Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

IsVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual HAND: A Virtual Reality Interface Dr Manolya Kavakli Senior Lecturer Department.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "IsVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual HAND: A Virtual Reality Interface Dr Manolya Kavakli Senior Lecturer Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual HAND: A Virtual Reality Interface Dr Manolya Kavakli Senior Lecturer Department of Computing Macquarie University Sydney, Australia 25 October 2005 E6B Room 136

2 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Goal discuss the current interfaces for –sketch and hand motion recognition report the outcomes of our research studies with 3 hypotheses demonstrate a method to construct an interactive 3D model –from a combination of sketches drawn in 3D space –using the user's hands as dynamic input devices. address the issues for further developments.

3 Problem Gap In CAD tools to support the transition between the conceptual design and detailed design process Reason insufficient structural information available to develop CAD tools CAD tools have paid scant attention to –how designers draw –how cognitive tasks and the progression of conceptual design affect drawing behavior Solution: to define the requirements for CAD systems capable of supporting sketching in idea generation to build systems for sketch analysis, sketch recognition, cognitive structuring, 2D & 3D transformation, etc. Standard input devices do not closely mimic natural motions of hands such as drawing and sketching

4 interactive computer graphics systems –(Sutherland, 1965, Negroponte, 1973) object recognition and scene segmentation –(Guzman, 1971, Waltz, 1975, Marr, 1977,1982, Kosslyn, 1994) sketch/diagram recognition as an image –(eg., FABEL project, Schaaf, 1994) exploiting properties of drawing production –(Scrivener et al., 1993, Gross, 1994) the nature of human visual processing/ –the part-subpart structure of objects –(Bartram, 1974, Kanade, 1981, Biederman, 1987) the cognitive processes and the acts of attending to visuo-spatial features –(Suwa, Gero and Purcell, 1998) Previous attempts

5 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Project background NATO FellowshipNATO Fellowship (1996) Design Research Center, Derby University, UK –An AI Application for the Transformation of a 2D Sketch to a 3D Geometric Model –Project Report: –Project Report: The NATO Science Fellowship Program for Post Doctoral Studies, NATO area code: 4301, NATO list code: 51/B96/TU Postdoctoral Fellowship (1998-2000) Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, Sydney University

6 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Hypothesis I If the hands of an artist could speak, they would tell us more about the nature of the creative task they are engaged in, thus we would be able to simulate the creative processes.

7 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Assumption: Ideas are not images synthesis perceptual data understanding –but the result of a synthesis occurring between perceptual data and abstract ways of conceptualising or understanding such data

8 Stage I: is sketching behavior structured or not? –structureinterrelation of parts general character –structure is the interrelation of parts as dominated by the general character of the whole. parse objects –it is essential to parse objects to sort out what an object was before recognition. Perception as a constructive process –When a stimulus is encountered, –the system generates perceptual information relevant to it (stimulus encoding), –and this information makes contact with perceptual structures stored in memory –that serve to identify the nature of the stimulus (recognition/identification).

9 Experimental room Sessions –Free Sketching I –Free Sketching II –Part by part Sketching –Design –Overtracing –Interpretation Subjects –2nd year Applied Arts Students

10 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Analysis

11 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Part by part drawing Object held in memory/imagery are externalised in sketches part by part in terms of volumetric primitives (529/607) Part by part drawing occurs in absence of direct instruction to draw part by part Participants performed least well when instructed –conscious effort to draw part by part interfered in someway with the externalisation process –the object model is more difficult to remember and recall than the others

12 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Non part by part drawing Visual layering –Viewer centered –Splitting by self occluding contour Functional layering –Clarifying remembrance of part relationships –Resolving parts –Resolving relationships between parts Overtracing

13 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Hypothesis II If a complex system could decode the sign language and reasoning of the artist's hands motions and thoughts, it would be possible to support creativity by stimulating the right set of cognitive actions with the interface.

