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Chapter 10 Violent Crime.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Violent Crime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Violent Crime

2 Introduction Expressive violence: acts the vent rage, anger, and frustration Instrumental violence: acts that improve a financial or social position

3 The Causes of Violence Personal Traits and Makeup Neurological impairments Low intelligence Abnormal personality structures

4 Figure 10.1 Sources of Violence

5 The Causes of Violence Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct Eros: the life instinct Thanatos: the death instinct Aggression and violence are inborn instincts Violence is committed primarily by males

6 The Causes of Violence Substance Abuse Psychopharmacological relationship: between drugs and crime Economic Compulsive Behavior: drug ingestion may cause economic compulsive behavior Systemic link: occurs when drug dealers turn violent in competition with rival gangs

7 The Causes of Violence Socialization and Upbringing Children exposed to violence at home, school, and environment are more likely to use violence themselves Parents who fail to set adequate limits reinforce a child’s coercive behavior Physical punishment may lead to anger and defiance

8 The Causes of Violence Abused Children Abused children are likely to later engage in delinquent behaviors Abused children are likely to physically abuse siblings Abused children are likely to engage in spousal abuse

9 The Causes of Violence The Brutalization Process Lonnie Athens links violence to early child abuse Classified people into: nonviolent, violent, and incipiently violent Four types of violent attacks: 1) physically defensive, 2) frustrative, 3) malefic, and 4) frustrative-malefic

10 The Causes of Violence Exposure to Violence People who are constantly exposed to violence may adopt violent methods themselves Girls are more likely to be victims of sexual abuse and boys are more likely to participate in fights, stabbings or shootings Crusted over: refers to children who do not express their feelings (vulnerable to the lure of delinquent gangs)

11 The Causes of Violence Cultural values/Subculture of Violence Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti formulated the concept of a subculture of violence Violence is legitimized by norms and customs Violence is higher in subculture areas within urban areas

12 The Causes of Violence Peer Group Influences Gangs are more likely to own guns and weapons Gang violence may be initiated for: Display of toughness Retaliation for actual or perceived grievances Protection of ownership (graffiti) Protection of turf

13 The Causes of Violence Regional Values Raymond Gastil found a significant relationship between murder rates a residence in the South Gastil contends the southern culture promotes violence UCRs support the higher rates of murder in the South

14 The Causes of Violence National Values National characteristics are predictive of violence: social disorganization economic stress child abuse rates violence by government political corruption inefficient justice systems.

15 Forcible Rape Common law definition: “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will”

16 Forcible Rape History of Rape Men staked claim to women by rape “Heiress stealing” involved men trying to force wealthy women into marriage Peasant women and married women could not be victims of rape until the 16th century

17 Forcible Rape Rape and the Military Rape has been associated with armies and warfare (spoils of war) Rape has been used to intentionally impregnate women Rape is used as “weapon of war”

18 CNN Clip - Sexual Assaults In The Military

19 Forcible Rape Incidence of Rape 94,000 rapes/attempted rapes were reported in 2003 (UCRs) Rape has been in a decade-long decline Population density influences rape About 46 percent of rape offenders are under 25 years of age NCVS estimates rapes in 2003 were about 200,000

20 Forcible Rape Types of Rape and Rapists Some rapes are planned and some are spontaneous Nicolas Groth suggested every rape encounter contains either anger, power, or sadism Power rapist (55 percent) Anger rapist (40 percent) Sadistic rapist (5 percent)

21 Forcible Rape Gang versus Individual Rape Women subjected to rape by multiple offenders are more likely to experience violence such as beatings or the use of weapons Gang rape victims are more likely to resist than those attacked by single victims Gang rape victims are more likely to report the rape

22 Forcible Rape Serial Rape Serial rapists tend to be White males Rape may be “blitz” styled or “captured” Some use personal or professional relationships to gain access to their targets (I.E. police officers)

23 Forcible Rape Acquaintance Rape Date Rape: is estimated to affect 15 to 20 percent of all college women Marital Rape: almost every state recognizes marital rape as a crime Statutory Rape: sexual relations between underage minor female and an adult male, which an be consensual or forced About 50 percent of rape involves acquaintances

