QUICK AND EASY DEF. Also known as the Nanking Massacre A six week period following the Japanese capture of Nanking in December of 1937 20,000 (low estimate) Chinese women were brutally raped 260,000 Chinese casualties
JAPANS RISE Late 1800’s Japan switches from a policy of isolationism to a policy of openness. To keep up with the western world, Japan decides to open up, to modernize, to westernize and to industrialize.
In order to do this, Japan will need resources –Remember, Japan is just a little chain of islands In 1904 Japan hits Russia in the Russo- Japanese war for resources and control of Manchuria and parts of Korea –Japan won and parts of Manchuria and Korea became part of the Japanese Sphere of Influence in Asia
CHINAS FALL In the mid 1800’s China got rocked by the western world, especially England After the Opium War China was brutalized with a series of unequal treaties These treaties forced the once great empire to its knees
Nations from all over the world swarm in to carve up China By 1911 Chinese Nationalists overthrew the Qing Dynasty By the 1930’s The Chinese Nationalist Party (KMD) has become ultra-corrupt and is struggling to maintain control of China
“INITIAL CONFLICT” 1931 The Mukden Incident –A railroad in Southern Manchuria, owned by the Japanese is mysteriously dynamited The Japanese blame Chinese dissidents Japan begins a full scale invasion of Manchuria Japan “wins” and sets up the puppet state of Manchukuo
1937 By 1937 Japan had captured many major Chinese cities including Shanghai Chang Kai-shek and his advisors flee to Wuhan and leave the capital of Nanking under the control of General Tang Shengzhi and a grossly under-prepared military.
TAKING OF NANKING Tangs forces vow to defend the city to the death Tangs troops engage in a scorched earth policy not only to deprive the advancing Japanese military of resources, but to keep the citizens of Nanking from evacuating.
JAPANESE MILITARY ACTION By early December 1937, Japan had the city of Nanking surrounded and demanded a surrender Chang Kai-shek refused The Japanese military began to invade the city By December 12, the Chinese military was retreating from the city and leaving the civilians to fend for themselves
THE RAPE OF NANKING With the city firmly in the hands of the Japanese, the figurative and literal rape of Nanking began The Japanese focused their attention on the Nanking Safety Zone
Nanking Safety Zone Refuge camp with the city of Nanking The camp was about 3.5 square miles It housed approximately 200,000 – 250,000 refugees It was run by 22 foreigners living in China who did not flee when the Japanese invaded
With weak defenses, the Safety Zone was often raided by Japanese soldiers The solders committed severe acts of barbarity within the walls of the Safety Zone –Rape –Forced Incest –Theft –Arson –Murder –Execution of POW’s
On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her dead. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were the stripped, the elder being raped by 2-3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7-8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. (...)“ Woods, John E. The Good man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, p.281.