14 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Stage II: Protocol Analysis –Protocol analysis methods (Dorst and Dijkhuis, 1995) : the process-oriented approach the content-oriented approach –Retrospective protocol analysis method based on the content-oriented approach –A coding scheme (Suwa et al., 1998a) to systematically code cognitive actions of designers from video/audio protocols. Modified version of the coding scheme developed by Suwa and Tversky (1997) –Analysis of the cognitive processes of novice and expert designers novice: 2nd year student of architecture expert: a practising architect with more than 25 years experience

15 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Segmentation –A cognitive segment consists of cognitive actions that appear to occur simultaneously. –SEGMENT 1: Got access somehow as a spine… –SEGMENT 2: Maybe but no..We've got this crossed. The big museum space is going to have some dedicated shot to it. –I'm not going to cross that, cannot break that. That's interesting about this.. thinking in hindsight. –So I've got the masses..Coming is the service here, with the little line through..Maybe I can catch the Front. No! I didn't ever realize when I was drawing it. that I had drawn it quite so heavy. No because I don't want this mass to be broken. I don't want to carry service to the middle of the museum. –SEGMENT 3: so I am going to have to segment this a little bit. Something has to be here and something back here. And I am not going to bisect the main space.

16 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Coding

17 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Cognitive Actions I D-actions: drawing actions –Dc: create a new depiction –Drf: revise an old depiction –Dts: trace over the sketch –Dtd: trace over the sketch on a different sheet –Dsy: depict a symbol –Dwo: write words M-actions: moves –Moa: motion over an area –Mod: motion over a depiction –Mrf: move attending to relations / features –Ma: move a sketch against the sheet beneath –Mut: motion to use tools –Mge: hand gestures G1: goals to introduce new functions G1.1: based on the initial requirements G1.2: directed by the use of explicit knowledge or past cases G1.3: extended from a previous goal G1.4: not supported by knowledge, given requirements or a previous goal G2: goals to resolve problematic conflicts G3: goals to apply introduced functions or arrangements in the current context G4: repeated goals

18 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Cognitive Actions II Perceptual actions Psg: discover a space as a ground Posg: discover an old space as a ground Pfn: attend to the feature of a new depiction Pof: attend to an old feature of a depiction Pfp: discover a new feature of a new depiction Prn: create or attend to a new relation Prp: discover a spatial or organizational relation Por: mention or revisit a relation Functional actions Fn: associate a new depiction, feature or relation with a new function Frei: reinterpretation of a function Fnp: conceiving of a new meaning independent of depictions Fo: continuing or revisited thought of a function Fop: revisited thought independent of depictions Fi: implementation of a previous concept in a new setting

19 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 General Differences The expert's cognitive activity and productivity –three times as much as the novice's (Kavakli et al., 1999). Pages: 13 (expert) / 4 (novice) Alternatives: 7 (expert) / 2 (novice) –expert's productivity is nearly 3.5 times as much as the novice’s Actions: 2916 (expert) / 1027 (novice) –expert's design protocol is 2.8 times as rich as the novice's Segments: 348 (expert) / 122 (novice) –2.8 times as many segments in the expert designer's session as in the novice's –In both protocols, each segment includes 8 cognitive actions on average. The novice's performance in certain types of tasks –(such as discovery of implicit spaces) –proportionally higher than the expert's.

20 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Coexistence of cognitive actions Although there is no clear evidence for causality among cognitive actions, there is evidence for the coexistence of the cognitive actions (Finke et al., 1992, Kosslyn, 1994, Suwa et al, 1999, Kavakli and Gero, 2000). If the cognitive activities slow down at some stage, this may be because of not only one activity, but also other activities having different roles that occur together (Kosslyn, 1995).

21 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Concurrent actions: Primary concurrent actions: –the cognitive actions that directly correlate with depicting drawings. Secondary concurrent actions: –the cognitive actions that highly correlate with the primary actions.

22 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 (constant-4) Strong correlations in both design protocols: –between depicting drawings (Dc) and –looking actions (L), –discovery of a relation (Prp), –association of a new depiction with a function (Fn). –(4+2) in the expert's design protocol: –creation of a new relation (Prn) –revisited thought of a function (Fo) –there are weak correlations in these categories in the novice's design protocol.