24 Forcible Rape The Causes of Rape Evolutionary, biological factors: rape is instinctual Male socialization: men socialized to “no means yes” (virility mystique) Hypermasculinity: expression of male anger toward women Psychological abnormality: narcissistic personality disorder Social learning: learned through interaction with peers (Nicholas Groth) Sexual motivation: Notion that rapists prefer younger victims. (most criminologist reject this view)

25 Forcible Rape Rape and the Law Sexist treatment by the legal system Police may be hesitant when no obvious signs of violence has occurred Aggravated rapes are prosecuted more frequently

26 Forcible Rape Proving Rape Jurors are often swayed by the notion the rape was victim precipitated Prosecutors must establish the act was forced and violent The victims demeanor is crucial to successful prosecution Consent: essential to prove the act was involuntary Rape Shield Laws: protect women from being questioned about sexual history Violence Against Women Act in 1994: allows women to sue in federal court (civil rights violations)

27 Murder and Homicide Definition of Murder: “the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought.” Degrees of Murder First-degree murder Premeditation Deliberation Second-degree murder Wanton disregard Manslaughter Voluntary (heat of passion) Involuntary (negligent) Born and alive Feticide

28 Murder and Homicide The Nature and Extent of Murder About 16,300 people killed in 2003 Almost one-quarter of homicides occur in cities with populations of more than 1 million Murder victims (75 percent) and offenders (90 percent) tend to be male About 49 percent of all victims are African Americans Infanticide (about 500 per year) Eldercide (less than 5 percent per year)

29 Murder and Homicide Weblink:

30 Murder and Homicide Murderous Relations Stranger homicides typically occur during commission of a felony Acquaintance homicides are more common involving family and friends Spousal Relations Men may kill spouses or partners for fear of losing control and power Most females murder after suffering repeated violent attacks Some people kill mates out of jealousy (love triangles)

31 Murder and Homicide Personal Relations Most murder occurs between people who are acquainted David Lukenbill suggested murder follows a sequential pattern after the victim makes what is considered an offensive move Stranger Relations Stranger homicides occur most frequently during rapes, robberies and burglaries Impact of habitual criminal statutes Student Relations 90 percent of schools with 1000 or more students experience violence each year Many offenders have history of being abused or bullied

32 Figure 10.2 Murder Transactions

33 Murder and Homicide Serial Murder There are more than one type of serial killer Thrill killers: sexual sadism or dominance (most common) Mission killers: to reform the world Expedience killers: for profit or protection

34 Murder and Homicide Serial Murderers and their Motivations Violence begins in childhood Mental illness, sexual frustration, neurological damage, child abuse, and neglect Most experts view serial killers as sociopaths

35 Murder and Homicide Female Serial Killers 10-15 % of serial killers are women Males are more likely to use violence than women Females are most likely to poison the victims Education levels are below average and they are likely in low status positions, if employed

36 Assault and Battery Definition of battery: requires offensive touching (i.e slapping, hitting, or punching) Definition of assault: requires no actual touching, but involves wither attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or deed.

37 Assault and Battery Nature and Extent of Assault Road rage 857,000 assaults reported in 2003 Most arrests are young White males (80 percent) Assault rates highest in urban areas during the summer in the South and the West Most common weapons are blunt instruments

38 Assault and Battery Assault in the home Women face the greatest risk of assault Child Abuse Child Abuse (85 percent of fatalities were younger than six years of age) Neglect (59 percent) Physical abuse (19 percent) Sexual abuse (10 percent) Emotional abuse (7 percent)

39 Figure 10.3 Child Maltreatment Rates 1990-2002

40 Assault and Battery Causes of Child Abuse Family violence is perpetuated Abusive parents were abused themselves Blended families Parents isolated from friends, neighbors, or relatives

41 Assault and Battery Sexual Abuse Women suffer some form of sexual violence (1 in 5) Recent studies suggest incidence of sexual abuse is in decline: Effectiveness of prevention Overlooked cases Children who have been abused experience life-long symptoms

42 Assault and Battery Parental Abuse The younger the child the higher the rate of Child-to-parent violence Children are more violent to mothers Boys hit parents more than girls do

