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Chapter 10 Violent Crime. Introduction  Expressive violence: acts the vent rage, anger, and frustration  Instrumental violence: acts that improve a.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Violent Crime. Introduction  Expressive violence: acts the vent rage, anger, and frustration  Instrumental violence: acts that improve a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Violent Crime

2 Introduction  Expressive violence: acts the vent rage, anger, and frustration  Instrumental violence: acts that improve a financial or social position

3 The Causes of Violence Personal Traits and Makeup  Neurological impairments  Low intelligence  Abnormal personality structures

4 Figure 10.1 Sources of Violence

5 The Causes of Violence Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct  Eros: the life instinct  Thanatos: the death instinct  Aggression and violence are inborn instincts  Violence is committed primarily by males

6 The Causes of Violence Substance Abuse  Psychopharmacological relationship: between drugs and crime  Economic Compulsive Behavior: drug ingestion may cause economic compulsive behavior  Systemic link: occurs when drug dealers turn violent in competition with rival gangs

7 The Causes of Violence Socialization and Upbringing  Children exposed to violence at home, school, and environment are more likely to use violence themselves  Parents who fail to set adequate limits reinforce a child’s coercive behavior  Physical punishment may lead to anger and defiance

8 The Causes of Violence Abused Children  Abused children are likely to later engage in delinquent behaviors  Abused children are likely to physically abuse siblings  Abused children are likely to engage in spousal abuse

9 The Causes of Violence The Brutalization Process  Lonnie Athens links violence to early child abuse  Classified people into: nonviolent, violent, and incipiently violent  Four types of violent attacks: 1) physically defensive, 2) frustrative, 3) malefic, and 4) frustrative-malefic

10 The Causes of Violence Exposure to Violence  People who are constantly exposed to violence may adopt violent methods themselves  Girls are more likely to be victims of sexual abuse and boys are more likely to participate in fights, stabbings or shootings  Crusted over: refers to children who do not express their feelings (vulnerable to the lure of delinquent gangs)

11 The Causes of Violence Cultural values/Subculture of Violence  Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti formulated the concept of a subculture of violence  Violence is legitimized by norms and customs  Violence is higher in subculture areas within urban areas

12 The Causes of Violence Peer Group Influences  Gangs are more likely to own guns and weapons  Gang violence may be initiated for: Display of toughness Retaliation for actual or perceived grievances Protection of ownership (graffiti) Protection of turf

13 The Causes of Violence Regional Values  Raymond Gastil found a significant relationship between murder rates a residence in the South  Gastil contends the southern culture promotes violence  UCRs support the higher rates of murder in the South

14 The Causes of Violence National Values  National characteristics are predictive of violence: social disorganization economic stress child abuse rates violence by government political corruption inefficient justice systems.

15 Forcible Rape Common law definition: “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will”

16 Forcible Rape History of Rape  Men staked claim to women by rape  “Heiress stealing” involved men trying to force wealthy women into marriage  Peasant women and married women could not be victims of rape until the 16 th century

17 Forcible Rape Rape and the Military  Rape has been associated with armies and warfare (spoils of war)  Rape has been used to intentionally impregnate women  Rape is used as “weapon of war”

18 CNN Clip - Sexual Assaults In The Military

19 Forcible Rape Incidence of Rape  94,000 rapes/attempted rapes were reported in 2003 (UCRs)  Rape has been in a decade-long decline  Population density influences rape  About 46 percent of rape offenders are under 25 years of age  NCVS estimates rapes in 2003 were about 200,000

20 Forcible Rape Types of Rape and Rapists  Some rapes are planned and some are spontaneous  Nicolas Groth suggested every rape encounter contains either anger, power, or sadism  Power rapist (55 percent)  Anger rapist (40 percent)  Sadistic rapist (5 percent)

21 Forcible Rape Gang versus Individual Rape  Women subjected to rape by multiple offenders are more likely to experience violence such as beatings or the use of weapons  Gang rape victims are more likely to resist than those attacked by single victims  Gang rape victims are more likely to report the rape

22 Forcible Rape Serial Rape  Serial rapists tend to be White males  Rape may be “blitz” styled or “captured”  Some use personal or professional relationships to gain access to their targets (I.E. police officers)

23 Forcible Rape Acquaintance Rape  Date Rape: is estimated to affect 15 to 20 percent of all college women  Marital Rape: almost every state recognizes marital rape as a crime  Statutory Rape: sexual relations between underage minor female and an adult male, which an be consensual or forced  About 50 percent of rape involves acquaintances