23 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 (4+11) in the novice's protocol: –overtracing (Dts), –writing (Dwo), –depicting symbols (Dsy), –discovery of a space as a ground (Psg), –discovery of a new feature of a new depiction (Pfp), –mention of a relation (Por), –motion over an area (Moa), –goals directed by the use of explicit knowledge or past cases (G1-2), –goals not supported by knowledge, requirements or previous goals (G1-4), –and goals to apply previously introduced functions in the current context (G3). –Tracing over the sketch on a different sheet is also strongly negative correlated with depicting drawings (Dc) for the novice.

24 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005

25

26 Miller’s theory & Cognitive Performance Concurrent actions at Primary level: –Novice/Expert –14/5= 2.8 the human short term memory can manage to process 7+/-2 actions at one time (Miller, 1956). Expert’s protocol: –Cognitive actions= 2.8 x –Cognitive segments= 2.8 x

27 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Hypothesis III If sketching in 2D is a problem, sketching in 3D may offer a solution. –Imagine that just by drawing a room you could find yourself fully immersed in that space, or by shaping a virtual sculpture with your hands, you could model and touch its 3D physical model. 3D Sketchpad! Sketching in 3D using a Virtual Reality System: –VR hardware maps natural behavior onto digital streams –VR software provides tools for construction of, management of, and interaction with digital environments surrounding a user.

28 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Macquarie University Start Up Grant 2004 Macquarie University Safety Net Grant 2005 3D SKETCHPAD Can we use our hands as dynamic input devices for sketching? Aim: –to develop a prototype for a Virtual Reality (VR) interface –to recognise simple hand gestures and –build an interactive 3D model of a sketch drawn by the user. –The VR system provides a “3D Sketchpad" and –the designer has the benefit of a stereo image. Stage III: 3D Sketchpad & Virtual Hand

29 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VIRTUAL HAND The proposed VR system provides the user with the ability of using his/her hands as dynamic input devices for interactive 3D sketching within virtual reality (VR). The project describes a novel user interface in which a designer defines the contour of a sketch by controlling a pointer using a pair of data gloves in 3D space. Both the data gloves and the pointer incorporate 3D position sensors so that drawing primitives entered are recreated in real time on a head mounted display worn by the user.

30 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 a medium composed of interactive computer simulations –sense the participant's position and –replace or augment the feedback to one or more senses –giving the feeling of being immersed or being present in the simulation. Virtual Reality

31 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Characteristics of VR Immersion / Visualization: Immersion is maintained at least in one sensory modality (vision) –The computer generating visual, auditory or other sensual outputs to the user of a world within the computer. Interaction: –The user can interact with this virtual world, directly manipulating objects in it.

32 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 1989 – Mattel designs Power Glove for Nintendo. – combined with Sega 3D glasses. a handtracking device based on a glove. can track motion of the glove in 3D, finger position, and has a set of buttons/switches on the top of the wrist. has two modes "hires" and "lores“: In "hires" mode, the PG reports the position in threespace, the orientation, and configuration of fingers. In lores mode the glove reports position on the hand on the x and y axis and the buttons. Virtual Hand Systems

33 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual Hand Hardware Head Mounted Display (HMD)Data Glove Tracking Device

34 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VPL Data gloves Lightweight Lycra A position/orientation tracker A set of sheathed fiberoptic cables that run along the back up each finger Sensors on the back of finger-joints –to detect the finger flex and extension Data of two joints are measured for each finger –(lower knuckle and middle knuckle) 10 joints specify the configuration of the hand

35 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Cyber gloves 22 sensors: –3 bend sensors and one abduction sensor per finger –Thumb and pinkie cross-over –Wrist pitch and yaw

36 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Cyber Grasp Intricate exoskeleton of aluminium Tactile feedback – Suppose the special glove could not only sense joint angles, but also had actuators that could push back at you. – The actuators could present the illusion of hard objects at particular locations.