43 Assault and Battery Spousal Abuse Occurred throughout recorded history Nature and Extent of Spousal Abuse Observers suggest 16 percent of families experienced husband-wife assaults Factors associated with spousal abuse include: alcohol, hostility, excessive brooding, social approval, socioeconomic factors, flashes of anger, military service, having been battered as a child, and unpredictableness

44 Robbery Definition of robbery: “the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.” In 2003, the FBI recorded 413,000 robberies compared to 554, 000 by the NCVS Northeastern states have the highest rates There has been a decade-long drop in rates

45 Robbery The Armed Robber Unlikely to be a professional rather opportunistic Robberies seem to peak during the winter months Choose vulnerable victims

46 Robbery Acquaintance Robbery Victims are often reluctant to report acquaintance robbery Some robbers are motivated by street justice Because the robber knows the person, they will have inside information Acquaintance robbers frequently target people in close proximity because of the convenience

47 Robbery Rational Robbery Most robbers are opportunistic Patterns of robbery suggest it is not a random act Robbers choose vulnerable victims and times Women robbers may feign sexual interests to lure a victim

48 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
Hate Crimes are violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share certain racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristics Thrill-seeking hate crimes (sadistic thrills) Reactive hate crimes (defensive stand) Mission hate crimes (duty bound) Retaliatory hate crimes are committed in response to hate crime whether real or percieved

49 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
The Nature and Extent of Hate Crime During 2003, 9,100 offenses were reported Racial bias accounts for nearly 49 percent Religious bias accounts for 17 percent Ethnicity or national origin bias accounts for 14 percent Bias against physical or mental disability accounts for 0.5 percent

50 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
Controlling Hate Crimes Most state have enacted some form of legislation to combat hate crime 39 states have laws against bias motivated violence 19 states have mandates regarding the collection of hate crime data Some suggest bias crimes should be punished more severely due to the likely chance of violence Legal Controls Virginia v. Black (2003) upheld by the Supreme Court prohibiting cross burning as intimidation

51 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
Workplace Violence Considered the third leading cause of occupational injury or death More than 2 million people are victimized each year Creating Workplace Violence Factors include: management style, romantic relationships, and irate clients and customers The Extent of Workplace Violence 18 percent of all violent crime Assaults are the most common (1.3 million) Police officer are the greatest risk, along with correctional officers, taxi drivers, and bartenders

52 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence
Stalking Affects 1.4 million victims annually Most stalking stops within one to two years Most victims know their stalker Women are most likely to be stalked by an intimate partner, whereas men are stalked by strangers or casual acquaintances

53 Terrorism What is Terrorism? International terrorism involves citizens or territory of more than one country Typically involves a type of political crime to promote change Some terrorists seek to bring about economic or social reforms (labor or wearing fur disputes) Terrorist and Guerilla terms used interchangeably but they are different (terrorists have urban focus)

54 Terrorism A Brief History of Terrorism Assassination of Caesar considered terrorism Became popular during the French Revolution (1700s) The Irish Republican Army (1916) Resistance to German troops during WW II

55 Terrorism Contemporary Forms of Terrorism Revolutionary Terrorism: Use violence in an attempt to replace the existing government Political Terrorism: Is directed shaping political or religious ideology Nationalist Terrorism: Ethnic or religious groups wanting its own independent homeland Cause-Based Terrorism: Use violence to impose their social or religious code on the world Environmental Terrorism: Is directed at slowing down developers believed to be threatening the environment State-Sponsored Terrorism: Repressive government regime forces its people into oppression and stifles political dissent Criminal Terrorism: Incorporates crimes such as drug dealing, kidnapping, and selling of nuclear materials

56 Terrorism What Motivates Terrorists? Socialization to violence Extreme ideological beliefs Feelings of alienation and failure (psychological disturbances)

57 Terrorism Responses to Terrorism Increased intelligence gathering (globally) 1994 Violent Crime Act (authorized death penalty for terrorists) USA Patriot Act ( investigation tactics) The Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force (2001)

58 Terrorism Law Enforcement Responses FBI and creation of the Cyber Division Homeland Security BTS (Borders and Transportation Security) EPR (Emergency Preparedness and Response) S&T (Research and development of WMD) IAIP (Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection)

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