Time trend of PCB levels in ambient air (log scale)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 19701975198019851990199520002005 Time trend of PCBs concentration in ambient air (pg/m 3 ) Time trend of PCBs concentration in ambient air (ng/m 3 ) (pg/m 3 ) (ng/m 3 ) Ambient air
Time trend of breast milk levels Dioxins PCB pg TEQ / g-fat µg g-fat 60 40 20 0 Year (1973-2000) Konishi et al. (2003) Konishi et al (2003) Organohalogen compds pg TEQ/g-fat µg / g-fat Year (1973-2000) 60 40 20 0 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
PCB pollution in Japan almost finished? 1972 banned PCB production & usage 1986-89 liquid PCB was completely destroyed except transformer, capacitor, …10% of Total (National project in Takasago, Hyogo pref.)
PCB Treatment at Japan Environmental Safety Corporation (JESCO) – A National Project of Japan –
15 Outline of JESCO - Established in 2004 under the “Japan Environmental Safety Corporation Law (Law No.44 of 2003) - Is to construct and operate 5 regional PCB waste treatment facilities throughout Japan, under supervision of the central government - National subsidies granted for construction - The only national body (special company wholly owned by the government) in charge of PCB waste treatment
16 Structure of PCB Waste Treatment in Japan Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency (ERCA) Japan Environmental Safety Corporation ・ Construction of Facility ・ Operation of Facilityx PCB Waste Holders (at over 50,000 sites) PCB Waste PCB Waste Treatment Basic Plan (Identification of PCB amount, Establish Treatment Framework) PCB Waste Treatment Plan Regional Facility Chemical Treatment Report of PCB wastes Authorize & Direct Regional Facility Report of reported PCB wastes under jurisdiction Regional Facility Carry In (Identification of PCB amount, Treatment Plan) Treatment Contract ： Prefectures and Specified Cities Local Authority Ministry of the Environment (MOE) Approved Transpor- tation Companies ・ Supervise & Direct ・ Approval of Business Plan Acceptance of Facility / Supervise & Direct Residents PCB Waste Treatment Fund (Consists of subsidies from the government, local governments etc.) Subsidize small & medium- sized enterprises Residue Industrial Waste Treatment / Recycling Companies Treatment Fees Transport Explanation Information Disclosure Material for Recycle Acceptance Plan Authorize & Direct Accep- tance Transpor- tation Fee Transpor- tation Contract Approve Subsidies for Construction of Facility Operation Waste The local governments are in charge of gathering PCB waste storage information from the PCB Waste Holders and make treatment plans for their regions. JESCO accepts waste from the waste holders according to the local governments’ plans. Waste holders must report their storage status to their local government annually have approved transportation companies carry their wastes to JESCO JESCO detoxifies PCB wastes using chemical treatment, PCB-free residues and material for recycle are shipped to decent industrial waste treatment or recycling companies.
17 Location of JESCO Facilities : Area assigned to each facility : Location of Treatment Facilities Kitakyushu Facility Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka Operation started: Dec. 2004 Toyota Facility Toyota City, Aichi Operation started: Sep. 2005 Tokyo Facility Koto-ku, Tokyo Operation started: Nov. 2005 Osaka Facility Osaka City, Osaka Operation started: Oct. 2006 Hokkaido Facility Muroran City, Hokkaido Operation started: May. 2008 MOE made adjustments with local authorities, and obtained local consent to buildfive treatment facilities as shown in this map.Kita-kyushu, Osaka, Toyota, Tokyo, and Hokkaido Facility Each facility has assigned prefectures, and although the area size differthe amount of PCB waste stored in each area is about the same.
18 Outline of Regional PCB Waste Treatment Facilities FacilityLocation Assigned to treat PCB wastes of below area Types of PCB wastes treated Capacity (PCB Oil) KitakyushuKitakyushu City, Fukuoka 17 prefectures in Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa Regions 1 st Phase: Transformers, capacitors, PCB oil stored in Kitakyushu City 2 nd Phase: Transformers, capacitors, PCB oil, and PCB contaminated wastes stored in all assigned areas (Wastes to be treated together with 1 st phase facilities) 1.5 tons / day (Contaminated wastes: 10 tons / day) ToyotaToyota City, Aichi 4 prefectures in Tokai Region Transformers, capacitors and PCB oil 1.6 tons / day TokyoKoto-ku, Tokyo 4 prefectures in South Kanto Region Transformers, capacitors, fluorescent ballasts and PCB oil 2.0 tons / day OsakaOsaka City, Osaka 6 prefectures in Kinki Regions Transformers, capacitors and PCB oil 2.0 tons / day HokkaidoMuroran City, Hokkaido 16 prefectures in Hokkaido, Tohoku, North Kanto, Koushinetsu, and Hokuriku Regions 1 st Facility: Transformers, capacitors and PCB oil Additional Facility: PCB contaminated wastes 1.8 tons / day (Contaminated wastes: 4.8 tons / day) This slide shows the location, region, and the types of PCB wastes accepted at each facility and capacity..
25 Basic Concept for Designing of Facilities Multidiscipline Engineering Adoption of a Safe and Secure PCB Treatment Method Multiple safety measures based on the concept of Risk Management Information Disclosure on Treatment Status Safe & Secure PCB Treatment Method, Risk management, and Information Disclosure lead to safe treatment.