37 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Inertial –Uses instruments that can detect and measure change in gyroscopic forces (acceleration and inclination). –Generally inexpensive. –Doesn't require a reference point. need to set one arbitrarily. –Can lose accuracy over time. –Works well in combination with other tracking systems. Measure position and/or orientation of a sensor: –Position (3 axis): X,Y, Z –Orientation/Rotation: Roll, Pitch, Yaw

38 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Index Finger PointOpen Hand Sketch & Gesture Recognition draw and erase

39 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Sketch Recognition –To match models of curvilinear configurations to hand drawn sketches –approximation algorithms in the production of real-time interactive computer graphics providing key parameters that carry information about the design concept.

40 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Magic Touch –a natural user interface (Pederson, 2000) VRShoe –Virtual Manufacturing Environment Group and the Institute of Industrial Technologies (ITIA-CNR) and Automation (Sacco et al., 2002) MagicMirror –Augmented Reality System called by ITIA-CNR (Vigano et al., 2004) Virtual DesignWorks –Virtual Engineering Centre of Queens University, Belfast developed an Interface called (Liu et al., 2003) MOVE ON –Styling approach introduced to design automobiles using hand gestures (Hummels et al., 1997)

41 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual paint-brush –to recognise hand sketches –Research group in Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Chu et al., 2004) Multi-stroke sketch recognition environment –to draw UML class diagrams –Hammond et al. (2002) 3D Immersive Virtual Sculpting Kuester et al, 2000 head tracking + electro magnetic tracking Stereo projection of 3D models onto a 2x1.5m area like Immersive Workbench and Immersadesk SGI Onyx2 rendering engine

42 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Gesture Recognition Classify movements and configurations of the hand in different categories –Parametric information for that gesture can be extracted from the way it was performed –An action in the virtual world can be executed. Two main portions: –Posture recognition (classification of the finger configurations) –Path recognition (classification of the path) Gesture: the path of the hand while the hand fingers remain stable in a recognised posture.

43 –Template Matching Includes 2 procedure: template matching & classification –Collect samples for each class of gesture –Classification is performed by evaluating a function which measures the similarity between the input data and templates –Set a similarity threshold: if below, the input data is rejected »30% of the total flexion range of each sensor »Templates tends to overlap in recognition space, if postures are above 10 –NN Murakami, 1991 – data gloves, finger alphabet Fel, 1990 – gesture to speech –92% success on the recognition of 203 signs based on 66 hand shapes Beale, 1992 - data gloves, American Sign language Vaanenen, 1993, GIVEN – 5 time steps, 16 sensed data from Data gloves and space tracker

44 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 –Feature based Rubine, 1991- Stroke recognition –Feature vector of 13 dimensions »Cos, sin of the gesture angle, length, angle of the bounding box, distance between 1 st and last points »Classification rate 100%, digits 98.5%, letters 97.1% Watson, 1995- Approximate Spline curve fitting Starner, 1995 - American Sign language –HMM:Highest probability of generating the data stream Liang, 1996 – Taiwanese Sign language –Camera-based Weissmann et al. (1999) –Symbol based Baudel, 1993 – data gloves controlling a hypertext program –Kinematics based Wellner, 1991, Digital Desk Calculator– –through motion detection, 7 frames/sec Maes, 1995, ALIVE II– full body gestures

45 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Stages of Virtual Hand System Creation of a simple 3D hand model using OpenGL: –Analysis of VR tools –System design of VRI –Integration of OpenGL 3D hand model and VR tools using C++ –Simulation of hand gestures using the OpenGL hand –Implementation of simple sketch recognition algorithm

