Presentation on theme: "Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance Introduction to Women’s Studies Robert Wonser."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance Introduction to Women’s Studies Robert Wonser
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance2 Perpetrators and Victims Who usually commits crimes? Depends on the crime, but usually men Who is usually the victim of said crimes? Depends on the crime: Rape, women… maybe men? Murder, men
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance3 Men die from homicides and commit homicides more than women.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance4 Males commit more violent crimes and also are victims of most violent crimes.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance5 Defining Rape and Battering Rape: Forced sexual intercourse Sexual assault: Unwanted sexual contact not involving intercourse Battering or domestic violence: Physical attacks committed by intimates Intimate partner violence (IPV) Violence Against Women
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance6 Strangers v. Nonstrangers Strangers commit only about one-third (of aggravated/simple assault, rape, robbery combined according to NCVS) Remainder committed by friends, family members, and acquaintances Strangers commit 44% of men’s victimizations and 27% of women’s Nonstrangers commit 70% of women’s victimizations and 49% of men’s The Victim-Offender Relationship
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance9 The Victim-Offender Relationship Intimate-Partner Violence Refers to any rape/sexual assault, robbery or aggravated/simple assault committed by someone with a relationship to the victim Women are much more likely to suffer violence at the hands of intimates
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance12 Men’s Personal Safety and Gender Violence Masculinity requires that boys and men confront violence and be skilled in the use of violence in those confrontations. Most boys and men, of course, are not accomplished fighters and they are victimized by those who are. Violence against men and boys by other men and boys is often sexualized.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance13 Rape and Domestic Violence Most violence against women and girls is perpetrated by men and boys the women know well. Age, race ethnicity, and social class make some women and girls most vulnerable. Men and boys are also victims of rape but less frequently than are women and girls. Date rape is a particular form of rape that victimizes young women who are raped by men they believe are friends.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance14 Accounting for Rape: Evolutionary Theory, Individual Psychology and Inequality Darwinian Evolution Some theorists argue that men have a natural proclivity to rape and that women are responsible to keep men under control by not enticing them. This position has been criticized because it can’t explain variation from one society to the next in regard to the incidence of rape. Societies can appear anywhere along a continuum from rape free to rape prone. Societies on or near the rape free end of the continuum are less male dominated and have more sharing of jobs between men and women.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance15 Accounting for Rape: Individual Psychology Psychological explanations focus on the disturbed and pathological personalities of those who rape. This position has been criticized because it doesn’t recognize the importance of social context in shaping our behavior. In addition, it doesn’t address the gendered character of rape. Why are men more likely to sexually assault others than are women? Finally, the methods in the research that makes the claim that psychological deviance is the root of the problem have been criticized because their samples come from prison populations that over-represent poor men and men of color and rarely, if ever, include wealthy powerful men who rape but are able to avoid prison.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance16 Rape as an Outcome of Gender Inequality Some theorists argue that rape is a result of the political differences between women and men. Power inequality evokes resistance which then demands some way to keep the “rebels” in line.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance17 Rape Culture Rapists as hyperconformists to rape culture
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance18 Rape and Battering Cultural Myths Rape Myths Women liked to be raped Women “ask for it” Many believe real rape hasn’t occurred unless the following has happened: o Injury or other evidence of force o Woman has not been sexually active o Woman didn’t dress provocatively
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance19 Cultural Myths Battering Myths Must have angered their partner Battering not that bad because they don’t leave Reality o Often nowhere to go o Fear will track them down o They continue to love their batterers o Other factors include the overuse of alcohol, unemployment, and male peer support Rape and Battering
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance20 State Violence Against Men The fight to stop domestic violence required changes in the criminal justice system making it more cognizant of violence against women and capable of protecting women. The criminal justice system also needs alteration to prevent it from perpetrating violence against men in the form of prison system. The U.S. has the largest proportion of incarcerated people. Prisons have been a booming business in the past few decades. Most prisoners are men, and most of them are Latino and African American men.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance21 Prison Rape 21
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance22 Sexual Violence in Men’s Prisons Sexual violence is prevalent in men’s prisons. Prison rape is an aspect of “doing gender” where men are required to “act like women” as part of their degradation and subordination.
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance23 Sexual Violence in Men’s Prisons Prison rape is an aspect of “doing gender” where men are required to “act like women” as part of their degradation and subordination. In men’s penitentiaries, for 2008, the government had previously tallied 935 confirmed instances of sexual abuse. After asking around, and performing some calculations, the Justice Department came up with a new number: 216,000. That's 216,000 victims, not instances. 23
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance24 Masculinity in Crisis Masculinity is a performance One aspect of the performance of masculinity is being tough and/or violent (or at least willing to be) Tough Guise
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance25 The Extent of Rape NCVS estimates nearly 204,000 rapes and sexual assaults occurred in 2008 81% were committed against females for a rate of 1.3 per 1,000 women 63% were committed by someone the woman knew 32% were committed by a stranger NVAW surveys find that close to 18% of women are raped at least once in their lifetime; over 83% by men they know Other studies: 20 to 25% of women have experienced a rape or attempted rape 70 to 80% of the rapes committed by men they know
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance26 The Extent of Battering NCVS estimates nearly 61,000 aggravated assaults and 380,000 simple assaults were committed by intimates against women in 2008 341,000 overall; 2.6 assaults per 1,000 women NVAW survey concluded that 22% of women are assaulted in their lifetime by a partner 1.3% (or 13 per 1,000) in the past year 1.3 million assaults annually
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance27 The Social Patterning of Rape and Battering Age: Young women more likely than older women to experience IPV Social Class: Poorest women higher rates College students Race and Ethnicity: Higher rates for Native American and black women than for whites Problem of underreporting Cultural traditions
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance28 Factors that Predict Spousal Abuse Alcohol Weapon Stepchild Estrangement Hostility toward dependency Excessive brooding Social learning Socioeconomic factors Anger Military service Abuse as a child Unpredictability
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance29 Explaining Rape and Battering Are these crimes more psychological or sociological in origin? Gender and Economic Inequality Inevitable consequences of patriarchy or male dominance Gender-based analysis of violence against women is necessary
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance30 Anthropological evidence supports this view Research reveals states with greater gender inequality had higher rape rates Women are scapegoats for anger some men feel over low SES Rape and Battering: Gender and Economic Inequality
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance31 Battered Men Fact or Fiction? Men are just as battered by women Research by Straus argues women often initiate violence, not just use it in self-defense NCVS disputes sexual symmetry claim citing 85% of intimate violence committed against women
Lesson 8: Gender, Crime and Deviance32 Stalking Stalking: persistent following, observing, and/or harassment of an individual Common goal to intimidate woman into staying in a romantic relationship Can produce severe stress and psychological trauma Estimated 30-40% of victims eventually attacked