24 Forcible Rape The Causes of Rape  Evolutionary, biological factors: rape is instinctual  Male socialization: men socialized to “no means yes” (virility mystique)  Hypermasculinity: expression of male anger toward women  Psychological abnormality: narcissistic personality disorder  Social learning: learned through interaction with peers (Nicholas Groth)  Sexual motivation: Notion that rapists prefer younger victims. (most criminologist reject this view)

25 Forcible Rape Rape and the Law  Sexist treatment by the legal system  Police may be hesitant when no obvious signs of violence has occurred  Aggravated rapes are prosecuted more frequently

26 Forcible Rape Proving Rape  Jurors are often swayed by the notion the rape was victim precipitated  Prosecutors must establish the act was forced and violent  The victims demeanor is crucial to successful prosecution  Consent: essential to prove the act was involuntary  Rape Shield Laws: protect women from being questioned about sexual history  Violence Against Women Act in 1994: allows women to sue in federal court (civil rights violations)

27 Murder and Homicide Definition of Murder: “the unlawful killing of a human being with malice aforethought.” Degrees of Murder  First-degree murder Premeditation Deliberation  Second-degree murder Wanton disregard  Manslaughter Voluntary (heat of passion) Involuntary (negligent)  Born and alive Feticide

28 Murder and Homicide The Nature and Extent of Murder  About 16,300 people killed in 2003  Almost one-quarter of homicides occur in cities with populations of more than 1 million  Murder victims (75 percent) and offenders (90 percent) tend to be male  About 49 percent of all victims are African Americans  Infanticide (about 500 per year)  Eldercide (less than 5 percent per year)

29 Murder and Homicide Weblink:

30 Murder and Homicide Murderous Relations  Stranger homicides typically occur during commission of a felony  Acquaintance homicides are more common involving family and friends Spousal Relations  Men may kill spouses or partners for fear of losing control and power  Most females murder after suffering repeated violent attacks  Some people kill mates out of jealousy (love triangles)

31 Murder and Homicide Personal Relations  Most murder occurs between people who are acquainted  David Lukenbill suggested murder follows a sequential pattern after the victim makes what is considered an offensive move Stranger Relations  Stranger homicides occur most frequently during rapes, robberies and burglaries  Impact of habitual criminal statutes Student Relations  90 percent of schools with 1000 or more students experience violence each year  Many offenders have history of being abused or bullied

32 Figure 10.2 Murder Transactions

33 Murder and Homicide Serial Murder  There are more than one type of serial killer Thrill killers: sexual sadism or dominance (most common) Mission killers: to reform the world Expedience killers: for profit or protection

34 Murder and Homicide Serial Murderers and their Motivations  Violence begins in childhood  Mental illness, sexual frustration, neurological damage, child abuse, and neglect  Most experts view serial killers as sociopaths

35 Murder and Homicide Female Serial Killers  % of serial killers are women  Males are more likely to use violence than women  Females are most likely to poison the victims  Education levels are below average and they are likely in low status positions, if employed

36 Assault and Battery Definition of battery: requires offensive touching (i.e slapping, hitting, or punching) Definition of assault: requires no actual touching, but involves wither attempted battery or intentionally frightening the victim by word or deed.

37 Assault and Battery Nature and Extent of Assault  Road rage  857,000 assaults reported in 2003  Most arrests are young White males (80 percent)  Assault rates highest in urban areas during the summer in the South and the West  Most common weapons are blunt instruments

38 Assault and Battery Assault in the home  Women face the greatest risk of assault Child Abuse  Child Abuse (85 percent of fatalities were younger than six years of age)  Neglect (59 percent)  Physical abuse (19 percent)  Sexual abuse (10 percent)  Emotional abuse (7 percent)

39 Figure 10.3 Child Maltreatment Rates

40 Assault and Battery Causes of Child Abuse  Family violence is perpetuated  Abusive parents were abused themselves  Blended families  Parents isolated from friends, neighbors, or relatives

41 Assault and Battery Sexual Abuse  Women suffer some form of sexual violence (1 in 5)  Recent studies suggest incidence of sexual abuse is in decline: Effectiveness of prevention Overlooked cases  Children who have been abused experience life-long symptoms

42 Assault and Battery Parental Abuse  The younger the child the higher the rate of Child-to-parent violence  Children are more violent to mothers  Boys hit parents more than girls do