46 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 OpenGL interface Creation of a simple 3D hand model void Hand::create(void) { glPushMatrix(); this->drawPalm(); glPopMatrix(); glPushMatrix(); glScalef(1.0, 1.0, 0.6); glTranslatef(-2.5, 0.0, 0.0); this->drawFinger(THUMB_FINGER); glPopMatrix();......... this->drawFinger(INDEX_FINGER);......... this->drawFinger(MIDDLE_FINGER);......... this->drawFinger(RING_FINGER);......... this->drawFinger(LITTLE_FINGER); glPopMatrix(); } Wris t Palm Thumb Index Middle Ring Little

47 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 OpenGL interface II Creation of a simple 3D hand model void Hand::drawFinger(int finger) { glPushMatrix(); glRotatef(-fingers[finger].knuckleJoint, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glPushMatrix(); glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, 0.75); glutSolidCube(1.0); glPopMatrix(); glPushMatrix(); glRotatef(-fingers[finger].firstJoint, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glPushMatrix(); glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, 1.25); // 0.75 + 0.5 glutSolidCube(1.0); glPopMatrix(); glPushMatrix(); glRotatef(-fingers[finger].lastJoint, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0); glPushMatrix(); glTranslatef(0.0, 0.0, 1.0); // 0.75 + 0.5 glutSolidCube(1.0); glPopMatrix(); } Finger 1 st Section 2 nd Section 3 nd Section

48 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VR Hand Stage I Creation of a simple 3D hand model using OpenGL interface Screen shot of OpenGL hand

49 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VR Hand Stage II Integration of OpenGL 3D hand model and VR tools using C++ 3D Sketching Application Libraries for VR Hardware Windows OS (Win32 C Compiler) Standard C Libraries OpenGL Interface Flow of Control

50 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VR Hand Stage III System design of VRI UML Class Diagram of VRI

51 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VR Hand Stage IV Simulation of hand using the OpenGL hand model and a data glove Open Hand Index Finger Point

52 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 VR Hand Stage V Simulation of hand using the OpenGL hand model and a data glove

53 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Research Results Hand gesture recognition –2 5 =32 possible combinations of gestures –5W:1 sensor per finger vs 16W:3 sensors –Orientation trackers Switch tracking the motion of the hand in 3D Zoom in and out using mouse or keyboard Need motion trackers: SpacePad GestureSketching Task Flexure value x (0 ≤ x ≥ 1) IDNameThumbIndexMiddleRingLittle 0FistStop≤ 0.1 1Index Finger Point Draw≤ 0.1≥ 0.9≤ 0.1 2Open HandErase≥ 0.9 Gesture Definition Table

54 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Conclusion 3D Sketchpad requires both technical and conceptual developments to allow natural interactions with Virtual Environments –Explore sketching in 3D as a language of conceptual design process –Use design cognition to build an interactive complex system Hand gesture interface: –object selection, action selection, action modifiers, rhythm of interaction, syntax of hand gestures, semantics of pause, comma and retraction. Multi-modal interfaces: –Inclusion of speech in gesture analysis may simplify gesture segmentation and feature detection. http://www.comp.mq.edu.au/~isvr

55 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Macquarie University Safety Net Grant 2005 Face Detection through interactive sketching in virtual reality (Kavakli) Aim: developing and testing the 3D sketchpad prototype for the face detection of criminals in a Police database using sketches. the grammar of sketches: facial features. Thus, the proposed VR system will allow a police officer to sketch the face of a suspect from the verbal descriptions of eye-witnesses and generate the 3D model of the suspect to be displayed on a head mounted display worn by the officer. –The model produced will be projected to a computer screen or a digital wall to get the eye-witness’ comments on the facial features of the suspect throughout sketching. –The completed model of the suspect will be fed to a criminal database to find a match. Future plans

56 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Face Detection and Reconstruction Using Forensic Arts and Virtual Reality Technology (Kavakli & Watters) 2006-2009 –Some of the proposed post-September11 uses of facial identification systems in immigration and airport security have been welcomed without clearly evaluating their effectiveness and without weighing the potential harms involved with its use. Aim: to improve the accuracy rate in face identification with different facial expressions and features. –Combining 2D and 3D face data and finding the primitives of a generic face, we will develop novel face identification techniques based on visual cognition and test their performance with the implementation of an intelligent virtual reality interface in the detection of criminals based on forensic evidence.

