Acquaintance rape: involves someone known to the victim, including family members and friendship Date rape: people who are in some form of courting relationship Marital rape: rape between a married couple Statutory rape: sexual relations between an underage minor female and an adult male

6 Causes of Rape Evolutionary, Biological factors Male socialization
Psychological abnormality Social learning Sexual motivation

7 Rape and the Law Proving Rape: it is extremely challenging for prosecutors, sometimes the blame is shifted from rapist to victim. To get a conviction, it is necessary to establish that the act was forced and violent Consent: in a sense the burden of proof is on the victim, she must show that her character is beyond question and that she did not encourage, entice, or misled the accused rapist Reform: laws have been changed around country, including the language of statutes, some laws are now gender neutral. Shield laws protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case

8 Murder and Homicide The unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought Degrees: First-degree Second-degree Felony Manslaughter Voluntary or non-negligent Involuntary or negligent

9 Nature of Murder Much more common in urban areas Victims and offenders tend to be males Most commonly an intra-racial crime African-Americans are disproportionately victims and offenders Most perpetrators are under age 35 Offenders typically have a long involvement in crime

10 Assault and Battery Assault ~ does not require actual touching but involves either attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or deed Battery ~ offensive touching, such as slapping, hitting, or punching a victim Patterns of assault are very similar to homicide and rape

11 Causes of Child Abuse Generational violence Negative childhood experiences Blended families Isolation from friends and family Depression or psychological distress


13 Factors that Predict Spousal Abuse
Alcohol Weapon Stepchild Estrangement Hostility toward dependency Excessive brooding Social learning Socioeconomic factors Anger Military service Abuse as a child Unpredictability

14 Robbery Taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear

15 Hate Crimes Violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share a discernible racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristic

16 Types of Hate Crimes Thrill-seeking Reactive (defensive) Mission Retaliatory

17 Factors that Predict Hate Crimes
Poor or uncertain economic conditions Racial stereotypes in films/television Hate-filled discourse on talk shows/political advertisements The use of racial code language (e.g., welfare mothers, inner-city thugs) Personal experiences with members of particular minority groups Scapegoating: blaming a minority group for the misfortune of society as a whole

18 Workplace Violence Violence such as assault, rape, or murder committed at the workplace Third leading cause of occupational injury or death

19 Stalking A course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated physical or visual proximity, nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written, or implied threats sufficient to cause fear in a reasonable person

20 Terrorism Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience

21 Contemporary Forms of Terrorism
Revolutionary Political Nationalist Cause-based Environmental State-sponsored Criminal

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