26 Managing system for operations, maintenance and security Safety Design Concept ・ Cooperation with the location area and related authorities ・ Information disclosure Ensuring safety of the workers 1. Safe design of treatment process 2. Operation Monitoring System 3. Fail-safe Functions 4. Safety Nets
27 Examples of Safety Nets Exhaust gas is treated in exhaust treatment equipment, and furthermore, filtered through activated carbon as a safety-net Carrying in, Acceptance and Inspection Oil Extracting and Disassembling Facilities Cleansing Facilities PCB Decomposition Facilities PCB wastes are carried directly inside the treatment building Exhaust Treatment Equipment Shield Air pressure of negative pressure rooms are controlled according to specified control level of the rooms Exhaust of Nitrogen, etc. Exhaust of Nitrogen, etc Exhaust from Shield Exhaust Gas Activated Carbon Shield Floor （ Double structure ） Exhaust gas is monitored online and offline, and only released if it meets standards Exhaust Gas Monitoring Negative Pressure Control Negative Pressure Exhaust Gas Treatment Leak-proof facilities and piping ↓ Oil Pan ↓ Oil Retraining Dike and Impermeable Floor （ Or Shield Floor ） Multiple Measures to Prevent Underground Infiltration Oil Pan
28 Work Management & Health Management - Workers are required to wear appropriate protective gear when working at atmospheres where dioxin levels are over 2.5pg-TEQ/m3, or where PCB levels are over 0.01mg/m3 (LEVEL 3 ZONES). Below is an example. Chemical protective clothing* Chemical protective gloves* + inner gloves Chemical protective boots* Respiratory Protective Equipment with electric fan (* Permeation resistance to PCB are tested) - Appropriate protective gear is required according to the work content, at lower level zones too. - Entrance time is limited to reduce exposure: Example : A worker can enter high level areas Only 2-3 hours per day. - Blood PCB levels are checked periodically. Examples of Ensuring Safety of Workers Example of Protective gear at Kitakyushu Facility Used gear cannot be carried outside room Some areas require frequent changing
29 To reduce workers’ risk of exposure to PCB, processes such as the dismantling of capacitors are done inside a closed “glove box”. Examples of Ensuring Safety of Workers Glove box cutting of capacitor elements, which include 100% pure PCB
30 Dismantling of Capacitors (Glove box) These are other angles of capacitors being dismantled in glove boxes.
31 PCB Removal (Draining and Cleaning Transformers) PCB oil of transformers are drained from the drain valve on the bottom. Local exhaust ventilations are set to minimize PCB level in the working atmospheres. After draining, the casings are repeatedly washed with circulating cleaning solvents until the PCB level are low enough and safe to open up the transformers.
32 PCB Removal (Dismantling and Removal of Core of Transformers) Once the PCB levels are low enough the transformer is cut open and the cores are removed for further treatment.
33 100 ％ PCB concentration （ 0.6kg/kg ） 100 ％ PCB concentration (1kg/kg) At JESCO, PCB level of transformers are reduced by1/1,200,000, and that of capacitors are reduced by 1/2,000,000 before shipping. 1 / 1,200,000 1 / 2,000,000 Liquid treatment PCB level 0.5mg/kg and below PCB level of washing solvent 0.5mg/kg and below First Washing *Example at Kitakyushu Facility PCB level of effluent 0.003mg/L and below Cleaning ** （ 1 / 3,750 ） （ 1 / 320 ） PCB level 0.5mg/kg and below PCB level of washing solvent 0.5mg/kg and below PCB level of effluent 0.003mg/L and below （ 1 / 2,000,000 ） oil Casings paper wood **Wiping test methods are applied for the casings of capacitors treated in VTR (Vacuum Thermal Recovery) furnaces at Kitakyushu and Osaka Facilities. Transformers Capacitors Liquid treatment oil Casings paper other PCB Level after Treatment Washing repeated until PCB level is 160mg/kg* Dismantlin g and washing Standard
Urine Monitoring for risk reduction Transportation workers
OH-PCBs in Urine (Transportation Workers) OH-PCBs in Urine (ng/mL) Urine No for OH-PCBs analysis OH-TrCBs
OH-PCBs in Urine (ng/g-creatinin) OH-PCBs in Urine (Transportation Workers) Urine No for OH-PCBs analysis(Mar. 2011) OH-TrCB 24hrs
OH-PCBs in Urine (Transportation Workers) Urine No for OH-TrCBs analysis (Mar. 2011) OH-PCBs in Urine (ng/g-creatinin) 4-OH-CB33 4’-OH-CB33
Urine No for OH-TeCBs analysis analysis (Mar. 2011) OH-PCBs in Urine (ng/g-creatinin) OH-PCBs in Urine (Transportation Workers) 4’-OH-CB44 4-OH-CB58 4-OH-CB72
Urine No for OH-TeCBs analysis analysis (Jan. 2012) 3 Transportation workers & 3 researchers 30 years 62 years47 years 65years 62 years45 years Transportation workers
Acknowledgements - Ministry of The Environment, Japan(MOE) - Japan Environmental Safety Corporation(JESCO) - Osaka University, Graduate Sachool of Engineering - Joint Research Chair for PCB separation & Concentration System - Kobe University, Graduate Sachool of Maritime Science - Hyogo prefectural Institute of Environmental Sciences - JESCO Express - Hokkaido Research Organization - Chiba Prefectural Environmental Reserch Center - National Institute for Environmental Studies