57 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Division of Information & Communication Sciences Department of Computing Interactive Systems & Virtual Reality Research Group Virtual Reality LAB –Virtual Reality –Interactive Systems –Computer Games –Computer Graphics 29 active members including: 12 Full-time staff members 8 Full-time Postdocs and Postgrads 4 Part-time research associates 5 Honours students

58 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Our Research & Infrastructure Grants 2005-2007 Australian Research Council Discovery Grant (Richards, Kavakli, Dras) Risk Management Using Agent Based Systems, Macquarie University ($410K) 2005 Australian Research Council Linkage International Fellowship (Kavakli, Pelachaud, Szilas) Interactive Drama Engine in Virtual Reality, Macquarie University ($71K) 2003-2005 Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (Kavakli, Bossomaier, Cooper) Cognitive Modeling of Computer Game Pidgins ($75K) 2005 Macquarie University Research Infrastructure Block Grant (Kavakli, Watters, Richards, Burke, Szilas, Leslie) Virtual Reality Engine($58K) ICS Major Equipment Grant ($90K) Virtual Reality Lab 2005 Safety Net Grant, Macquarie University (Kavakli) Face Detection Through Sketching in Virtual Reality ($19K) 2004 ICS Research Startup Grant (Kavakli) Interactive Sketching in Virtual Reality, Macquarie University ($6K)

59 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 User Interface DesignCognition Artificial Intelligence Visualisation & Computer Graphics Knowledge Acquisition & Structuring Virtual Reality Education Virtual Environments Computer Games Design Our Research Areas

60 isVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 References Sacco, M., Vigano, G., Paris, I., “Virtual reality and CAD/CAM systems applied to custom shoe manufacture on a mass market basis”, in proceedings of the World Congress on Mass Customization and Personalization(MCPC01), Hong Kong, September 2001. Vigano, G., Mottura, S., Greci, L., Sacco, M., Boer, C., “Virtual reality as a support tool in the shoe life cycle”, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, October-November 2004, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 653-660. Liu, x., Hinds, B., McCartney, J., Dodds, G., ”Virtual DesignWorks - Designing 3D CAD models via touch interaction”, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Expo, Washington, November 2003. Pederson, T., “Human Hands as a Link between Physical and Virtual”, in proceedings of the Conference on Designing Augmented Reality Systems (DARE2000), Helsinore, Denmark, April 2000. Hummels, C., Smets, G., Overbeeke, C., “An Intuitive Two-handed Gestural Interface for Computer Supported Product Design”, In proceeding of the International Gesture Workshop on Gesture and Sign Language in Human-Computer Interaction, September 1997. Hummels, C., Paalder, A., Overbeeke, C., Stappers, P., Smets, G., “Two-handed Gesture-based Car Styling in a Virtual Environment”, In proceeding of the 30th International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation (ISATA), Mechatronic, 1997. Chu, N., Tai, C., “Real-Time Painting with an Expressive Virtual Chinese Brush”, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, September/October 2004, pp. 76-85. Bricken, W., ”Virtual Reality: Directions of Growth”, Notes from the SIGGHRAPH ’90 Panel, 1990. Weissmann, J., Salomon, R., “Gesture Recognition for Virtual Reality Applications Using Data Gloves and Neural Networks”, In proceedings of the IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, July 10-16, 1999. Hammond, T., Davis, R., “A Geometrical Sketch Recognition System for UML Class Diagrams”, In proceedings of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Sketch Understanding, pp. 59-66, 2002. Davis, R., Adler, A., Alvarado, C., Hammond, T., Hitchcock, R., Sezgin, T., Veselova, O., “Designs for the future”. MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Annual Abstract, September 2002.


Download ppt "IsVR: Interactive Systems and Virtual Reality Research Group 2005 Virtual HAND: A Virtual Reality Interface Dr Manolya Kavakli Senior Lecturer Department."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google