43 Assault and Battery Spousal Abuse  Occurred throughout recorded history Nature and Extent of Spousal Abuse  Observers suggest 16 percent of families experienced husband- wife assaults  Factors associated with spousal abuse include: alcohol, hostility, excessive brooding, social approval, socioeconomic factors, flashes of anger, military service, having been battered as a child, and unpredictableness

44 Robbery Definition of robbery: “the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.”  In 2003, the FBI recorded 413,000 robberies compared to 554, 000 by the NCVS  Northeastern states have the highest rates  There has been a decade-long drop in rates

45 Robbery The Armed Robber  Unlikely to be a professional rather opportunistic  Robberies seem to peak during the winter months  Choose vulnerable victims

46 Robbery Acquaintance Robbery  Victims are often reluctant to report acquaintance robbery  Some robbers are motivated by street justice  Because the robber knows the person, they will have inside information  Acquaintance robbers frequently target people in close proximity because of the convenience

47 Robbery Rational Robbery  Most robbers are opportunistic  Patterns of robbery suggest it is not a random act  Robbers choose vulnerable victims and times  Women robbers may feign sexual interests to lure a victim

48 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence Hate Crimes are violent acts directed toward a particular person or members of a group merely because the targets share certain racial, ethnic, religious, or gender characteristics Thrill-seeking hate crimes (sadistic thrills) Reactive hate crimes (defensive stand) Mission hate crimes (duty bound)  Retaliatory hate crimes are committed in response to hate crime whether real or percieved

49 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence The Nature and Extent of Hate Crime  During 2003, 9,100 offenses were reported  Racial bias accounts for nearly 49 percent  Religious bias accounts for 17 percent  Ethnicity or national origin bias accounts for 14 percent  Bias against physical or mental disability accounts for 0.5 percent

50 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence Controlling Hate Crimes  Most state have enacted some form of legislation to combat hate crime  39 states have laws against bias motivated violence  19 states have mandates regarding the collection of hate crime data  Some suggest bias crimes should be punished more severely due to the likely chance of violence Legal Controls  Virginia v. Black (2003) upheld by the Supreme Court prohibiting cross burning as intimidation

51 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence Workplace Violence  Considered the third leading cause of occupational injury or death  More than 2 million people are victimized each year Creating Workplace Violence  Factors include: management style, romantic relationships, and irate clients and customers The Extent of Workplace Violence  18 percent of all violent crime  Assaults are the most common (1.3 million)  Police officer are the greatest risk, along with correctional officers, taxi drivers, and bartenders

52 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence Stalking  Affects 1.4 million victims annually  Most stalking stops within one to two years  Most victims know their stalker  Women are most likely to be stalked by an intimate partner, whereas men are stalked by strangers or casual acquaintances

53 Terrorism What is Terrorism?  International terrorism involves citizens or territory of more than one country  Typically involves a type of political crime to promote change  Some terrorists seek to bring about economic or social reforms (labor or wearing fur disputes)  Terrorist and Guerilla terms used interchangeably but they are different (terrorists have urban focus)

54 Terrorism A Brief History of Terrorism  Assassination of Caesar considered terrorism  Became popular during the French Revolution (1700s)  The Irish Republican Army (1916)  Resistance to German troops during WW II

55 Terrorism Contemporary Forms of Terrorism  Revolutionary Terrorism: Use violence in an attempt to replace the existing government  Political Terrorism: Is directed shaping political or religious ideology  Nationalist Terrorism: Ethnic or religious groups wanting its own independent homeland  Cause-Based Terrorism: Use violence to impose their social or religious code on the world  Environmental Terrorism: Is directed at slowing down developers believed to be threatening the environment  State-Sponsored Terrorism: Repressive government regime forces its people into oppression and stifles political dissent  Criminal Terrorism: Incorporates crimes such as drug dealing, kidnapping, and selling of nuclear materials

56 Terrorism What Motivates Terrorists?  Socialization to violence  Extreme ideological beliefs  Feelings of alienation and failure (psychological disturbances)

57 Terrorism Responses to Terrorism  Increased intelligence gathering (globally)  1994 Violent Crime Act (authorized death penalty for terrorists)  USA Patriot Act ( investigation tactics)  The Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force (2001)

58 Terrorism Law Enforcement Responses  FBI and creation of the Cyber Division  Homeland Security BTS (Borders and Transportation Security) EPR (Emergency Preparedness and Response) S&T (Research and development of WMD) IAIP (Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection)


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